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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Applications and Prospects of Calcium Carbonate Forming Bacteria in Construction Materials
Park, Sung-Jin ; Ghim, Sa-Youl ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 169~179
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1202.02005
Microbiological calcium carbonate precipitation (MCCP) is being applied for the aesthetic restoration of cement buildings destroyed by biochemical processes and to block water penetration into the cement's inner structure. After determining the advantages of this technique, many related studies in the area of architecture concerning the application of microorganisms to improve construction material have been reported in both America and Europe. The techniques compatibility with cement material is especially interesting because of the needed screening of various calcium carbonate forming-bacteria and the required development of their application methods. The purpose of this review is to describe the mechanism of MCCP and related researches with eco-friendly construction materials. Mainly, we describe the methodological studies focused on biodeposition on the surface of building materials and the research trends concerning the addition of microorganisms to improve the durability of cement structures. Additionally, the concepts and technical aspects focused on the development of self-healing smart concrete, with the use of multi-functional bacteria, have been considered.
Trends and Perspectives in the Development of Antidiabetic Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Lee, Soo-Hyun ; Lee, Jong-Keun ; Kim, Ik-Hwan ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 180~185
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1205.05012
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, a chronic metabolic disorder which results from a high blood glucose level, is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases of our time. Considering increasing rates of obesity and the aging population in Korea, the number of diabetic patients is likely to rise rapidly in the future. There are five conventional diabetic drugs which work through different mechanisms; sulfonylureas, biguanide, meglitinide, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and thiazolidinedione. Although they all have antidiabetic effects, some side effects such as hypoglycemia, weight gain and gastrointestinal intolerance are associated with them. Incretin based therapies, utilizing glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which have a lower risk of adverse side effects, have recently been introduced. At present PPAR-targeting drugs are being actively developed. In this research review, particular emphasis has been placed on the current trends and possible biological targets for the new generation of antidiabetic drugs.
Production and Properties of a Bacillus subtilis Mannanase from Recombinant Lactobacillus paracasei
Yoon, Ki-Hong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 186~189
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1206.06002
A gene coding for mannanase (manA) from Bacillus subtilis was introduced into a shuttle vector pGK12 between Escherichia coli, B. subtilis and Lactobacillus paracasei. As a result of transferring the resultant plasmid, designated pGK12M3, into three different strains, the manA gene was found to be expressed in L. paracasei as well as in B. subtilis and E. coli. In a 4 L fermentor culture, the production of mannanase by recombinant L. paracasei (pGK12M3) reached a maximum level of 5.4 units/ml in an MRS medium with a fixed pH 6.5. Based on the zymogram of mannanase, it is assumed that mannanase produced by recombinant L. paracasei is not maintained stably with proteolytic degradation. The optimal temperature and thermostability of mannanase produced by recombinant L. paracasei were also found to be different from those of enzymes produced by B. subtilis.
Selection and Identification of Phytohormones and Antifungal Substances Simultaneously Producing Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria from Microbial Agent Treated Red-pepper Fields
Jung, Byung-Kwon ; Lim, Jong-Hui ; An, Chang-Hwan ; Kim, Yo-Hwan ; Kim, Sang-Dal ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 190~196
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1207.07001
In this study, a total of more than 1,000 bacteria, including 739 species of aerobic bacteria, 80 species of urease producing bacteria and 303 species of photosynthetic bacteria, were isolated from red-pepper field soils located in the Gyeongsan Province of the Republic of Korea. Amongst these, 158 species of aerobic bacteria, 70 species of urease producing bacteria and 228 species of photosynthetic bacteria were found to be auxin producing soil bacteria through quantification analysis with the Salkowski test. The latter groupings were then tested for antifungal activities to
-Glucanase and siderophore using CMC congo red agar and CAS blue agar media. In addition, the selected strains were examined for antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi on PDN agar media. Six strains; BCB14, BCB17, C10, HA46, HA143, and HJ5, were noted for their ability to both produce auxin and act as antifungal substances. 16S rDNA sequence comparison analyses of these six strains identified them as Bacillus subtilis BCB14, B. methylotrophicus BCB17, B. methylotrophicus C10, B. sonorensis HA46, B. subtilis HA143, and B. safensis HJ5.
Characterization of Plasmids from Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Vibrio sp. Isolated from Molluscs and Crustaceans
Manjusha, Sayd ; Sarita, Ganabhat Bhat ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 197~207
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1205.05002
This study investigated the role of plasmids and their relationship with the multiple antibiotic resistance of 30 Vibrios sp. isolated from molluscs and crustaceans sampled from the Kerala coastal waters of India. The biochemical identification and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined, followed by the plasmid profiles, conjugation and transformation efficiencies. The results showed a considerable difference in the level of bacterial resistance to various antibiotics; while all 30 strains were found to be MAR Vibrios sp. and their resistance patterns varied. All the strains were resistant to amoxycillin, ampicillin and carbeniciliin. 87% were resistant to rifampicin; 74% to cefuroxime; 67 to streptomycin; 53% to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin and 47% to furazolidone and nalidixic acid. In addition to their antibiotic resistance, the plasmid DNA of the MAR Vibrios strains isolated from the molluscs and crustaceans was also studied. Nine strains isolated from crustaceans and molluscs were found to harbor 1-3 plasmids with sizes varying from 5. 98 kb to 19. 36 kb. The average transformation efficiency was about
and the conjugation efficiency varied from
. A further study of antibiotic resistance patterns may be useful to test the extent of drug resistance in seafoods and help to devise a nationwide antibiotic policy.
Mass Production of Chaff-vinegar and Its Effect of Anti-Aging and Whitening
Hwang, Jaegyu ; Yun, Jong-Kuk ; Kim, Suk-Kyung ; Lee, Sang-Han ; Han, Kil-Hwan ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 208~214
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1205.05027
Chaff-vinegar is known for having a variety of useful purposes in the fields of health and lifestyles. In a previous study we isolated and identified the active fractions of the polyphenol compound 7 species as a potential biomaterial for cosmeceuticals. To further test for its potential use as a functional material, we carried out an MTT assay, collagenase inhibition assay, elastase inhibition assay, tyrosinase inhibition assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, SOD-like activity assay and a xanthine oxidase inhibition assay. Chaff-vinegar exhibited potent collagenase and elastase inhibitory activities in a concentration dependent manner, indicating that the agent has the potential to alleviate the skin wrinkling process. Chaff-vinegar also showed 80% tyrosinase inhibition at a concentration of
. DPPH radical scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition, and SOD-like activity results for each activity were 80%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Taken together, the present study suggests that chaff-vinegar is a good candidate for use as an anti-wrinkling and/or whitening agent.
Resistance to Hypoosmotic Shock of Liposomes Containing Novel Pigments from an Antarctic Bacterium
Correa-Llanten, Daniela N. ; Amenabar, Maximiliano J. ; Blamey, Jenny M. ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 215~219
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1205.05018
Although the antioxidant capacity of carotenoids and their role in regulating membrane fluidity have been well studied, their ability to confer resistance to hypoosmotic shock is poorly understood. In this work, we analyzed the effect of a mixture of carotenoid pigments obtained from an Antarctic microorganism belonging to the genus Pedobacter on liposomal resistance to hypoosmotic conditions. Intercalation of pigments into liposomal structures resulted in an improvement of membrane resistance by decreasing the percentage of calcein released in comparison to that by liposomes without pigments. Due to these properties, such pigments could be useful for biotechnological applications.
Comparison of Ethanol Fermentation Properties between Laboratorial and Industrial Yeast Strains using Cassava Hydrolysate
Chin, Young-Wook ; Kim, Jin-Woo ; Park, Yong-Cheol ; Seo, Jin-Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 220~225
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1207.07024
In order to investigate the ethanol fermentation properties of alcohol yeasts a laboratorial strain (CEN.PK2-1D) and two industrial alcohol yeasts (JHS100 and JHS200) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were cultured in a pure YP medium with 300 g/L glucose and cassava hydrolysate. Spot assay and cell viability tests showed that both the JHS100 and JHS200 strains exhibited higher ethanol tolerance than the CEN.PK2-1D strain. The JHS100 strain demonstrated the highest cell growth, glucose consumption and ethanol production. In particular, an anaerobic batch fermentation of the JHS100 strain using cassava hydrolysate with 250 g/L glucose resulted in a 106.1 g/L ethanol concentration, 0.42 g/g ethanol yield and 3.15 g/L-hr ethanol productivity, which were 53%, 13%, 53% higher than the corresponding values for the CEN.PK2-1D strain. By changing the pure YP medium to cassava hydrolysate, 19% and 17% decreases in ethanol yield and productivity for the CEN.PK2-1D strain were observed, whereas the cultures of the JHS100 and JHS200 stains showed similar ethanol productivities and only an 8% decrease in ethanol yield. Furthermore, the JHS100 and JHS200 stains produced lower levels of glycerol and acetate byproducts than the CEN.PK2-1D strain. Consequently, the outstanding ethanol fermentation performance of the industrial strains might be owing to rapid cell growth, high ethanol tolerance, low nitrogen requirements and the low formation of by-products.
Synbiotic Potential of Yoghurt Manufactured with Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Mustard Leaf Kimchi and Prebiotic Fructooligosaccharide
Lim, Sung-Mee ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 226~236
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1204.04002
In the present work, the influence of prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on adhesion to Caco-2 cells, viability, acid and bile tolerance, antibacterial, antioxidant, enzymatic, and metabolic activities of the probiotic starters Lactobacillus acidophilus GK20 and Lactobacillus paracasei GK74, has been explored. Experiments were conducted with fermented yoghurt over a period of 7 days at
. When compared to control fermentations without prebiotic, the addition of FOS was seen to significantly (p<0.05) increase the viable cell counts of the probiotics, overall viscosity, and concurrently reduce the pH of the fermented yoghurts. Both Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 were inhibited by the probiotics' antibacterial activities, while the synbiotic yoghurt containing mixed probiotics and FOS was noted to highly improve antagonistic action. When fermented with mixed starters, the addition of FOS (1.0%) resulted in the highest proteolytic (
-galactosidase activities (
unit). However, FOS did not affect acid and bile tolerance, adhesion to Caco-2 cells or the antioxidant activity of the probiotics, although both L. acidophilus GK20 and L. paracasei GK74 had functionality as probiotic strains. Hence, a significant synbiotic effect was observed in fermented yoghurt after 7 days of storage at
, and as a result, such synbiotic yoghurt can be said to possess synergistic actions which improve the gastrointestinal environment and promote of health.
A Determination of the Moisturizing Effect and Stability of a Cream Containing Lespedeza cuneata G. Don Extracts
Lee, Hye Jin ; Gu, Hyun A ; Park, Soo Nam ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 237~242
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1206.06001
In this study, the skin moisturing effect and stability of cream containing L. cuneata G. Don extract (ethyl acetate fraction) were evaluated. The skin hydrating effect of the cream containing extract was 1020% higher than the placebo cream, and the TWEL of the cream containing extracts was decreased to
compared to the control (
) and placebo cream (
). The pH, viscosity, and absorbance were measured under the 4, 25, 37,
and the sun light during the 12 weeks. The pH change between cream containing extract and placebo cream did not show the significant difference under the 4, 25, 37,
except for the sun light. Both creams showed high decrease (about 59%) of viscosity at
. However, there was no significant change under other conditions. The absorbance of the cream containing the extract and the placebo cream was decreased similarly at all conditions. This decrease in absorbance was relatively small compared to the decrease of absorbance of the extract in ethanol solution under the sun light (Fig. 7). In addition, any change in color or smell of the cream was not observed during the 12 weeks. Also physical changes as creaming and cohesion were not shown. These results indicate that the cream containing L. cuneata extract has the skin moisturizing effect and is relatively stable. Therefore, it is suggested that the ethyl acetate fraction of L. cuneata extract could be applicable to cosmetics as a new cosmetic material with its antioxidative and antibacterial activities reported previously.
Optimization of Conditions for the Production of Alginate-degrading Crude Enzyme from Vibrio crassostreae PKA 1002
SunWoo, Chan ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Jung, Seul-A ; Kim, Hyun-Jee ; Jeong, Da-Hyun ; Jung, Hee-Ye ; Lim, Sung-Mee ; Hong, Yong-Ki ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 243~249
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1206.06003
This study was conducted to screen an alginate-degrading microorganism and to investigate the characteristics of the alginate-degrading activity of its crude enzyme. A marine bacterium which produces extracellular alginate-degrading enzymes was isolated from the brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. 16S rRNA sequence analysis and physiological profiling resulted in the bacterium's identification as a Vibrio crassostreae strain, named Vibrio crassostreae PKA 1002. Its optimal culture conditions for growth were pH 9, 2% NaCl,
and a 24 hr incubation time. The optimal conditions for the alginate degrading ability of the crude enzyme produced by V. crassostreae PKA 1002 were pH 9,
, a 48 hr incubation time and 8% alginic acid. The alginate degrading crude enzyme produced 3.035 g of reducing sugar per liter in 4% (w/v) alginate over 1 hr.
Antioxidative and Antibacterial Activities of Artemisia princeps Pampanini Extracts
Yang, Hyun Gab ; Kim, Hye Jin ; Kim, Hae Soo ; Park, Soo Nam ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 250~260
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1207.07014
In the present study, the antioxidative and antibacterial activities of Artemisia princeps Pampanini (A. princeps Pamp.) extract were investigated. The ethyl acetate fraction of A. princeps Pamp. showed the most prominent free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) scavenging activity (
). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities (
) of A. princeps Pamp. extract on
systems were investigated using a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. The ethyl acetate fraction of the extract (
) had a 5 times greater ROS scavenging activity than L-ascorbic acid (
), known as a water soluble antioxidant. The cellular protective effects of fractions of A. princeps Pamp. on the rose-bengal sensitized photohemolysis of human erythrocytes were examined. The aglycone fraction of extracts suppressed photohemolysis in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of A. princeps Pamp. extract on tyrosinase were investigated to assess their whitening efficiency. The ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated a 7 times higher tyrosinase inhibitory effect (
) than albutin, known as a whitening agent. The antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate fractions against various normal skin flora were measured. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of the fraction was the highest on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Propionibacterium acnes. Antioxidant substances were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate fractions. Eupatilin and jaceosidin were identified. These results indicate that the extract/fractions of A. princeps Pamp. can function as antioxidant and/or antibacterial agents for the skin.
An Evaluation of Plant Growth Promoting Activities and Salt Tolerance of Rhizobacteria Isolated from Plants Native to Coastal Sand Dunes
Hong, Sun Hwa ; Lee, Mi Hyang ; Kim, Ji Seul ; Lee, Eun Young ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 261~267
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1208.08003
Coastal sand dunes are important for ecosystems due to the variety of rare species that can be found in this kind of habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. For environmental remediation, a potential strategy is phytoremediation using the symbiotic relationship of plants and microbes in the rhizosphere, which has proven ecologically sound, safe, and cost effective. Ninety-five colonies were isolated from the rhizosphere soil (RS) or rhizoplane (RP) of Rorippa islandica, Rumex crispus, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis, Lilium sp Stellaria media, and Gramineae. These colonies were then tested for plant growth promoting activities (PGPAs) such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, and siderphores synthesis ability. In addition, salt tolerance was evaluated at 4% and 8% salt concentrations. It was observed that amongst the test subjects about 50% of the strains had a high resistance to salinity. Many of them could produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) IAA (in RS 13.9% and in RP 7.6%), exhibited ACC deaminase activity (55.8% in RS and 36.6% in RP), and could synthesize siderphores (62.7% in RS and 50% in RP). Correlation coefficient analyses were carried out for the three kinds of plant growth promoting abilities (PGPA) and salt tolerance. A positive correlation was found between an ability to synthesize siderphores and ACC deaminase activity (r=0.605, p<0.037). Similarly, positive correlations were noted between salt tolerance and ACC deaminase activity (r=0.762, p<0.004, r=0.771), and salt tolerance and an ability to synthesize siderphores (r=0.771, p<0.003).
16S rRNA Gene Sequence-based Microbial Diversity Analyses of the Geothermal Areas of Cisolok, Kamojang, and Likupang in Indonesia
Seo, Myung-Ji ; Kim, Jeong-Nyeo ; Pyun, Yu-Ryang ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 268~273
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1205.05001
Microbial diversity analyses were performed in several geothermal areas in Indonesia using a culture-independent approach with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All areas and the majority of samples were noted as being affiliated with Proteobacteria. In addition, unclassified bacteria with no phylum affiliation were detected at an incidence rate of 20.0-26.5% in every location. The majority groupings in the geothermal hot stream in Cisolok belonged to
-Proteobacteria (27.1%) and Cyanobacteria (11.0%), whereas the majority from the volcanic area in Kamojang was
-Proteobacteria (51.5%) followed by Aquificales (12.9%). The predominant groups around an underwater thermal vent in the sea at Likupang were
-Proteobacteria (33.3%) and then Bacteroidetes (27.6%). This detailed microbial community analyses of each area strongly support a possible association with plausible community groups and environmental habitats, such as extremely geothermal or marine habitats. This study has significantly contributed to the expansion of scientific knowledge of the microbial community in Indonesia.
Cloning, Expression, and Polymerization Assay of FtsZ Protein from Staphylococcus aureus
Son, Sang Hyeon ; Lee, Dong Yun ; Kim, Ye Jun ; Ko, Sooho ; Cho, Seong Jun ; Jung, Hyo Cheol ; Lee, Hyung Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 274~277
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1205.05013
Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division, dividing one mother cell into two daughter cells. For the cutting of a plasma membrane during bacterial cytokinesis, a tubulin homolog FtsZ protein is recruited from the cytoplasm to the division site. FtsZ protein polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner and its N-terminal domain has a GTPase activity. In this study, we have begun to characterize FtsZ from Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Full-length SA FtsZ was cloned into pRSFDuet-1 vector and the clone was transformed into a BL21 (DE3) star cell. The recombinant SA FtsZ protein was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and dialysis. Using a spectrofluorometer, we showed that SA FtsZ undergoes a GTP-dependant polymerization in vitro. The polymer of the SA FtsZ protein disappeared after a few minutes, suggesting that the polymer is degraded as the GTP is consumed. This assay system may well be applied for inhibitor screening targeting S. aureus FtsZ.
Effect of Inhibited Rab11-FIP3 Expression on Membrane Trafficking of TRPV1 in Dorsal Root Ganglion of Rat
Kim, Miran ; Lee, Soon-Youl ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 278~281
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1207.07005
Not much is known about the membrane trafficking of TRPV1, a key player in pain transduction. Rab11-FIP3, which plays a role in various intracellular transportation pathways, has been reported to interact with TRPV1. In this study, in order to examine the role of Rab11-FIP3 in the membrane trafficking of TRPV1, Rab11-FIP3 expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was inhibited using a siRNA technique. Transportation of TRPV1 to membranes was found to decrease when Rab11-FIP3 expression was inhibited, consistent with the results obtained with TRPV1-transfected HEK cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Rab11-FIP3 plays a role in the membrane trafficking of TRPV1.
Dunaliella salina as a Microalgal Biomass for Biogas Production
Jeon, Nayeong ; Kim, Daehee ; An, Junyeong ; Kim, Taeyoung ; Gim, Geun Ho ; Kang, Chang Min ; Kim, Duk Jin ; Kim, Si Wouk ; Chang, In Seop ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 40, issue 3, 2012, Pages 282~285
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1207.07008
In this study, the ability of Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella salina to use biomass resources for anaerobic digestive biogas production was examined. The differences in cell wall structure pretreatments affecting the yield of soluble products showed that D. salina is a better candidate for biogas production than C. vulgaris. There was no significant difference between pretreated and non-pretreated D. salina in terms of methane production yield by inocula obtained from anaerobic digestion systems. Therefore, D. salina is a suitable algal biomass for biogas production due to its high biomass productivity, simple pretreatment needs, and easy conversion to biogas.