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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Properties and Industrial Applications of Seaweed Polysaccharides-degrading Enzymes from the Marine Microorganisms
Kim, Jeong-Hwan ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Kim, Sung-Koo ; Kim, Byung-Woo ; Nam, Soo-Wan ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 189~199
Recently seaweed polysaccharides have been extensively studied due to their various biological functions including antitumor, antiviral, anticoagulant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Although seaweed polysaccharides are known to possess numerous beneficial properties, their industrial applications have been limited due to the low inclusion efficiency and high cost of manufacturing involved in chemical hydrolysis. In addition, the smell of seaweed has been a limiting factor in its application in the food and cosmetic industries. Therefore, novel hydrolysis methods and the deodorization of seaweed are required if the extensive application of seaweed polysaccharides is to be seen. A number of studies have examined various seaweed polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, which have been isolated from marine microorganisms, and enzymatic hydrolysis processes have been investigated for the improvement of production yields and the bioefficacy of seaweed polysaccharides. This review is a synopsis on the properties of seaweed polysaccharides-degrading enzymes from marine microorganisms and their industrial applications. The review reveals the pressing need for more concentrated research on the development of new biological materials from seaweed.
Effects of the Feed and Probiotic Feeding on the Improvement of Hoggery Environment and the Productivity of Swine
Lee, Enu-Young ; Lim, Joung-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 200~209
Animals produce important co-products such as meat, milk, and egg. Higher consumption and urbanization asked for more animal products and the demand was so strong that lager livestocks are now being raised densely in small farm. Large production of excreta and maldor is an inevitable consequence of condensed breeding. If this malodor couldn't be controlled, it could be chief obstacle to development of both livestock industry and environment of future. Major odor produced from livestock environments could be subdivided into four major sections: volatile fatty acids, ammonia and volatile amine, indole and phenols, and sulfur compounds. More than half of nitrogen excreted urea, so low protein feeding, synthetic amino acid feeding and supplementing with digestive enzyme, microbial agents and/or probiotics are methods for reducing nitrogen excretion. A lot of studies about feeding and probiotics, co-feed have been researched to improve environment and/or productivity in livestock industry.
Analysis of Species Variety and Physiological Characteristics of Denitrifying Oligotrophic Bacteria Isolated from the Specific Environment in Korea
Lee, Chang-Muk ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ; Kwon, Soon-Wo ; Kang, Han-Chul ; Koo, Bon-Sung ; Yoon, Sang-Hong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 210~217
In an effort to isolate novel bacteria for the bioremediation of over-fertilized soils, we identified 135 denitrifying cells out of 3,471 oligotrophic bacteria pools (3.9%) using a denitrification medium supplemented with potassium nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Soil samples were taken from ecologically well-conserved areas, including a mountain swamp around the demilitarized zone (Yongneup), two ecoparks (Upo and the Mujechi bog), and ten representative islands around the Korean peninsula (Jejudo, Daecheongdo, Socheongdo, Baekryeongdo, Ulrungdo, Dokdo, Geomundo, Hongdo, Huksando and Yeonpyeongdo). All of the 135 bacteria produced nitrogen gas from the denitrification medium, and were proved to be nitrate reductase positive by API-BioLog tests. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the 135 bacteria consisted of 44 different genera. Along with the most prominent, Proteobacteria (87.4%), we identified denitrifying bacteria from Firmicutes (9.4%), Actinobacteria (2.4%), and Bacteroidetes (0.8%). Physiological analyses of the 44 representative denitrifying bacteria, under various pH levels, growth temperatures and salt stresses, revealed 12 favorable denitrifying strains for soil bioremediation.
Optimal Condition for Eicosapentaenoic Acid Production and Purification from Psychrophillic Marine Baterium Shewanella sp. L93
Mo, Sang-Joon ; Hong, Hye-Won ; Bang, Ji-Heon ; Cho, Ki-Woong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 218~223
To obtain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-producing bacteria, some 600 strains of bacteria were isolated from Antarctic sediment and marine organisms during the summer expedition of 1999-2000 and 7 EPA-producing bacteria were obtained through screening with TLC and GC. A strain designated as L93 showed the highest EPA production, which was gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. L93 strain was identified as Shewanella sp., from the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Optimal conditions temperature and pH for the growth and EPA production were about
and pH 7. In addition, its production was optimized by 50%(w/v) sea salt. We establish the optimal production system to produce about 320 mg per liter by using this optimal EPA production conditions. EPA-methyl ester was purified from cultured L93 strain to a purity of higher than 97% and typical purification yield is greater than 72% of the input amount via urea complexation and HPLC.
Meta-Analysis for Effect of Dietary Isoflavones on Breast Density and Hot Flush Suppression
Kwon, So-Jeen ; Song, Bang-Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 224~237
For establishing the efficacy against breast cancer occurrence, women's mammographic breast density and hot flush remission related to pre and post-menopausal symptoms were selected as biomarkers. Meta analysis applied the final selection of 40 papers from Medline to assess the efficacy of isoflavone-rich soy or supplements versus placebo under randomized controlled trials. Interestingly, the exposure to the purified isoflavones was more effective than the exposure to the crude extract of soy isoflavones for hot flush suppression. The length and the amount of dosage dependency is the most appropriately suggested to be one year long with 50~100 mg/day of isoflavone-rich soy or supplements. Funnel plots was used to interpret the results, overall effect of isoflavones on breast density in post-menopausal women was revealed to be less effect [effect size: 0.062, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.005 to 0.12], than that of pre-menopausal women (effect size: 0.101, CI: -0.003 to 0.205). The reason why breast density was found higher among the pre-menopausal than the post-menopausal women is that the phytoestrogens of dietary isoflavones were antagonized against estrogen by the basis of estrogen receptor binding affinity. Overall, the Meta analysis reported that isoflavone had limited influence on breast density by suppressing the expansion by only 2%, while it was more effective to suppressing the hot flush, showing a dramatic decrease of 23%.
Production of Biodiesel Using Immobilized Lipase from Proteus vulgaris
Yoon, Shin-Ah ; Han, Jin-Yee ; Kim, Hyung-Kwoun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 238~244
Biodiesel, mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids, is one of the alternative fuels derived from renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oils or animal fats. For decade, various lipases have been used for the production of biodiesel. However, the production of biodiesel by enzymatic catalyst has profound restriction in industry application due to high cost. To overcome these problems, many research groups have studied extensively on the selection of cheap oil sources, the screening of suitable lipases, and development of lipase immobilization methods. In this study, we produced biodiesel from plant oil using Proteus vulgaris lipase K80 expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant lipase K80 was not only expressed in high level but also had high specific lipase activity and high stability in various organic solvents. Lipase K80 could produce biodiesel from olive oil by 3-stepwise methanol feeding method. The immobilized lipase K80 also produced biodiesel using the same 3-stepwise method. The immobilized lipase could produce biodiesel efficiently from various plant oils and waste oils.
Substrate Specificities of
-Galactosidase from Mortierella sp.
Park, Gwi-Gun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 245~251
]Galactosidase was purified from a culture filtrate of Mortierella sp. by CM-sephadex C-50, and subsequent Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final preparation thus obtained showed a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight was determined to be 56 kDa.
-D-mannopentaose), prepared from 3 types of microbial
-mannnanase, were used as substrates.
had a stubbed
-galactosyl residue on the
mannose from the reducing end of mannotetraose and mannotriose, thus
-galactosidase showed a preference for stubbed
more rapidly than
-galactosidase hardly acted on
. The enzyme hydrolyzed melibiose to galactose and glucose, raffinose to galactose and sucrose, and also stachyose to galactose and raffinose.
Production and Properties of Hemicellulases by a Cellulosimicrobium sp. Isolate
Yoon, Ki-Hong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 252~258
A bacterial strain capable of hydrolyzing xylan and locust bean gum (LBG) was isolated from farm soil by enrichment culture using mixture of palm kernel meal (PKM) and wheat bran as carbon source. Nucleotide sequence of 16S rDNA amplified from the isolate YB-1107 showed high similarity with those of genus Cellulosimicrobium strains. Xylanase productivity was increased when the Cellulosimicrobium sp. YB-1107 was grown in the presence of wheat bran or oat spelt xylan, while mannanase productivity was increased drastically when grown in the presence of PKM or LBG. Particularly, maximum mannanase and xylanase activities were obtained in the culture filtrate of media containing 0.7% PKM or 1% wheat bran, respectively. Both enzyme activities were produced at stationary growth phase. Mannanase from the culture filtrate showed the highest activity at
and pH 6.5. Xylanase activity was optimal at
and pH 5.5. The predominant products resulting from the mannanase or xylanase hydrolysis were oligosaccharides for LBG or xylan, respectively. In addition, the enzymes could hydrolyze wheat bran and rice bran into oligosaccharides.
Functionality Analysis of Korean Medicine Fermented by Lactobacillus Strains
Kang, Dong-Hee ; Kim, Hyun-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 259~265
Through the process of fermentation with Lactobacillus strains this study has evaluated the functionality of the traditional Korean medicine Bangpungtongsungsan after the addition of four other medicinal ingredients. In order to facilitate the growth of the Lactobacillus strains brown sugar was added to the herbal substances used. For both DPPH radical scavenging activities and SOD-like activities the medicinal mixture, when fermented through heterogeneous co-cultures, scored higher (at 77% and 42%, respectively) than when not fermented (at 31.7% and 36.3%, respectively). The co-cultured Korean medicine inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis PCI 219, Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC 2004, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus KCTC 1916 and Propionibacterium acnes KCTC 3314. The inhibiting effects on
-hexosaminidase released from RBL-2H3 cells caused by the mixture, with and without fermentation, was seen to be similar (57% and 60%, respectively).
Antiinflammatory and Antiallergic Activity of Fermented Turmeric by Lactobacillus johnsonii IDCC 9203
Kim, Seong-Beom ; Kang, Byung-Hwa ; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang ; Kang, Jae-Hoon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 266~273
Although turmeric has numerous pharmacological effects, the poor water-solubility of curcuminoids, active components of turmeric, restricts their systemic availability in orally administered formulations and limits their therapeutic potential. In this study we attempted turmeric fermentation using several probiotic bacteria to improve its solubility, and also investigated the effects of turmeric and fermented turmeric on anti-inflammatory activity. Fermented turmeric, by L. johnsonii IDCC 9203, more strongly inhibited LPS-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines than non-fermented turmeric and fermented turmeric by other probiotic strains. We used an NC/Nga mouse model for mite antigen-induced atopic dermatitis to examine the efficacy of the fermented turmeric. Fermented turmeric-fed mice exhibited a significantly reduced serum IgE level and mitigated acute inflammation. When the fermented turmeric was pre-treated by oral administration, it had more preventive activity against acute anaphylactic reaction than the non-fermented group. In addition, we observed that fermentation of turmeric leads to increased water-solubility of curcumin and a change in the active components ratios for bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycrucumin and curcumin. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that fermented turmeric by L. johnsonii IDCC 9203 could be used as a functional food ingredient for improving treatments for atopic dermatitis.
Effects of Yeast and Nuruk on the Quality of Korean Yakju
Lee, Dae-Hyoung ; Kang, Heui-Yun ; Lee, Yong-Seon ; Cho, Chang-Hui ; Kim, Soon-Jae ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 274~280
Effects of rice varieties, fermentation temperature, nuruks and yeast on the quality of yakju (Korean traditional rice wine) were investigated. Among various yakju made by using some rice varieties, Chucheong yakju produced the highest ethanol of 18.9%. The maximum amount of ethanol was produced when 2% nuruk and 0.8% yeast were added to cooked Chucheong rice and fermented at
for 10 days. This Chucheong yakju also showed the best overall acceptability. Changes of physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the 3 kinds of Chucheong yakju made by cooked rice and uncooked rice and gruel rice were investigated during fermentation. Ethanol contents of uncooked rice- Chucheong yakju and gruel rice- Chucheong yakju were significantly increased from 10.6% and 9.9% after 3 days fermentation to 17.1% and 17.2% after 7 days fermentation. Sensory evaluation revealed the gruel rice - Chucheong yakju was the best in total acceptability with sweety and refreshing tastes.
Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Salted and Fermented Small Shrimp in Rats Administered a High Fat Diet
Kim, Yong-Hyun ; Han, Kook-Il ; Jeon, Mi-Ae ; Kwon, Hyun-Jung ; Park, Min-Kyung ; Han, Man-Deuk ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 281~286
This study was performed to investigate the effects of salted and fermented shrimp ethanol extract (SFS) on serum lipid metabolism and hepatocytes in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 60% fat feed to induce hypercholesterolemia and were divided into five groups. Experimental groups were classified according to administered diet: normal diet group (NC), high cholesterol diet group (HC), high cholesterol and low dose shrimp extract (20 mg/kg) group (HC-SFSL), high cholesterol and high dose shrimp extract (200 mg/kg) group (HC-SFSH), and high cholesterol and lovastatin (20 mg/kg) group (HC-Lov). The experimental diets were fed ad libitum for 14 days. Compared with the control group, the serum cholesterol and triglycerides were 40.4 and 64.7% lower in the group fed HC-SFSH respectively. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentration in serum decreased in the HC-SFSH group compared with the HC group. In a histological assay, hepatocytes in the HC group showed that the vacuolated cells by fat appear clear due to the large amount of intracytoplasmic fat, whereas the liver hepatocytes in the group fed SFS effectively decreased fatty liver and intracytoplasmic fats. These results suggest that the extract of salted and fermented shrimp has an antiatherosclerotic effect and may lessen the effects of cardiovascular disease by reducing the cholesterol level in serum.
Isolation of Fungal Deteriogens Inducing Aesthetical Problems and Antifungal Calcite Forming Bacteria from the Tunnel and Their Characteristics
Park, Jong-Myong ; Park, Sung-Jin ; Ghim, Sa-Youl ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 287~293
The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize fungal deteriogens, which induce discoloration of the cement tunnel, and calcite forming bacteria (CFBs), which have antifungal activity against fungal deteriogens. Isolation of mold, bacteria and yeast was performed using several solid media and partially identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS); 5.8S rRNA gene sequencing and 16s rDNA sequencing. A total of 19 microbial strains were identified with the most widely distributed fungal strain being Cladospirum sphaerospermum. In addition, five bacteria derived from the tunnel were identified as CFBs. Amongst the latter, Bacillus aryabhatti KNUC205 exhibited antifungal activity against Cladospirum sphaerospermum KNUC253 and Aspergillus niger KCTC6906 as concentrated filtered supernatants.
Isolation of Bacteria from Jeotgal Using High-salt-content Media and Their Growths in High-salt Condition
An, Doo-Hyun ; Lee, Jong-Hoon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 294~300
Proteolytic bacteria were isolated from Myeolchi-jeotgal and Saeu-jeotgal using high-salt-content media and their growths in the media containing 25% NaCl were monitored to draw the role of bacteria in the ripening of jeotgal. The most populous genus in Myeolchi-jeotgal detected on agar media with 15% NaCl was Bacillus and its relatives, while the most populous in Saeu-jeotgal was Staphylococcus. Among the isolates, Virgibacillus halodenitrificans from Myeolchi-jeotgal and Halobacillus trueperi from Saeu-jeotgal showed proteinase activities. The species from Myeolchi-jeotgal showed proteinase activity on the agar media with 8% NaCl were similar to those isolated from the media with 15% NaCl. The dominant of Myeolchi-jeotgal isolated at the 15% NaCl concentration may be involved in the proteolysis. The proteolytic species from Saeu-jeotgal on the agar media with 8% NaCl were the genera Bacillus, Salinicoccus, and Salimicrobium those were not the dominants at 15% NaCl condition. The dominant isolates from Saeu-jeotgal on agar media with 15% NaCl may not be involved in the proteolysis of Saeu-jeotgal. Vb. halodenitrificans and Staphylococcus equorum, the dominant species from Myeolchi-jeotgal and Saeu-jeotgal, showed growths at the nutrient broth containing 25% NaCl. They may play a significant role in the ripening of jeotgal and have a high possibility to be used as the starter.
Bioremediation Efficiency of Oil-Contaminated Soil using Microbial Agents
Hong, Sun-Hwa ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Lee, Eun-Young ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 301~307
Oil pollution was world-wide prevalent treat to the environment, and the physic-chemical remediation technology of the TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) contaminated soil had the weakness that its rate was very slow and not economical. Bioremediation of the contaminated soil is a useful method if the concentrations are moderate and non-biological techniques are not economical. The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of additives on TPH degradation in a diesel contaminated soil environment. Six experimental conditions were conduced; (i) diesel contaminated soil, (ii) diesel contaminated soil treated with microbial additives, (iii) diesel contaminated soil treated with microbial additives and the mixture was titrated to the end point of pH 7 with NaOH, (iv) diesel contaminated soil treated with microbial additives and accelerating agents and (v) diesel contaminated soil treated with microbial additives and accelerating agents, and the mixture was titrated to the end point of pH 7 with NaOH. After 10 days, significant TPH degradation (67%) was observed in the DSP-1 soil sample. The removal of TPH in the soil sample where microbial additives were supplemented was 38% higher than the control soil sample during the first ten days. The microbial additives were effective in both the initial removal rate and relative removal efficiency of TPH compared with the control group. However, various environmental factors, such as pH and temperature, also affected the activities of microbes lived in the additives, so the pH calibration of the oil-contaminated soil would help the initial reduction efficiency in the early periods.
Isolation and Characterization of Plant-Derived Lactic Acid Bacteria as Potential Probiotic
Kim, Jeong-Do ; Park, Sung-Bo ; Lee, Na-Ri ; Jeong, Jin-Ha ; Lee, Hee-Seob ; Hwang, Dae-Youn ; Lee, Jong-Sup ; Jeong, Seong-Yun ; Son, Hong-Joo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 308~312
Plant lactic acid bacteria were isolated from plant-associated fermentative foods and crops, and their probiotic properties were investigated. Isolates K27 and O2 were isolated from Kimchi and onion, and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum on the basis of 16S rRNA gene analysis. The two strains were highly resistant to acid (an MRS broth at pH 2.5), where the survival rates of L. plantarum K27 and L. plantarum O2 were 90.2% and 97.3%, respectively. L. plantarum K27 and L. plantarum O2 also showed high bile resistance to 0.5% oxgall, with a more than 70% survival rate. They showed an inhibitory effect against pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli KCCM 40880 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145. The antibacterial effect of the two strains was probably due to the presence of lactic acid. ACE inhibitory activities of the two strains ranged from 72.8% to 80.6% in MRS broth. Notably, the two strains showed high ACE inhibitory activity (89.2~98.2%) in MRS broth containing 10% skim milk. Antioxidant activity was tested by DPPH radical scavenging activity, with antioxidant activities of the strains being in the range of 56.8~61.5%. The results obtained in this study suggest that L. plantarum K27 and L. plantarum O2 may be potential probiotic starter cultures with applications with fermentative products.
Characteristics of immunomodulation by a Lactobacillus sakei proBio65 isolated from Kimchi
Lim, Jeong-Heui ; Seo, Byoung-Joo ; Kim, Jung-Eun ; Chae, Chang-Suk ; Im, Sin-Hyeog ; Hahn, Youn-Soo ; Park, Yong-Ha ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 3, 2011, Pages 313~316
We isolated and identified a novel probiotic strain, Lactobacillus sakei proBio65 from Kimchi. To determine whether L. sakei proBio65 has an immunomodulatory effect, we investigated cells via an in vitro screening system which co-cultured freshly isolated mesenteric lymphocyte with probiotics. A significant increase of
transcription regulatory factor expression was observed, followed by an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines transcription regulatory factor. L. sakei proBio65 exhibited high levels of the IL-10/IL-12 production ratio and enhanced Foxp3 expression in vitro. L. sakei proBio65 may thus be therapeutically useful for the modulation of inflammatory immune disorders.