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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
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Enhanced Production of Endo-
-1,4-xylanase from Paenibacillus sp. HX-1 Newly Isolated from Soil Samples at Hambak Mountain in Yongin city, Korea
Chi, Won-Ja ; Kim, Jonghee ; Hong, Soon-Kwang ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 263~271
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1304.04001
A xylanase-producing bacterium was isolated from a soil sample collected in Yongin city, Korea. The strain was aerobic and gram positive, and grew between pH 5.0 and 11.0, forming a yellow-colored colony. The strain was classified as a novel subspecies bacterium of Paenibacillus barcinonensis by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic, and biochemical characteristics, and thus named Paenibacillus sp. HX-1. This strain produced extracellular endo-
-1,4-xylanase, and the best xylanolytic activity (205.17 unit/ml) was obtained at 96 h in an optimized TNX medium containing 1% (w/v) bacto tryptone, 1% (w/v) NaCl, and 0.7% (w/v) beechwood xylan at pH 7.0,
and 200 rpm. The endo-
-1,4-xylanase produced by the strain HX-1 yielded xylobiose as the end product from beechwood xylan hydrolysis. The enzyme exhibited optimum pH and temperature at pH 7.0 and
, respectively. The remarkable enhancing effect of the TNX medium on xylanase production by HX-1, in spite of its simple formula, may have great advantages for industrial applications of xylanase.
Identification and Quantification of Tar Compounds in Plant Cell Cultures of Taxus chinensis
Kim, Gun-Joong ; Park, Gyu-Yeon ; Kim, Jin-Hyun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 272~277
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1303.03001
In this study, the tar compounds derived from the plant cell cultures of Taxus chinensis were first identified and then quantified via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography (GC). 2-Picoline, 2,5-xylenol, acenaphthene, 1-methylnaphthalene and o-xylene were found to be the major tar compounds by biomass. These compounds were identified and confirmed by comparing their retention times with those of authentic compounds. Each compound also spiked with the pure standard. The contents of 2-picoline, 2,5-xylenol, acenaphthene, 1-methylnaphthalene, and o-xylene in biomass were 0.2512, 0.1586, 0.1240, 0.0942 and 0.0525 wt%, respectively. Liquid-liquid extraction and adsorbent treatment were able to remove 42% and 94% of the tars from biomass, respectivly. After hexane precipitation, all of the tars were perfectly removed.
Characterization of the Thermophilic Bacterium Geobacillus sp. Strain GWE1 Isolated from a Sterilization Oven
Correa-Llanten, Daniela ; Larrain-Linton, Juanita ; Munoz, Patricio A. ; Castro, Miguel ; Boehmwald, Freddy ; Blamey, Jenny M. ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 278~283
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1301.01004
A gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming, motile thermophilic bacterium was isolated from a sterilization oven. The microorganism GWE1, formally named Geobacillus wiegelii identified as a member of the genus Geobacillus. GWE1 grew under aerobic conditions of between
), in a pH range of 3.0-8.0 (optimum
5.8), and between 0 and 2 M NaCl (optimum 0.3 M). The membrane polar lipids were dominated by branched saturated fatty acids, which included as the major constituents; iso-15:0 (13.3%), 16:1(
) (12.8%), 16:0 (28.5%), iso-17:0 (13.5%) and anteiso-17:0 (12.3%). The DNA G+C content was 47.2 mol% (determined by HPLC). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of GWE1 showed a high similarity with Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus (97%). However, the level of DNA-DNA relatedness was only 58%. These data suggest that GWE1 is probably a novel specie of the genus Geobacillus.
Antibacterial and Antioxidative Activities of Epimedium koreanum Nakai Extracts
Won, Doo Hyun ; Gu, Hyun A ; Kim, Hye Jin ; Han, Saet Byeol ; Park, Jino ; Park, Soo Nam ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 284~291
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1212.12001
In this study, the antibacterial and antioxidative activities of Epimedium koreanum Nakai were investigated for applications as cosmetic ingredients. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fraction-bacterium, that showed high antibacterial activity from disc diffusion assay on human skin pathogens, were tested. The ethyl acetate fraction on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Propionibacterium acnes and 50% ethanol extract on S. aureus exhibited higher antibacterial activities than methyl paraben, well known as a preservative. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activities of 3 fractions of E. koreanum Nakai were lower than (+)-
-tocopherol, known as a typical antioxidant. From the results of the scavenging activities of various ROS generated in
), 50% ethanol extract (
) and aglycone fraction (
) showed high activities similar to L-ascorbic acid (
), used as reference. The cellular protective effects (
) on photohemolysis by
generated by photosensitization reaction were tested. The cellular protective effect of 50% ethanol extract (
min) was similar to (+)-
min), used as reference. In particular, the
of aglycone fraction results were
min. This is a high cellular protective effect, more than 4 times that of (+)-
-tocopherol. These results indicate that E. koreanum Nakai extract, and its fractions, could be utilized as a cosmetic ingredient possessing antibacterial and antioxidative activities.
PCR-DGGE Analysis of the Fungal Community of Red-pepper Fields Utilizing Eco-friendly Farming Methods
Jung, Byung-Kwon ; Kim, Gwang-Seop ; Song, Jin-Ha ; Kim, Sang-Dal ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 292~299
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1303.03002
In this study, we analyzed the changes in fungal populations of red-pepper fields employing eco-friendly farming methods, such as microbial agents and crop rotation, by using polymerase chain reactions coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Primer specific for fungi were used to determine the contribution of domains to the microbial community. Analysis of planted and non-planted soil samples applying PCR-DGGE technology offered evaluation of long-term patterns in fungal species richness. To evaluate the stability of DGGE patterns from different soils, comparison of planted and non-planted soil samples were compared using PCR-DGGE. The number of DNA fragments obtained from all planted soil samples by DGGE separation was far greater (14 to 15 bands) than that of the non-planted soil samples (3 to 4 bands). In addition, 14 bands were observed from crop continuation soil treated with agrochemicals and 18 bands from crop rotation soil treated with microbial agents. The PCR-DGGE analysis suggests that the use of crop rotation and microbial agents benefits the fungal community more than crop continuation using agrochemicals. These results indicate that crop rotation with microbial agents was better able to support beneficial organisms, enable more effective biological control and maintain a healthier balance of nutrients, organic matter and microorganisms.
Endophytic Fungal Diversity Associated with the Roots of Coastal Sand-dune Plants in the Sindu-ri Coastal Sand Dune, Korea
You, Young-Hyun ; Seo, Yeonggyo ; Yoon, Hyeokjun ; Kim, Hyun ; Kim, Ye-Eun ; Khalmuratova, Irina ; Rim, Soon-Ok ; Kim, Changmu ; Kim, Jong-Guk ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 300~310
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1305.05003
The coastal sand-dune plants of eight species; Argusia sibirica, Calystegia soldanella, Elymus mollis, Lithospermum zollingeri, Raphanus sativus, Salsola collina, Zoysia macrostachya, and Zoysia sinica were collected from the Shindu-ri coastal sand dune. Ninety-eight endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the roots of these plants, analyzed, and identified by sequences in their internal transcribed spacers (ITS) at the ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 regions. The diversity of endophytic fungi isolated from coastal sand-dune plants was confirmed with various diversity indices. The fungal strains belonged to thirteen orders: Capnodiales (3.09%), Eurotiales (70.10%), Glomerellales (1.03%), Helotiales (3.09%), Hypocreales (9.28%), Mortierellales (2.06%), Onygenales (1.03%), Ophiostomatales (1.03%), Pleosporales (1.03%), Polyporales (1.03%), Russulales (1.03%), Saccharomycetales (2.06%), and Xylariales (1.03%). Of the endophytic fungal strains collected, Penicillium (59.18% in Eurotiales) and Fusarium (5.10% in Hypocreales) were the most abundant in coastal sand-dune plants. The endophytic fungal strains isolated from C. soldanella were more diverse compared to strains from the other coastal sand-dune plants.
Quality Evaluation of the Home-made Soy-Sauce Jangachi, Korean Traditional Pickle, Prepared by the Head-Families of Andong, Korea
Kim, Deok-Jin ; Kim, Mi-Sun ; Lee, Ye-Seul ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 311~319
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1306.06001
In an effort to characterize the physicochemical properties and microbial risks associated with the soy sauce jangachi (Korean traditional pickle), 15 different home-made products, which were prepared from medicinal plants and wild edible vegetables, from head-families of Andong, Kyungsangbuk-do Province in Korea, and 6 different commercial products sold at supermarket, were investigated. The average pH of the mature soaking solutions and plants soaked in the 21 jangachi were
, and the average acidity of the mature soaking solutions and soaked plants were
, respectively. The average brix of the mature soaking solutions and plants soaked were
, respectively. In salinity, which is a major factor in jangachi industry production, the average salinity of the mature soaking solutions and soaked plants were
, respectively. In particular, the hot-peppers, eusuri, du-rup, kaet-ip, kuji-ppong, myeng-i and sancho jangachi were amongst the home-made products, and the salinity was above 8.8%, which was 2 folds-higher than that of the commercial sterilized products, and 1/3-lower than commercial non-sterilized products. The color difference and turbidity of jangachi were dependent on the plant parts used. In microbial risk assessment, the microorganisms related with food-borne disease, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, and Shigella sp., were not detected. After some time, total cell count analysis revealed that the commercial products sold at supermarkets were more vulnerable than the home-made products.
Nano-emulsion Containing Parthenocissus tricuspidata Stem Extracts for Enhanced Skin Permeation and the Antibacterial Activity of the Extracts
Jo, Na Rae ; Park, Min A ; Jeon, So Ha ; Park, Soo Nam ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 320~326
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1302.02001
In a previous study, we investigated the antioxidative and cellular protective effects of Parthenocissus tricuspidata stem extracts. In this study, we prepared nano-emulsion containing P. tricuspidata stem extract to improve skin permeation. The particle size of the nano-emulsion using the microfluidizer was 302 nm. Its loading efficiency was over 86%. The size distribution of the nano-emulsion took a monodispersed form and the nano-emulsion was more stable than typical emulsion without using microfluidizer during a 2 week period. In vitro skin permeation study of nano-emulsion containing P. tricuspidata stem extracts was carried out using Franz diffusion cell. The 1,3-butylene glycol used as a control group had 32.59% skin permeation efficiency. The skin permeation efficiency of the nano-emulsion was 42.47%. Also, we observed the antibacterial activity of the ethyl acetate fraction on skin flora for prospective applications as a natural antimicrobial. The ethyl acetate fraction had antibacterial activities higher than methyl paraben on Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. These results indicate that nano-emulsion containing P. tricuspidata stem extracts could possess valued applications in cosmetic formulations for improving skin permeation. Also, based on the antibacterial activities on skin flora, antioxidative and cellular protective effects shown in our previous study, we suggest that P. tricuspidata stem extracts could be used as functional cosmetic materials.
Manufacturing and Physicochemical Properties of Wine using Hardy Kiwi Fruit (Actinidia arguta)
Park, Kyung Lok ; Hong, Sung Wook ; Kim, Young Joon ; Kim, Soo Jae ; Chung, Kun Sub ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 327~334
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1301.01002
For the development of hardy kiwi wine, we arranged for the post-maturity of hardy kiwi fruit, treated them with calcium carbonate and a pectinase enzyme complex, investigated the resulting physicochemical properties and conducted a sensory evaluation. The period determined for creating post-maturity in the hardy kiwi fruit was determined as 5 days storage at room temperature following maturity. During this time the yield of fruit juice was increased from 22.1% to 53.5% using 0.1% (v/v) cytolase PCL5 for 2 h at room temperature. 0.1% (w/v) calcium carbonate was also added during the process of aging, for the reduction of the sour taste. The fermentation trial of the hardy kiwi wine was prepared using water (25% or 50%), sugar (
), 0.1% (w/v)
, 0.1% (v/v) cytolase PCL5,
(200 ppm), and yeast (
cell/ml). Fermentation then occurred for 2 weeks at
. The pH value, total acidity, alcohol, and reducing sugar content of the resulting hardy kiwi wines of 25% (v/w) and 50% (v/w) water, were in a range of pH 3.4-3.7, 1.12-1.21%, 14.3-14.4%, and 15-16 g/l, respectively. Citric acid and fructose constituted the major organic acids and the free sugar of the 25% and 50% hardy kiwi wine, respectively. Volatile flavor components, including 10 kinds of esters, 8 kinds of alcohols, 5 kinds of acids, 3 kinds of others and aldehydes, were determined by GC analysis. The results of sensory evaluation demonstrated that 50% hardy kiwi wine is more palatable than 25% hardy kiwi wine.
Antimicrobial Effect of Inula britannica Flower Extract against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Lee, Na-Kyoung ; Lee, Jang-Hyun ; Lee, Yong Ju ; Ahn, Sin Hye ; Eom, Su Jin ; Paik, Hyun-Dong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 335~340
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1305.05005
The antimicrobial effect of the methanol extract of Inula britannica flowers against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was investigated. It was confirmed that the methanol extract is mainly composed of quercetin, which has antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial effect of the methanol extract against 3 MRSA strains was determined by the disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were ranged from 0.625 mg/ml to 1.25 mg/ml, and the minimum bactericidal concentrations were 2.5 mg/ml. Time kill kinetics revealed bactericidal activities, and the morphological alterations in S. aureus ATCC 33591 treated with the extract were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The methanol extract affected the expression of the resistant genes, mecA, mecI, and mecRI in mRNA. Therefore, the methanol extract of I. britannica flowers clearly demonstrated an antimicrobial effect against MRSA and these results suggest a potential for application as a natural antimicrobial agent.
Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Obesity Activities of Tetrapanax papyriferus and Siegesbeckia pubescens Extracts and their Synergistic Anti-Obesity Effects
Park, Jung Ae ; Jin, Kyong-Suk ; Lee, Ji Young ; Kwon, Hyun Ju ; Kim, Byung Woo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 341~349
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1306.06002
In this study, the anti-oxidative and anti-obesity activities of two medicinal herb extracts, Tetrapanax papyriferus (TP) and Siegesbeckia pubescens (SP), were evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity assay, lipase enzyme inhibition assay, and the cell culture model system. Both methanol extracts of TP and SP showed DPPH radical scavenging activities dose-dependently, and the
of DPPH radical scavenging activities of the two medicinal herbs were 65.23 and 47.79
, respectively. Furthermore, both extracts suppressed effectively lipase enzyme activity dose-dependently. Moreover, TP and SP extracts significantly suppressed adipocyte differentiation, lipid accumulation, triglyceride (TG) contents on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Their anti-obesity effect was modulated by cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine (CCAAT)/enhancer binding proteins
and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
) gene and protein expressions. Furthermore, TP and SP possessed a synergistic effect on anti-obesity activity. The identification of the active compounds that confer the anti-obesity activity of TP and SP might be needed.
Antioxidant Properties of Various Microorganisms Isolated from Arctic Lichen Stereocaulon spp.
Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Park, Hyun ; Oh, Tae-Jin ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 350~357
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1303.03004
Lichens are symbiotic organisms composed of fungi, algae, or cyanobacteria which are able to survive in extreme environmental conditions ranging from deserts to polar areas. Some lichen symbionts produce a wide range of secondary metabolites that have many biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory etc. Among the symbionts of lichens, of the bacterial communities of lichen symbionts little is known. In this study, we isolated 4 microbial species from the Arctic lichen Stereocaulon spp. and evaluated their antioxidant properties using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay as well as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay. Total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were also measured. A potent radical scavenging activity was detected in a number of the lichen extracts. Among the 4 species tested in this study, the ethyl acetate extract of Bosea vestrisii 36546(T) exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity, with an inhibition rate of 86.8% in DPPH and 75.2% in ABTS assays. Overall, these results suggest that lichen-bacteria could be a potential source of natural antioxidants.
Comparative Study on the Antimicrobial Activity of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra Extracts with Various Countries of Origin as Natural Antiseptics
Kim, Hye Jin ; Bae, Jeong Yun ; Jang, Ha Na ; Park, Soo Nam ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 358~366
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1307.07003
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts with various countries of origin. Three samples of licorice with various origins (Korea, China, and Uzbekistan) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against six skin microflora. The bioassay applied for determining the antimicrobial effects included the disc diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration, and challenge test. The ethyl acetate fractions of G. uralensis and G. glabra extracts showed significant antimicrobial activities against two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Propionibacterium acnes) and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. These samples had much more intensive antimicrobial activities than synthetic preservatives on B. subtilis, P. acnes, and P. aeruginosa, especially. Korean licorice showed the highest antimicrobial activity amongst the samples tested. In view of the observed inhibitory features of these G. uralensis and G. glabra extracts, it is suggested that they could be used as natural antiseptics against bacterial contamination in cosmetics and foods, instead of the common synthetic preservatives currently employed.
Comparative Study of the Antioxidative Potential of Common Natural Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids
Pandey, Ramesh Prasad ; Koirala, Niranjan ; Lee, Joo Ho ; Lee, Hei Chan ; Sohng, Jae Kyung ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 367~371
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1301.01009
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (
) values and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values were calculated by a 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and a 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (
) assay, in order to determine the antioxidative activities of the compounds. On the basis of the DPPH assay, quercetin had the strongest antioxidative potential of the flavonoids, followed in order by fisetin, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, morin and kaempferol. Quercetin, fisetin and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone had higher antioxidant potentials than butyl hydroxyl anisole. Quercetin had the highest TEAC value amongst the flavonoids and isoflavonoids, followed in order by 3-hydroxyflavone, fisetin, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone and morin. Comparatively, isoflavonoids were found to have significantly weaker antioxidative potential than the flavonoids.
Optimization of Conditions for the Production and Properties of Alginate-degrading Crude Enzyme from Shewanella oneidensis PKA 1008
Sunwoo, Chan ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Jung, Seul-A ; Kim, Hyun-Jee ; Jeong, Da-Hyun ; Jung, Hee-Ye ; Kang, Bo-Kyeong ; Bark, Si-Woo ; Lim, Sung-Mee ; Hong, Yong-Ki ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 372~378
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1212.12002
An alginate-degrading bacterium, identified as Shewanella oneidensis PKA 1008 by 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis, was isolated from the green alga Ulva pertusa. Optimal conditions for the alginate-degrading ability of its crude enzyme were then determined. The optimal culture conditions for the growth of S. oneidensis PKA 1008 were pH 9, 2% NaCl,
, and 24 hours incubation time. The crude enzyme produced by S. oneidensis PKA 1008 showed the highest alginate-degrading activity at pH 9,
and produced 1.001 g of reducing sugar per liter in 3.5% (w/v) sodium alginate for 1 hour.
Synergistic Anticancer Activity of a Mixture of Anticancer Agent with Proteoglycan from Rhanella aquatilis against Human Colon Cancer Cell HT29
Park, Hae-Ji ; Kim, Kwang-Hyeon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 379~382
DOI : 10.4014/kjmb.1305.05001
In order to investigate the anticancer activity of an anti-yeast substance (AYS), a proteoglycan produced by Rhanella aquatilis AY2000, the cytotoxicity of the AYS against cancer cells was determined in vitro. The AYS was not cytotoxic to the human Jurkat T cell or the mouse sarcoma 180 cell, but was cytotoxic to the human colon cancer TH20 cell. The AYS was increasingly cytotoxic against human colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner at range from 62.5 to 500
. Anticancer activity by combination of the AYS and an anticancer agent was also determined. The anticancer agent combined with the AYS was shown to possess greater synergistic anticancer activity against human colon cancer cells, as compared with the anticancer agent alone.