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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association of Agricultural Extension
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Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Dec 1996
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Jun 1996
Selecting the target year
Transformation of Cooperative Groups for Agricultural Production with the Change Agricultural Productive Force
Joe, Soung-Back ; Choi, Min-Ho ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 1~16
The purpose of this study was to interpret the transformation of Cooperative Groups for Agricultural Production(CGAP) with the change of the Agricultural Productive Force. The specific objectives were; 1) To investigate the change of agricultural labour-power, 2) To investigate the change of agricultural mechanization and arable land, 3) To interpret the transformation and content of CLAP. The population of farmhouseholds has decreased continuously since the late 1960s. Especially, with the move-outs of youth ages of twenties to forties, the condition of agricultural labour-power has been more serious. The processing of agricultural mechanization was a small scale step in the 1970s, but after the 1980s there was a spread of middle-large machines. However the usage rate of agricultural machines was constrained by the bad conditions of arable land. From the 1970s to now, the CGAP have bean processed by many kinds of patterns. In the 1970s, the lack of labour-power caused the creation of the Co-Working Team. After the late of 1970s, the wage of agricultural employees was raised, because the working population of agriculture was cut down. Also, the induction of agricultural machine was promoted. As a result, in the 1980s, the Machine-Using Team occurred due to these conditions of agricultural productive force. In the late of 1980s, the population decreased more rapidly, and the use of large machines were spread. Than farmhouseholds laking labour-power gave a trust to other farmhouseholds and Teams which had machines. In 1990, Given-Trust Cooperations were enacted by law, and in order to overcome the lack of labour-power, and solve the problem of the successors of agriculture, Cooperative Organizations were also enacted by law. Finally, in Korea from the 1970s to now, as the agricultural productive force has barn changed, the Co-Working Team was transformed into the Machine-Using Team, and the Machine-Using Team was transformed into the Given-Trust Cooperation, and the Cooperative Organization.
A Philosophical Analysis and Design of a New Paradigm of the Rural Policies in Korea
Kim, Sun-Yo ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 17~41
In the situation of rapid industrialization based on the lopsided development of economy since 1960, Korean rural society has faced a crisis of disruption. As a result, the civilian government has tried a few actions to change the circumstance. However, it is said that the coral polices were not satisfactory. Those who were concerned with the rural problems of these days argue that it is necessary to adopt new policies and further to change the policymakers` philosophies concerning the matter. The arguments are certainly based on the beliefs that the sound policies come from the sound philosophies. This study aims to analyze the existing rural polices and their policymakers` philosophies and to design of a new paradigm. For the purpose, this study was set there specific objectives: First, to overview the moor points of Quantitative Utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham and the Social Justice Theory of John Rawls, the contrasting frameworks of the moral philosophies; Second, to trace the major or trade of the rural policies since 1960s in Korea; Third, to analyze the policymakers` philosophies reflected on the rural policies; Fourth, to design a new paradigm of the rural policies. This study mainly adopted descriptive method based on the various source of government and non-government statistics, white papers and other researches. The major findings of this study may be summarized as follows: 1. The historical epochs of the rural policies in Korea was divided into the periods: (1) An organizational and institutional establishment for self-reliance of main crops and the New Village Movement
; (2) An initiation of `open-door` policies to the foreign farm products
; (3) Completion of the UR meetings and the recommendations of the Rural and Fishery Development Commission (1980-present). 2. It was found that the philosophical foundations of coral policies were directly reflected from the utilitarianism of the national development. Under the philosophy it was the modem sector of economy that was to spearhead the national development, and the rural sector was situated to the peripheral position and hardly in the spot-light. Therefore, it may be said that the present situation of the rural society was largely rooted in the model of economic development. 3. As a new direction of the coral policies, many studies were focussing on the NTC (non-trade concerns) functions of agriculture for the present and future society. The researchers argue that the cost of protecting and supporting agriculture and rural society may be higher than that of the burden which the nation should be bear in the case of failure of agriculture. Although it tray be true, however, it should be noted that the argument is another type of utilitarianism which prevailed in the past. As a philosophy of rural policies, utilitarianism is straight forward and persuasive, however, it has also limitations in terms of relativism in broad sense or social justice in specific manna. 4. This study suggests to set the philosophical foundations of rural policies on the basis of Rawl`s Theory of Justice mentioned earlier. It emphasizes the inviolability of social justice which was neglected for the national benefits timing the period of development dictatorship in 1960s and 1970s. The principles of social justice for coral people were identified as twofold; (1) The principle of the t equal liberty; (2) (a) Difference principle, (b) The principle of fair equality of opportunity.
A Comparative Study of the Citrus Production Cost in the Three Countries : Korea, Taiwan, and Japan
Choi, Chan-Ho ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 43~54
Citrus farming become one of highly potent area for the farmer s income in the Asia region. Because of its favorable taste and distinctive aroma, attractive color, and nutritional values, market demand has increased steadily along with the income increases in the region. However, realization of the potent have been constrained due to poor orchard management, frequent occurrences of pest and diseases, and a high cost in production besides of the market failures. Cutting down of production cost should be an operational goal to obtain mope profit where marketing structure has yet been underdeveloped. The objective of this study was to provide a comparative information to those program efforts of searching comparative advantage in production. For the three countries, reduction of labor cost by reduction of chemical application frequency was recommended while pursuing further mechanization in those operation such as in pruning, harvesting and pest control. Adoption of the IPM (integrated pest management) will be useful to reduce the number of spraying chemicals with changed knowledge and attitude of the farmers.
New Approach Directions for the Raise International Competitiveness of Basic Food Crops in Korea
Lee, Sang-Ha ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 55~66
Agricultural products are inferior in their competitiveness in the world market mainly due to die high production cost which could be attributed to the rising land and labor cost in Korea. The small scale farming system with the lower production infra structure requires relatively intensive input labor for the reduction of production cost of agricultural products and impediment in the mechanization of farming systems. There are limitations in the cultivation techniques that seek out other directions for the raising competitiveness in the world market of basic food crops. Future goals to raise competitiveness of basic food crops in Korea should include the following: 1. Fostering of the farmers organization by crop items. 2. Agribusiness should integrate management with priority given to farmers. 3. Raise competitiveness to find out the system of obtaining on from the consumers.
Agricultural Extension Systems in the Coming Years on the Question of Models and Approaches
Kang, Jae-Tae ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 67~81
Our agricultural extension system with all its success and failures, rewards and punishment was introduced 50 years ago with particular reference from United States. Some of the established principles and policies of effective extension work were shaken off for immediate result. But the results were not praiseworthy. The purpose of this study is to throw some light on the question of systems and approaches on agricultural extension that can adequately meet the challenges of the future. Our extension system is `special government type` which administers a nation-wide network of extension and training services in close collaboration with that of the experiment station. This type, however, has innate weakness which inclined to be standardized, inflexible, and irrelevant to actual needs of farming communities and problems of farmers. In this regard, it is necessary to consider another approaches of agricultural extension: `Government Type`, `Agricultural University`, `Farmers Organization`. The characteristics features, advantages and disadvantages of these models have been discussed. Each model has been found wanting in one way or another to meet the needs and interest of the present Korean situation. In view of the agricultural situation, and considering the expected changes of farmers and technologies in the years ahead, the `modification (especially to the direction of provincial government) of preset system` was expected which would be operationally flexible and organizationally unified and decentralized. The modification of present system should include the following characteristics: 1) universal contact with client system, 2) local planning based on the needs of clients, 3) using multiple method of nonformal education, 4) fitting with both general and specialized farming systems, 5) accommodating variable clients, technologies and educational objects.
A Study on the Agricultural Extension Agents' Satisfaction with their Job
Ha, Kye-Yong ; Jung, Young-Man ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 83~93
This study examines the agricultural extension agents` satisfaction with their job and its related variables - personal characteristics, achievement motivation, and needs level. Based on die Job Descriptive Index, Brayfield-Rothe Index, and Porter Instrument, the survey was carried out on 127 agents. Results show 1) a significant difference in personal characteristics is found in position, farmer contact frequency, and service region applied for, but not in age, gender, scholastic ability, career, task, and another department contact frequency, 2) the achievement motivational level is related to job satisfaction, and 3) the needs level is not related to job satisfaction.
Pig Industry in Taiwan
Choi, Chan-Ho ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 95~106
Pig industry has been one of the most important sector in Taiwan since 1970s, and produce one fourth of the agricultural income. The industry has made great improvements in breeding, raising and quality production while marketing and processing have interrelated efficiently with production. As one of the mayor factor to the present success, cooperative research and extension has been institutionalized among the government agencies, farmer`s associations and research institutions, inter-linked with the farmer`s problem-solving process. At present, the industry is seeking an appropriate strategy and measures to upgrade the pollution control and cost efficiency in production. This paper reviewed an industry case historically in Taiwan in order to draw the implications to the emerging farm sector in which international competitiveness and quality improvement are to be considered.
An Analysis of the Related Variables on the Mother-Children Interaction and Juvenile Deliquent Behaviors between Urban and Rural Areas
Yoon, Joon-Sang ; Kim, Ju-Bun ; Kim, Jin-Hwa ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 107~122
The purpose of this study was to draw the related variables on the Mother-Children Infraction and Juvenile Deliquent Behaviors between Urban and Rural Areas. The results were as follows: 1. Juvenile Deliquent Behaviors between Urban and Rural Areas and between male and female were the significant Gap statistically. 2. Juvenile Deliquent Behaviors were the significant Gap statistically in mother`s educational level and home living level. 3. The dysfunctional communication of the Mother-Children was resulted in the Juvenile Deliquent Behaviors.
The Situation and Its Educational Meaning of University Extension Education in the Philippines
Kang, Jae-Tae ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 123~140
The main functions of university are research, teaching and social service. University would be developed only when all three functions are organically interacted. In this view, Korean universities have relatively weak in their social service function. On the other hand, Philippines universities are more developed than Korean universities. Taking the university to the people, rather than bringing the people to the university, is the goal of extension education in the Philippines university. The techniques of extension have bees consultation, demonstration, short courses, and correspondence of distance education. Especially in the Philippines, some agricultural universities have their own extension services besides those sponsored by the government. Since it is thought to be closest to the ideal system for bringing about agricultural development, and even though Philippines system has brought about many outstanding results, it would be very difficult to follow this pattern in Korea. Before we try to follow Philippines experience, we can not avoid the criticism on our preset extension education programs that they are usually poor organized, money oriented and routinizied. In order to improve the university`s extension function, universities should provide and develop various programs to meet the community`s educational demands positively and should, in the long run, open its facilities to the community to become a center of lifelong education.
A Study on the Role of the Local Newspaper for Community Development
Nam, Bu-Hyun ; Kim, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 141~155
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sole of local newspaper for community development in Korea. Specific objectives of the study were : 1) to identify the role of local newspaper in community development, 2) to analyze problems and situations on local newspapers in Korea, and 3) to suggest desirable roles of local newspaper for the community development. To attain the above objectives, this study was carried out through literature review, contest analysis of selected local newspapers, and the questionnaire survey of selected readers of local newspaper. The data were collected from 267 readers of local newspaper who participated in the farmers` training session in the Rural Development Administration, by using questionnaires developed by the researcher, and total of 263 questionnaires were analyzed. The statistical techniques used for the study were frequence, percentile, standard deviation utilizing the
. The major findings of the study were as follows : 1. The major roles of functions of local newspapers identified in this study were summarized as to reinforce the community consciousness, to form community opinion, to watch and to monitor community environment, to provide education and entertainment, and to contribute to the conveyance and promotion of community culture. 2. The general characteristic of local newspaper readers surveyed were; a) average distance from town to their village was 9.3 Km, b) average age was 29 years, c) about 75% of them were senior high school graduates, and d) about 96% of them participated in group activities. 3. About 45% of the respondents used television or radio for their moor sources of local news were TV or radio, while about 31% respondents used immunity newspaper for their moor sources of local news. About 67% of the respondents kept their readership over two years, and about 40% of them read community newspaper regularly at their home. 4. The results of content analysis showed drat the local newspapers were dealing with articles on cultural affairs, community consciousness, administrative and civic affairs, however, there were not enough educational news, and various kinds of general news in the community. 5. Survey also showed the most needed news were ; 1) political news including administrative and civic affairs, 2) economic news including sales and distribution, 3) social news including social problems on environmental pollution and community development works, 4) educational news including technology and information, 5) cultural news including guide to cultural and historical sites and local brief news. 6. In the evaluation of local newspaper, the readers were generally positive in valued roles of local newspaper in community relations, community development, promoting community cohesion and understanding of community members, and about 40% of the respondents were positive in predicting the bright future perspectives of local newspapers. 7. In the readers` evaluation of local newspaper, readers responded that local newspapers were very closely related to the community and residents, reflecting the current concerns of local population and recognizing the value of community media, and the contents of local newspaper were positively related to daily lives of community residents and opinions of overall community.
A Study on the Changing Public Role in Agricultural Extension in Less Developed Countries
Kim, Tae-Ho ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 157~164
The public sector extension services in which governments of less developed countries (LDCs) have invested large sums often at the behest of donors are achieving uneven impact, often at unsustainable high costs. Further, the fundamental premise of public sector extension - that low-income farmers are unlikely to obtain technical information unless it is provided by government - increasingly requires re-examination. This paper reviews the pressures facing conventional agricultural extension, examines the prospects of recent approaches that are participatory, institutionally pluralistic and geared towards cost-sharing, and suggests ways forward for governments.
Localization of Extension Services;Problems and Rationale for Legal Reform
Kim, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 165~166