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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Rural Planning
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
A study on selection of Butterfly and Plant Species for Butterfly Gardening
SON, Jinkwan ; KONG, Minjae ; KANG, Donghyeon ; LEE, Siyoung ; HAN, Songhee ; KANG, Banghun ; KIM, Namchoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 1~12
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.001
Various types of parks such as ecological park, dragonfly park, etc. are tried to design in order to resolve different environmental issues in urban areas. Parks are considered organism habitats that not only improve the biodiversity but also give people a chance to observe living organisms in urban area. This study was conducted to select basic materials for planning a butterfly garden through reference reviews. The following 21 species of butterflies belonged to 1 order, 4 families, and 16 genera were selected: Phengaris teleius, Pseudozizeeria maha, Thecla betulae, Argynnis hyperbius, Dichorragia nesimachus, Hestina assimilis, Polygonia caureum, Sasakia charonda, Vanessa cardui, Vanessa indica, Boloria selene, Byasa alcinous, Papilio machaon, Papilio macilentus, Papilio protenor, Papilio xuthus, Papilio bianor, Sericinus montela, Colias erate, Eurema hecabe, and Pieris rapae. 85 species belonged to 22 families, 59 genera, 74 species, 10 varieties, and 1 subspecies were selected for host and nectar plants for butterflies selected above. These results would be expected to useful in butterfly gardening. After that, we think it is necessary to be applied these study results in field. This study requires a test in the butterfly garden. The test results will be make the butterfly-plant matrix.
An Analysis of the Effectiveness on Rural Field Forum - Focusing on the recognition change and satisfaction of the inhabitants -
Kwon, Dong-Geon ; Jang, Woo-Whan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 13~26
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.013
This study was conducted to analyze the policy impacts of the '2014 Rural Field Forum'. From 2013, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs implemented Rural Field Forum to push forward rural development of inhabitants' initiative. In this study, we have evaluated that Rural Field Forum has crucial impacts on residents' competence, region capability and driving force of project by targeting the 374 residents of 350 villages in 9 states who participated in 2014 Rural Field Forum. We also sought for the solution to institutional improvement. Futhermore we analyzed each of leader group and normal residents for departmentalization of policy effects. Taken together, the analysis reveals that: 1)Rural field forum is demonstrated to have a positive effect on the establishment and execution of village development plan and all of its necessary components. 2)Regarding the effect on the village capabilities, the understanding and recognition of village organization was shown to be improved. 3)About regional capabilities, the interest in village project was advanced. 4)In terms of the project execution, Rural field forum turned out to affect the village council processes positively. 5)lastly, between the leader and the residents, the difference effectiveness between them revealed, with the same directivity and considerably bigger effect felt by the leader than by the residents overall.
Comparison of Carbon Stock Between Forest Edge and Core by Using Connectivity Analysis
Sung, Sun-Yong ; Lee, Dong-Kun ; Mo, Yong-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 27~33
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.027
Forest ecosystem is considered as an important stepping stone to minimize the impact of climate change. However, the rapid urbanization has caused fragmentation of forest ecosystem. The fragmentation of forest patch results in edge effect which brings about adverse impacts on forest function and structure. Degradation of forest ecosystem decreases carbon sequestration because edge effect reduces productivity. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of forest edge effect on forest ecosystem carbon stock change in Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do. We used connectivity analysis to determine forest edge and core area. The field study sites were selected with considering forest age, density, class and soil type. Secondly, forest carbon stock was calculated with allometric equation. The soil carbon stock was derived from Walkely-Black method. Lastly, Mann-Whitney test was conducted to validate differences between carbon stock in edge and core area. As a result of study, the connectivity analysis was effective to determine forest edge and core. The core and edge of forest patch showed different composition of tree species and soil properties. Carbon stock per tree in the edge area was lower than that in the core area. However, the difference of soil organic carbon content between the edge and core were relatively small. This assessment can be applied for the conservation of forest patch as well as quantitative assessment on the forest carbon stock change caused by fragmentation.
An Analysis of TYLCV Damages under Regional Climate Changes
Yoon, Jiyoon ; Kim, Soyoon ; Kim, Kwansoo ; Kim, Brian H.S. ; An, Donghwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 35~43
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.035
The purpose of the research is to analyze damages of TYLCV (Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus) in the context of climate changes and to find the spatial distribution of the damages and characteristics of regions. A TYLCV is generally known for a plant disease related to temperature. Its occurrence rate increases when temperature rises. This disease first occurred in 2008 and rapidly spread nationwide. Due to the spread of a TYLCV, a number of Tomato farms in Korea were damaged severely. To analyze damages of the pest in the context of climate changes, this research estimated production loss under the current situation and RCP scenarios. Additionally, Hot Spot Analysis, LISA, and Cluster analysis were conducted to find spatial distribution and properties of largely damaged regions under RCP scenarios. The results explained that additional production loss was estimated differently by regions with the same temperature rising scenario. Also, largely damaged regions are spatially clustered and factors causing large damages were different across regional cluster groups. It means that certain regions can be damaged more than others by diseases and pests. Furthermore, pest management policy should reflect the properties of each region such as climate conditions, cultivate environment and production technologies. The findings from this research can be utilized for developing rural management plans and pest protection policies.
A study on the improvement of Ecosystem Service Function for the Protected Horticulture Complex in Agricultural Landscape
SON, Jinkwan ; KONG, Minjae ; KANG, Donghyeon ; LEE, Siyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 45~53
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.045
Agriculture, rural landscapes are accompanied by a variety of environmental issues. Therefore, it is necessary to study on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Horticulture complex is low groundwater recharge function, it can be evaluated as a facility that biodiversity is impaired. The ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes were obtained 19 kinds of functions. Experts survey Groundwater recharge function (4.13) teeth chapter higher, Water storage (4.05), Amphibian & Reptile habitat (3.96), Aquatic insect habitat (3.92), Flood control (3.87), Water purification (3.86), Avian habitat (3.76 ), Creating landscape (3.74), Vegetation diversity (3.71), Experience, Education (3.69), Biological control (3.48), Fishery habitat (3.42), Climate regulation (3.30), Mammal habitat (3.30), Air quality regulation (3.25 ), Mainenance of genetic diversity (3.25), were analyzed in order Rest area (3.14). Improving capabilities in the Detention Pond, Wetland, Green space, Corridor, Non-Chemical, Program development, Green spaces, Rainwater storage facilities, Water cycle system, Surface water storage facilities, Infiltration trench, Water purification facilities, Permeable pavement. Environmentally friendly, and to contribute to sustainable agricultural development through ecological planning.
Assessment of Green-Tourism Accessibility for Development Plan of Rural Experience Village in ChungBuk
Chang, Woo Seok ; Hong, Yunsil ; Rhee, ShinHo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 55~63
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.055
This study aims to assess Green-Tourism accessibility of Rural Experience Village and then prepare improvement methods. To do this study, we surveyed 25 operators of Rural Experience Village in Chungbuk. We used 21 issues in all for analysis and the following shows a summary of major results. Rural Experience Village has a generally hard time conducting facility maintenance. Countermeasures for maintenance are required to run smoothly. Since Rural Experience Village has difficulty attracting visitors to the village, countermeasures are needed to attract visitors through business promotion. The results of assessing Green-Tourism accessibility showed us that some villages are a lot more accessible than others. Therefore, it is necessary that there should be improvements of Green-Tourism accessibility by attracting visitors and increasing operating days so that Green-tourism accessibility can be enhanced. In spite of its high level of accessibility since Rural Experience Village belonging to Goesan has low profitability, it is especially imperative that we establish more positive project promotion to cover it.
Analysis on the Current Situation of the Rural House Garden
Choi, Jin-Ah ; Cho, Se-Hwan ; Park, Mee-Jeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 65~75
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.065
The purposes of carrying out this research were the efficient formation and management of the house gardens of the farming villages in the future by stereotyping the house gardens of the farming villages and the garden spaces and the facilities through the analysis of the present situation of the farm villages and the suggestion of the basic materials for the improvement of the farming village environments. As a result, there were the limitations that this research had been limited to the garden spaces of the farm village houses, without considering all the environments of the farm villages. It was thought that, if, based on these results, the researches for drawing the item of the concrete creation of the gardens and the management are proceeded with through the in-depth analysis in the vein of the relationship between the farm village homestead gardens and the villages in the future, this will prove helpful in practically formulating and putting into practice the policies for supplying the farm village gardens for the farm villages.
A Study on Landscape of Naeap Village in Andong interpreted with CPTED Principles
Kim, Sun-Ju ; An, Seung-Hong ; Kim, Hak-Beom ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 77~84
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.077
The purpose of this study is to interpret Landscape of Naeap Village which still preserves the Confucian culture and the traditional clans among the ideally settled villages mentioned in Joong Hwan Lee's "Taengniji" and "Joseon's Fengsui" from the time of Japanese Imperial Rule, from CPTED principles. The following are the findings of this study: First, in terms of access control and zoning, Naeap Village was controlling access from the outside with the natural environment of Banbyeoncheon River and the hills surrounding the village, the artificial environment of human-scale walls around the head house and the dead ends, and the reformation by the Confucian ideologies. Naeap Village, in particular, is prominently configured by the hierarchy of zones; the Gaehosong pine trees, Gyeongpodae, and Naeapssu by the entrance to the village are considered the village itself and the landscapes and valleys are managed by the head house. Second, the Confucian culture across the village, the traditional vegetation method that does not hide the visibility, and the workers in the farms allow natural monitoring. The surrounding visibility is also applied to the spirit of mutual cooperation in the farming society, the culture of commoners at the common well and laundry site, and the culture of ruling class at the towers and pavilions. Third, Traditional villages show the efforts to preserve and maintain the villages with the village rules, the organizational decrees of the clan, and active response to national disasters.
A Study on the Relation between the Hollowization and the Phenomenon of Decreasing and Aging Population in Rural Villages - Focused on Geumsan-gun -
Cho, Young-Jae ; Kim, Du-han ; Cho, Eun-Jung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 85~94
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.085
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the hollowization in rural villages which causes marginal villages appears in Korean rural villages and whether the hollowization has relation with decrease and aging of population or not. For achieving the research objective, survey was carried out focused on Geumsan-gun. As a result, it confirmed that rural out-migration and rural decline especially in 'people', 'land(economic situation)' and 'community' have being progressed. Also variance analysis and regression analysis were executed with using the number of population and the ratio of people over 65 as dependent variables and using each survey contents(variables) as independent variables. The results of analysis showed that the ratio of people over 65(+), the income level per household(-), the rate of fallow lands(+), the number of empty houses(+), programs for urban-rural interchange(+), and the implementing public projects(+), etc. have a relation with the number of population(-) and the number of population(-), the income level per household(-), the rate of fallow lands(+), the number of empty houses(+), activities of communities(+), and the implementing public projects(+), etc. have a relation with the ratio of people over 65(+) (+: increase, -: decrease). So the hollowization in people', 'land(economic situation)' and 'community' has direct relation with decrease and aging of population in rural areas.
A Study on Garden Elements Preference for the Rural Community Garden Design
Park, Meejeong ; Choi, Jin-Ah ; Kang, Sungjin ; Jeon, Bo-Bae ; Chin, Hyun-Seung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 95~102
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.095
The study aims to examine preferences between community residents and visitors in designing a rural community garden. It analyzed diverse aspects of a garden design including garden's function, location, management subject, components and so on. The survey was conducted on residents or visitors participants with a self-administered survey questionnaire. The results revealed that both residents and visitors highly preferred a rural community garden as a role of relaxation, appreciation, and healing. Meanwhile, there were differences of preference for location and garden components between residents and visitors. The results implicated that residents' preference and characteristics of a community are essential in designing a rural community garden, which will lead to sustainable garden construction.
Tour of the Planning for Rural Healing Component A Study on the Importance
Jeong, Sang-Sook ; Lee, Jun-Seol ; Rhee, ShinHo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 103~113
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.103
This study has been done to have a good grasp at the importance among the constituent elements of the rural healing tourism for working out the rural healing tourism planning. The above constituent elements were produced from the survey targeting the rural area-visiting visitors. For this study, 350 questionnaires were distributed to them and 306 out of them, valid, were collected. For the analysis of correlation among each item in the questionnaires, T-test, ANOVA were carried out. The results of the analysis of the questionnaires show that the consumers of the rural healing tourism have interest in the rural healing tourism regardless of their gender. The results also show that the consumers lay stress on the aspect of the infrastructure(H/W) more than contents-based aspect of the healing tourism(S/W). While especially, regarding healing tourism facilities or infrastructure, this study shows that there is significant difference in every item except gender item, regarding the contents and purpose of the rural healing tourism there is a significant difference among groups only in the item of age.
Preference of Experiential Activities and Behavioral Intention on Rural Tourism - On parents group of elementary students in Daegu city -
Eom, Boong-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 115~125
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.115
This study is to analyze the preference of experiential activities and behavioral intention on rural tourism, with special focus on parents group of elementary students. The result can be utilized as basic data for demanding aspect of rural experiencing tourism. Two-step questionnaire survey was conducted, during May to July, 2915. Sample group was selected at 4 elementary school in Daegu city. 347 valid responses were analyzed with SPSS. Major results are as follows. Firstly, suggested model for 23 experiential activities in 7 types, were verified as valid by verifying factor analysis. Factor 1 was verified and named as 'Rual Life Experience', Factor 2 was verified and named as 'Health/Healing Experience', Factor 3, as 'Agricultural Product Experience', Factor 4, as 'Eco-Cultural Experience', Factor 5, as 'Leisure/Sports Experience', Factor 6, as 'Traditional Wellbeing Food Experience', and Factor 7, as 'Traditional Culture Experience'. All 7 factors explained 75.39% of total variance. Secondly, mean score of preference by each activity showed high in 'Health-care experience', 'Traditional food experience' and comparatively low in 'Collecting experience', 'Agricultural experience'. Thirdly, all 7 types(factors) of experience showed significant affecting relation to satisfaction, intention to participation and recommendation. Specially, 'Eco-Cultural Experience' and 'Rural Life Experience' showed high affecting relation. This could be the characteristics of parents group of elementary students.
Comparison between Hiker and Non-hiker's Sense of place value at Namhansanseong Provincial Park
Kim, Ye-Eun ; Kim, Hyun ; Paek, Nanyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 127~137
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.127
This Study attempted to comprehend difference between hiker and non-hiker's sense of place value at Namhansanseong Provincial Park. Especially, it was analyzed after visitors, who were divided into local residents & tourists and first time visitors & repeat visitors. Out of 600 visitors, who were over 19 years old, participated in the survey, 587 responses were used for data analysis. Consequently, Sense of place value at Namhansanseong Provincial Park were classified into three factors: Health Culture, Ecology Environment, and Connectedness. Hikers feel higher value on promotion of health, relaxation, environment than non-hikers. Among hikers, local residents feel higher value on ecology environment and connectedness than tourists. Among non-hikers, however, they have no difference between local residents and tourists, only repeat visitors and first time visitors. On this result, possibility of resident participation management on natural environment and trail was considered, and when the program, which is for raising cultural and traditional value, would develop, increasing number of repeat visitor should be considered as a high priority.
A Study on the Development Model of Life-Type Tourism Destination - Focusing on the Japanese Practical Case -
Park, Gu-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 139~155
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.139
This study was conducted to effectively develop rural tourism in Korea. For the purpose, tourism that can develop with local industries and cultures together was designated as life-type tourism and development models of such tourism were reviewed based on an understanding that province-oriented tourism is necessary. An analysis of three actual cases of Japan led to following results. First, life-type tourist destinations can be developed in connection with making local areas based on their special themes, can be developed in relation to their life cultures based on their peculiar life cultures and can be developed in creative forms using characteristic environment and organizational culture of those areas. In pursuing life-type tourist attractions, it will be possible to make practical development using it with those three basic models. Second, it is important to form a flow covering the entire regions based on their own special themes, to build cyclical structure of regions and tourism and tourism and industries and to create overall conditions that can help local residents get benefits and join together, in order to develop such life-type tourist destinations. Development of life-type resort tourist destinations needs roles of practical organizations that can effectively manage them, but such organizations should be dynamic and should be distant from management of money as much as possible.
Characteristics and Management of Complementary Pond of Village - in Case of Dalmaji Village in Gangjin-gun -
Park, Jae Chul ; Han, Sang Yub ; Kim, Do Gyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 157~165
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.157
The purpose of this study is on identifying charactreistics and management direction of complementary pond of Dalmaji village in Gangjin. Accordingly, this village was indicated as Experience and Resort village by Korean government. This study describes the construction background and characteristics and identifies species diversity and characteristics through field survey. For this, literature and field survey was performed. In field survey, vegetational survey was performed in Aug. of 2015. D(Dominant degree) and S(Sociability degree) was measured by Brown-Blanquet's method. The answer was searched from Myungsanron(明山論), a textbook of Fengsui(風水) in Joseon dynasty. Of these causes, it was considered that the representative one is a protection of fire and infectious disease because the Wolgak mountain is a fire mountain(火山) as a stone mountain in Fengsui. The results demonstrate decline of aquatic ecosystem because of neglect management. The total number of species was 24. Of the species, Zelkova serrata is a natural vegetation of this complementary forest. This is nominated as Lagerstroemia indica and Camellia japonica community. Species composition demonstrate the characteristics of Korean southern region as mixed forest of evergreen trees and deciduous ones which are indigenous plants. It was considered Juniperus chinensis KaizukaVariega in central round island was planted in Japanese colonial period and it have to be removed. It was considered that name of moon pond and moon island etc. projects the mind of village ancestors which are going to reach an ideal condition of moon. And management of quantity and depth of pond water was critical for restoration of disappearing lotus from related literature. Periodic management was needed for ecological structure and function improvement because of ecological disturbance by the invasive plants like Humulus japonicus.
A Case Study on Resident Participative Primary Design of Integrated Rural Development Project with Master Planner - Onui Area in Hong Seong -
Jung, Nam Su ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 167~175
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.167
The aim of this study is to establish resident-participative primary design of integrated rural development project with master planner by setting principals of open competition and transparent decision-making about village-to-village or business-to-business unit enterprise in Onui area, Hong-seong Gun. For effective processing, software projects such as residents education and rural landscape planning are simultaneously conducted for enhancing project understanding and comprehensive development plan including related post project. Above all, competition teams for individual project were organized to establish the resident-participative primary design using survey tables of residents demand. In 6 months resident-participative processing of primary design, continuous education and visiting to advanced area are conducted in team unit. Strengthened ability of team unit can be used in management and maintenance after project development. To do this, residents with the same opinions gathered as one competition team and identified business plans such as village asset, business location, size, program, and method for land securing. Favorable decision-making process by residents who are audience in project presentation of competition team has conducted. After selecting competition teams, continuos consulting are operated for establishing operation and management for developed or remodeled facilities through repetitive education and visiting advanced area. In this process, unit project suggested by competition team are completed. Preliminary selection was conducted by experts who were entrusted by residents. After residents agreement of project main stream such as major facilities and location, final detailed cost of projects are work out. Suggested process in this study which choose the final project by residents would improve residents' voluntary participation in integrated rural development project through open competition in establishing primary design.
Design and Implementation of IoT-Based Intelligent Platform for Water Level Monitoring
Park, Jihoon ; Kang, Moon Seong ; Song, Jung-Hun ; Jun, Sang Min ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 177~186
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.177
The main objective of this study was to assess the applicability of IoT (Internet of Things)-based flood management under climate change by developing intelligent water level monitoring platform based on IoT. In this study, Arduino Uno was selected as the development board, which is an open-source electronic platform. Arduino Uno was designed to connect the ultrasonic sensor, temperature sensor, and data logger shield for implementing IoT. Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment) was selected as the Arduino software and used to develop the intelligent algorithm to measure and calibrate the real-time water level automatically. The intelligent water level monitoring platform consists of water level measurement, temperature calibration, data calibration, stage-discharge relationship, and data logger algorithms. Water level measurement and temperature calibration algorithm corrected the bias inherent in the ultrasonic sensor. Data calibration algorithm analyzed and corrected the outliers during the measurement process. The verification of the intelligent water level measurement algorithm was performed by comparing water levels using the tape and ultrasonic sensor, which was generated by measuring water levels at regular intervals up to the maximum level. The statistics of the slope of the regression line and
were 1.00 and 0.99, respectively which were considered acceptable. The error was 0.0575 cm. The verification of data calibration algorithm was performed by analyzing water levels containing all error codes in a time series graph. The intelligent platform developed in this study may contribute to the public IoT service, which is applicable to intelligent flood management under climate change.
Elements and Apply Techniques for Improving the Insulation of Rural Houses
Kwon, Soon Chan ; Kim, Eun Ja ; Lim, Chang Su ; Lee, Yoo Kyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 187~196
DOI : 10.7851/ksrp.2015.21.4.187
Among the factors of living environment, the one that is the most closely related with our living is the building. It is one of the biggest reasons for energy consumption as it forms 36% of the total energy consumption. Technologies equipped with excellent energy performance can hardly be applied to rural areas that are relatively poorer. Still, 89.8% rural residents are living in detached houses, and backward houses increase their financial burden and result in reduced insulation performance. Accordingly, this study is going to review the latest research written after 2000 dealing with rural houses and their insulation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors of insulation and how to improve insulation performance, conduct field research to find out how to apply low energy technologies applicable to houses with the subjects of experimental houses, the passive houses located in Jecheon City, Hongcheon Saldun zero energy houses, and energy independence villages, and find out how to perform follow-up research on insulation for rural houses. According to the findings, the latest research on insulation for rural houses is mostly focused on walls as well as windows and doors. Also, as ways to improve insulation performance, it suggests us to use high performance insulators, introduce new regeneration energy technology, and secure hermeticity. In addition, through field research, this author could find out low energy technologies applicable to houses such as solar energy facilities and heat recovery systems. Advanced research on insulation for rural houses has been focused on how to use materials or new regeneration energy, so follow-up research will have to consider the types of farming area or the residents' mode of living.