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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association of Agricultural Extension
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Dec 2000
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Jun 2000
Selecting the target year
21 Directions of Rural Youth Fostering
Suh, Gyu-Suh ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 1~2
The Current Situation and Tasks for Agricultural Extension Services in Korea.
Ko, Yil-Woong ; Choe, Young-Chang ; Park, Sung-Jun ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 3~12
Agricultural extension services in Korea began in 1956, and led self sufficiency of rice through the 'Green Revolution' in 1970's, and a year around supply of green vegetables through the 'White/Vinyl Revolution' in 1980s. The developmental stages of agricultural extension services in Korea, in terms of major purposes, observed by the researcher were as follows; 1) Stage of production guidance when increase in production was directly related to increased income of farmers, 2) Stage of management guidance, when agricultural extension were not only concerned in increasing production, but also in management and marketing, and 3) Stage of improved welfare, when extension services put more emphasis on welfare of farmers in terms of quality of life, as well as increased production, management and marketing. Since late 1980s, farmers in Korea realized the fact that increased production may not lead to increased income. because of this, farmers also wanted improvement of management and marketing. Extension changed the identified needs of farmers to new knowledge, information, and technology in their farm business operation including management and marketing. Loosened cooperations among the central, provincial and local levels after localization of extension services since January 1997 should be strengthened. Provincial level monitoring and supervising should be enhanced for more effective agricultural extension services to meet the changing needs of farmers in the future.
Trend and Perspective of Agricultural Knowledge System in OECD Member Countries
Im, Jeong-Nam ; Park, Moo-Eon ; Park, Kyung-Chul ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 13~29
During the last 10 year period, OECD member countries were in a trend of 'less government' from 'more government', thus resulted in restructuring and reducing staffs in government agricultural institutions including the Agricultural Knowledge System. In recognizing the crisis of 'less government', member countries were in a trend of paradigm shift to the 'better government;. In producing and transferring agricultural information, member countries are more concerned about consumers as well as producers as the target of good quality services of the 'better government'. The general consensus of member countries identified the importance of food safety and environmental protection as new agendas for the 21st century. Agricultural Knowledge Systems (AKS) in OECD member countries were in a trend of reorganization in addressing food safety, and agriculture / environmental issues. The approaches, functions and responsibilities were diversified to multi-governmental institutions from the ministry of agriculture. Thus the importance of institutional cooperation and coordination were emphasized more in the newly changed AKS paradigms. The objectives, functions and approaches of AKS in OECD member countries as well as in Korea will be directed to emphasize the importance of environment, sustainable agriculture, food safety, and rural development. They will also focus on establishing mutual cooperative systems among policy makers, consumes, non-governmental organizations, and agri-related organizations as necessary for sustainable development in the future.
Agricultural Extension for the 21 st Century
Fujita, Yasuki ; Min, Sung-Hee ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 31~44
Securing food safety, natural and social environmental protection, and activation of rural communities are some of challenging tasks for the 21st century. National consensus on agriculture as a basic and public industry would be needed to solve these challenging tasks. Agricultural policy and extension education should be focused on encouraging farmers to achieve better production and management by developing their motivation and ability. Systematic and organizational efforts to make a better environment for farming and farm management should be the major target of agricultural policy and extension services in the future. To meet changing needs of farmer, agricultural extension services should change programs, functions, information sources, and methods of delivery to adopt experiential learning for farmers. Functions for consultation, suggestion and organization should be extended and advisory services for farmers should be emphasized by providing extension education.
Trends and Directions of Agricultural Extension Services under the Local Autonomy Period in Korea
Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 45~64
The purposes of the study were to identify the present status of the agricultural extension services in Korea and its surrounding environment, and to search the desirable ways of improvement under the serious restructuring period occurred by the nation-wide localization, globalization and development of information technology. Agricultural extension services have made great accomplishment in the education for rural people and agricultural technology diffusion, but agricultural extension service system no longer well fits in the changed environment. Agricultural extension services in Korea should restructure the system, function and methods in order to cope with the changing technology and rural society. The objectives of the extension services should be clear and simplified so that the extension workers can understand their role and duty more clearly. The local governments should encourage the extension workers to carry out their services diligently and with the pride. Also, the extension workers should change their mind to fit in the changing world and should improve their capability for their services.
Agricultural Extension Services in YoungDong County , ChunaBuk Province
Jeon, Tae-Ha ; Choi, Chang-Wook ; Chung, Han-Mo ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 65~74
Agricultural extension services in YoungDong county, ChungBuk province have tried and changed many things to overcome difficult situations since localization of extension services in 1997. The county Rural Guidance Office changed the name of the office as county Agricultural Technology & Extension Center (ATEC), and has been operated as a service center for all people who need help in agriculture. The recent efforts of the ATEC have been placed on eco-friendly agriculture and sustainable agriculture for protecting the natural environment of the county as well as production of safe agricultural products. In order to overcame difficult situations under the IMF, the ATEC has tried to find new ways for the extension services because of reduced extension educators under the IMF restructuring. The followings were a few examples of many efforts in various fields to overcome difficult situations in the rural county; 1) The ATEC has supported services to produce safe and high quality agricultural products and to increase their high value through extension services for food processing. 2) The ATEC has opened experimental fields for farmers who want to learn new technologies to cultivate grapes, persimmons, apples and pests etc., specialty fruit trees in the county. 3) The ATEC has implemented many kinds of programs to improve the quality of the extension educators to serve better.
Ten Year Plan for Kyungbuk Agricultural Technology Innovation in the 21st century
Kim, Hyong-Kook ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 75~100
In the 21th century, many people predict the change of agricultural conditions in our country because of the arrival of knowledge- information age. Now it is supposed that agricultural technology comes to
level compare to advanced countries. So the development of new technology in agriculture are demanded all the more. Agriculture in the 21th century will be grown based on the connection of environment, knowledge and taffeta. The agricultural conditions in Kyongbuk has more profitablity and potentiality, because there are wide lands, distinguished 4 seasons, various main production crops and cultural inheritance etc. For the innovation of agricultural technology in Kyungbuk, province this plan presented 7 visions; such as foods-life, knowledge-brain, precisious environment, resouces-saving, export-market, traditional- specialization and development-participation agriculture and 7 basic strategies; such as environment-stabilization, speciality-discrimination, standard-modeliztion, demand-market, field-practicality, management-information, specialization-cooperation strategy. The major contents of this plan were presented to achieve strengthen -ment and advancement of competitive power on the agriculture of Kyongbuk; 21 superme technologies get to develop the highest technique, 21 major conventional projects will be mown continuously, 21 main clops snakes to intensify competitive power. Wheras, we will be propulsed 21 special projects for increasing a phase of Kyongbuk R D. A. and we inculuded 74 items of Si-Gym region for balanced development of area This plan consisted of 1,730 items in 84 fields and about 260 billion won will be invest every year. When it is finished successfully in 10 years, agricultural technical level of Kyungbuk will be not only promote to
level to advanced country, but also clanged to competitive industry, and farming villiages might be changed to a space of comfortable life.
Vision and Developmental Tasks for Korea Agricultural Extension Services for the 21 st Century
Lee, Soo-Chul ; Lee, Chae-Shik ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 101~119
Agricultural Extension Services in Korea have accomplished a significant role in self- sufficiency of rice, a national staple food, through green revolution in 1970's; supplying green vegetables even during the winter season through white revolution in 1980's; and establishing technical agriculture by organizing rural leaders and 4-H members. In 1990s changes were made in international situations under the Uruguay Round multilateral trade negotiations and inauguration of the World Trade Organization. This was followed by localization of the extension staffs and the functions of extension services in Korea changed dramatically from national government to local governments. Thus, a weakened national function resulted in loosening of the linkages of research and extension in central government and local extension offices. Difficulties were reported in diffusion of new agricultural technology and efficient management of extension personnel. Developmental tasks for better extension services for the 21st century in Korea would include recovering national functions of agricultural extension, and developing a new paradigm for extension service. This should include the following measures; 1) Cooperative extension service should be adapted to involve national as well as local governments and non-government organization. 2) The target groups for extension services should be expanded to include farmers, noel residents as well as urban consumers. 3) The role of the extension service should cover agricultural technological diffusion of innovations as well as managerial skills and leadership development for rural organizations. 4) Extension services should be introduced to small farmers as well as consultation services for advanced farms. Diversified approaches should be employed for mama effective services. 5) Pre-service as well as in-service education should be offered to secure better extension educators equipped with knowledge, understanding and abilities on agricultural technology, information, agricultural philosophy, instructional methods and communication skills.
A Comparative Study on Communication of Agricultural Innovation
Kim, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 121~136
This study reports on a comparison between the Korean diffusion of agricultural innovation or extension service and the cooperative extension service in the United States of America. It focuses on relevant differences between the two systems and provides recommendation for improvement of the Korean system to insure success in important areas related to the diffusion of agricultural innovations. After a comparative study on diffusion of innovations it is clear that: in order to have a productive agriculture that makes effective and efficient use of natural resources and helps achieve sustainability goals, a mechanism that delivers knowledge to agricultural communities must be established and maintained. This mechanism is clearly an agricultural extension service that is cooperatively funded by federal, state and local governments and that insures participation of constituents in the process of establishing priorities and evaluating achievements. The success of US agriculture, the most productive in the world, is to a large degree to the Cooperative Extension Service. Based on the results of this study and the differences of the United States and Korea, the following recommendations should be emphasized for more effective communication for agricultural innovation and rural development in Korea: 1) In order to insure that extension educators are high caliber professional individuals, it is important to establish a system that nationally recognizes these individuals as such, and that provides a professional development path. 2) The results of the decision of transfer of extension educators to local governments has not yielded positive outcomes, especially in terms of professional status. It is clearly demonstrable that valuable professionals are leaving the service, that local governments do not have the will and resources to implement a successful extension program. 3) Because of the critical importance of diffusing innovations to agricultural producers in order to insure and quality and steady food supply, it is of critical importance that these issues be addressed before the extension service is further deteriorated. Given the cement situation, it is clear that the extension service should become nationally supported again in cooperation with local and state governments and that extension professionals be given appropriate rank at the national level, commesurate with their peers in research and teaching. 4) The common current committee practice of lengthy reporting and short discussion needs to be changed to one that results in char, brief and substantive action oriented goals. Joint participation by researchers, extension educators and farmers should be encouraged in planning, implementation and evaluation of communication for agricultural innovations. Roles and functions of committees for institutional cooperation, and or agricultural extension committees should be enlarged. 5) Extension educators should be encouraged to adopt new communication technologies to improve their diffusion of innovations methods. Agricultural institutions and organizations should be encouraged to adopt farmer-first and or client-oriented approach in agricultural extension and diffusion of agricultural technologies. The number, complexity and rapid change of information in agricultural extension require the development of a computer based information and report system to support agricultural extension. 6) To facilitate and expand the further development of communication for agricultural innovation and rural development, agricultural communication programs in universities especially in colleges of agriculture and life sciences. 7) To strengthening the sense of national and social responsibility communication for agricultural innovation and rural development among students in agricultural colleges and universities through participation in learning activities by proactive recruitment. 8) To establish and reinforce a policy that insures participation in communication for agricultural innovation and regal development activities. 9) To improve further development of communication for agricultural innovation and rural development in Korea, more research activities should be encouraged.
Development of Long and Short-run Educational Programs for U-turn Farmers
Suh, Gyu-Sun ; Byun, Jae-Myun ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 137~153
The purpose of this study was to develop long and short-run educational programs for u-turn farmers based on their need assesment. This study was conducted by review of literature and surveys. Subjects of this surveys were 310 participants of agricultural training programs developed by the Rural Development Administration for u-turn farmers in 1997 and 1998. According to major findings, many participants were faced with problems such as financial shortage, deficiency of farming skills, difficulty of marketing, new neighbours unfavourable gazing and farm labour shortage. These problems could be classified into the problems at their preparing stage and the problems of adjusting stage in their farms. And also the participants suggested that educational programs for them contain knowledge based teaching and technical practices with focus on their problems solving. With their suggestion various knowledge and technical modules were selected. Using these module several kinds of long and short-run educational programs could be developed.
Changes in Agricultural Extension Services in Korea
Fujita, Yasuki ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Kim, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 155~166
When the marcher visited Korea in fall 1994, he was shocked to see high rise apartment buildings around the capitol region including Seoul and Suwon, resulting from rising demand of housing because of urban migration followed by second and third industrial development. After 6 years in March 2000, the researcher witnessed more apartment buildings and vinyl house complexes, one of the evidences of continued economic progress in Korea. Korea had to receive the rescue finance from International Monetary Fund (IMF) because of financial crisis in 1997. However, the sign of recovery was seen in a year, and the growth rate of Gross Domestic Products (GDP) in 1999 recorded as high as 10.7 percent. During this period, the Korean government has been working on restructuring of banks, enterprises, labour and public sectors. The major directions of government were; localization, reducing administrative manpower, limiting agricultural budgets, privatization of public enterprises, integration of agricultural organization, and easing of various regulations. Thus, the power of central government shifted to local government resulting in a power increase for city mayors and county chiefs. Agricultural extension services was one of targets of government restructuring, transferred to local governments from central government. At the same time, the number of extension offices was reduced by 64 percent, extension personnel reduced by 24 percent, and extension budgets reduced. During the process of restructuring, the basic direction of extension services was set by central Rural Development Administration Personnel management, technology development and supports were transferred to provincial Rural Development Administrations, and operational responsibilities transferred to city/county governments. Agricultural extension services at the local levels changed the name to Agricultural Technology Extension Center, established under jurisdiction of city mayor or county chief. The function of technology development works were added, at the same time reducing the number of educators for agriculture and rural life. As a result of observations of rural areas and agricultural extension services at various levels, functional responsibilities of extension were not well recognized throughout the central, provincial, and local levels. Central agricultural extension services should be more concerned about effective rural development by monitoring provincial and local level extension activities more throughly. At county level extension services, it may be desirable to add a research function to reflect local agricultural technological needs. Sometimes, adding administrative tasks for extension educators may be helpful far farmers. However, tasks such as inspection and investigation should be avoided, since it may hinder the effectiveness of extension educational activities. It appeared that major contents of the agricultural extension service in Korea were focused on saving agricultural materials, developing new agricultural technology, enhancing agricultural export, increasing production and establishing market oriented farming. However these kinds of efforts may lead to non-sustainable agriculture. It would be better to put more emphasis on sustainable agriculture in the future. Agricultural extension methods in Korea may be better classified into two approaches or functions; consultation function for advanced farmers and technology transfer or educational function for small farmers. Advanced farmers were more interested in technology and management information, while small farmers were more concerned about information for farm management directions and timely diffusion of agricultural technology information. Agricultural extension service should put more emphasis on small farmer groups and active participation of farmers in these groups. Providing information and moderate advice in selecting alternatives should be the major activities for consultation for advanced farmers, while problem solving processes may be the major educational function for small farmers. Systems such as internet and e-mail should be utilized for functions of information exchange. These activities may not be an easy task for decreased numbers of extension educators along with increased administrative tasks. It may be difficult to practice a one-to-one approach However group guidance may improve the task to a certain degree.
Effects of pruning intensity and diameter of bearing mother branches on the growth and berry quality in 'Kyoho' grapevines
Song, Gi-Cheol ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 167~173
This study was carried out to investigate suitable pruning methods to avoid poor berry setting of 'Kyoho' grapevine in Suwon and Anseong areas. Light pruning increased percentage of bud bursts and number of shoots per bearing mother branches(BMB), cluster weight and percentage of berry sating but it decreased shoot length, number of leaves and, leaf area and leaf weight. There was little difference in soluble solids, titratable acidity, and anthocyanin contents of berries by the treatment of either light or heavy pruning. Shoot length became longer as diameter of BMB thickened, leaf area and chlorophyll content also became larger and diameter of BMB. Total carbohydrate and N, P, K, Ca, and Mg contents showed significantly little difference, but total carbohydrate and Ca contents showed a tendency of continuous increase as diameter of BMB thinned. Number of seeded berries per cluster became fewer as BMB thinned but percentage of berry setting showed an increasing tendency. Cluster weight, berry weight, berry number per cluster, soluble solids, anthocyanin content were higher in case of around 1cm of diameters of BMB.
Effect of Ceramics Mixing on Mushrooms Mycelial Growth and Density
Chang, Hyun-You ; Byun, Jae-Myun ; Nho, Moon-Gee ; Kim, Ki-Taek ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 175~180
This experiment was conducts to find out the effects of ceramics mixing on mushrooms mycelial growth and density. It is better ceramics in
to mycelial growth and density of Pleurotus astreatus, Flamulina velutepes, Lentinus edodes and Inonotus obliqua . Mycelial growth according to ceramics mixing contents with mushrooms media is good till 0.16% ceramics mixing, but if mycelial growth and density take into consideration, 0.12% ceramics mixing contents is best.
A Study on the Mushrooms Cultivation Using Ozon
Chang, Hyun-You ; Byun, Jae-Myun ; Nho, Moon-Gee ; Park, Soon-Ae ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 181~191
This experiment was conducted to find out the effects of mushroom cultivation on ozone susceptibility. The mushroom media in cultivation became softening well without bad Knell when it was soaked for 120 hours. The mushroom media softening on cultivating of oyster mushroom was good and fast when the concentration of gas condition ozone is high. The concentration of gas condition ozone must control at less than 0.02 ppm at the innoculation room, 0.03 ppm at the incubating room, must not use at the sprouting mom, less than 0.02 ppm at the growing room respectively. Also at the growing room, it removes the smell of mushroom, so has a protective effects of coming into mushroom fees and disease. When the concentration of 0.02 ppm liquid condition ozone was sprinkled, it was very useful in disease protection If it was input, the storage period of mushroom fruiting body was prolonged.
Development and Utilization of the Medicinal Resources Herb Plants used Through the Ages in Korea
Byun, Jae-Myun ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 193~208
The purpose of this study was carried out to investigate medicinal resources herb plants that using through the ages in Korea among the spontaneous and naturalized flavor or frangrant plants and to discuss some way of utilizations of their products to promote human health. Another goal of this study was to collect and systematically synthesize those materials connected with fragrant medicinal plants to serve useful informations on this problems for following researchers. The major findings of this study were as follows ; In Korea, many species of fragrant plants were used for medicinal purpose through the ages. And most of the everyday`s common drugs in Korea's traditional medicine were contained fragrant resources plants as major medicinal material. Therefore, We can find that mast of the fragrant resources plants are very excellent material for traditional medicinal use. At the same time, we should reveal to fragrant material's activity for human health and to investigate the effect of aromatherapy in the future.
The Directions on Ecoturism Development in Linking
Villages together by led Community Dwellers
Byun, Jae-Myun ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 209~246
This study were carried out to establish the directions on ecoturism development in linking
villages together by led community dwellers for an alternative plan in order to economic active of
communities and reconstruction of community's cooperative organization and improvement and development of
village's domiciliative envirnment of Korea. The method of this research was chiefly used literature investigations and collections by field investigation in case of a few ecoturism resort of Korea. The result of this study were as follows : Ecoturism development in linking rural mountain fishing villages together by led community dwellers for an alternative plan in order to economic active of
communities and to reconstruct of community's cooperative organization and to improve and develope of
village's domiciliative envirnment of Korea will be effective to improve tourism environment. Especially, ecotoutism development will be effective and alternative plan in order to preserve
regions of our country's intact from the induction of act of pollution.
Problems in Localization of Extension Educators in Korea
Kim, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 247~254
Since 1997, Korean government changed the status of extension educators from central government staff to county/city government staff for the sake of democratization and localization, regardless of opposition of academic society of extension professionals. Localization of extension educators followed by government restructuring in Korea, resulted various problems, such as 1) Decreased morale and number of extension educators, thus weakening the extension educational function, 2) Weakened linkages between national and local extension offices, 3) Less opportunity for in-service edition of extension educators, 4) Weakened linkages between agricultural research and extension, etc. During the last 30 years, extension services have helped Korean farmers in achieving self sufficiency of rice and year around supply of green vegetables by diffusion of vinyl house technology. Various problems after three years of localization of extension educators were discussed between announcer of radio KBS and a professor of extension in an interview format, and it was concluded that national efforts should be needed to restore morale of extension educators to continually achieve the national goals of food production, balanced national development and preservation of environment, at the same time to meet increasing needs of farmers.
A Farmer's View on Localization of Extension Services
Kim, Jung-Yun ;
Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, volume 7, issue 1, 2000, Pages 255~256