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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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Journal DOI :
Korean Association of Agricultural Medicine and Community Health
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Dec 2004
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Jun 2004
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A Study on the Health Status according to Sasang Constitutions for the Elderly in a Rural Community
Lee, Dong-Hun ; Nam, Chul-Hyun ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 29, issue 2, 2004, Pages 213~221
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the health status, and disease distribution in the elderly according to their Sasang constitutions. Methods: A total of 196 elderly in Sungjugun Kyungsangbukdo were interviewed for this study. Data were collected from 1 July, 2002 to 31 July, 2002. Results: The distribution of constitutions of the subjects were So-yang 30.4%, So-eum 12.6%, Tae-eum 57.0% in elderly men, and So-yang 32.5%, So-eum 16.2%, Tae-yang 8.6%, Tae-eum 42.7% in elderly women. Especially, there are Tae-yang 8.6% in elderly women. Conclusions: Subjective health status according to Sasang constitutions, less of Tae-yang elderly reported that their health status was not well but more of these individual reported that their health status was good compared with other groups. On the other hand, more of So-eum elderly reported that their health status was not well but less of these individual reported that their health status was good compared with other groups.
Falls among Community Dwelling Elderly People: Prevalence and Associated Factors
Cho, Young-Chae ; Yoon, Hyun-Suk ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 29, issue 2, 2004, Pages 223~235
Objectives: This study was to evaluate the actual condition of falls among community-dwelling elderly people and its related factors to prepare for the establishment of comprehensive prevention programs of senior population. Methods: The study subjects included 460 home residents over 65 years in a district of Chungnam Province and interviews were given to all of them, asking about experiences of falls and their related factors. The analysis of study results came to the following conclusions. Results: The rate of falls among total subjects was 35.5%. With the percentage by age and sex, over 70's and female were significantly higher than male(p=0.000) and under 69 (p=0.008). The groups with poor visual acuity and hearing ability had higher rate of falls than the normal groups based on their health status. In terms of place they experienced falls, out-door occurrence accounted for 53.4% of total falls, which was higher 46.6% of in-door. By season when falls are experienced, "winter" showed the greatest rate, and by time of the day, evening had the highest rate. By causes of falls, "Slippery ground"accounted for 30.5% and "Tumbled over" 23.5% of total falls, respectively, showing the major role of environmental causes for falls. For individual factors, "Irritability" and "Carelessness" occupied 11.3%, 10.8% of total falls, respectively. The Odds Ratios for falls in women was 2.19 times higher than in men, and those in 70's are 2.01 times higher than in 60's, and those with abnormal BMI was 3.68 times higher than in normal groups, and those with perceived symptoms was 1.94 times higher than those without. Conclusions: It is suggested that more consideration should be directed toward taking comprehensive and systematic prevention measures ranging from setting-up the injury-protective environments to allowing senior citizens to have competence in ADL activity as well as proper general health conditions, considering the higher rate of falls for elderly persons in a rural part of this country than that of western countries and the greater proportion of falls which can be ascribed to environmental factors.
Estimation of Elderly Needing Long-term Care in S-city Gyeonggi-do according to ADL and IADL
Lee, Hoo-Yeon ; Kim, Sung-A ; Lee, Hye-Jean ; Jung, Sang-Hyuk ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 29, issue 2, 2004, Pages 237~247
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to estimate the needs of long-term care in S-city Gyeonggi-do according to ADL and IADL. Methods: We surveyed to investigate the needs of 397 study samples which had been selected by stratified randomized sampling, 2.7% in each Dong of S-city. We estimated the disability of elderly by using standards based on ADL and IADL of OECD and Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. Results and Conclusions: According to standards of OECD, the elderly with severe disability were 4,712(31.2%). According to standards of Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, the severe disabled elderly with helper were 3,776(24.9%) and the severe disabled elderly without helper 2,130(14.1%) So We concluded that the long-term care beds estimated by need were from 2,130 to 4,712. To estimate the long-term care beds, we have to consider together physical, mental, nutrition, and cognition status, existence of helper, helper characteristics, and emotional relationship between elderly and helper. But we considered only disability grades of physical states and existence of helper in this study. So it will be useful to conduct study to consider these other factors in future. At the same time this study is of value to estimate objectively long-term care needs based on physical needs in one region.
Exposure Assessment of Korean Farmers While Applying Chlorpyrifos, and Chlorothalonil on Pear and Red Pepper
Kang, Tae-Sun ; Kim, Gil-Joong ; Choe, In-Ja ; Kwon, Young-Jun ; Kim, Kyung-Ran ; Lee, Kyung-Sook ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 29, issue 2, 2004, Pages 249~263
Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to establish the exposure monitoring method of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil application to pear and field red pepper by vehicle-mounted sprayer, hand-held sprayer and to assess the risk. Methods and Results: Chlorpyrifos met all of requirements of sampling and analysis method(U.S. EPA), but chlorothalonil met only dermal patch method. Potential dermal and inhalation exposure was evaluated in 42 farmers. Compared with the hand-held sprayer application, vehicle mounted sprayer demonstrated producing relatively lower dermal exposure levels with statistical significance. In dermal exposure during hand-held application, there is no significant difference between pear and red pepper. Conclusions: This results show that application method is the main factor of dermal exposure. There was no statistically significant difference between each group of respiratory exposure level. The margin of safety (MOS) was calculated to assess the risk of pesticide exposure. All Chlorpyrifos MOS values are lower than 0.2, which mean working conditions are unsafe. In order to protect farmers, big efforts to control exposure are needed.
The Relationship between Pesticide Exposure and Central Nervous System Symptoms
Kwon, Young-Jun ; Kang, Tae-Sun ; Kim, Kyung-Ran ; Lee, Kyung-Sook ; Ju, Young-Su ; Song, Jae-Chul ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 29, issue 2, 2004, Pages 265~285
Objectives: The acute toxic effects of pesticide are well known. Concern has also been expressed that long-term exposure may result in damage to the central nervous system. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that central nervous system symptoms might occur due to pesticide exposure. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, first, cumulative exposure index (CEI) was estimated. Neurologic symptoms (Q-16 questionnaire) for 541 farmers (exposed to pesticides) were compared with 119 non-exposed persons in spraying season nine rural areas in Korea. Results: The pesticides poisoning rates for last 3 months were 67.2% for orchard farmers, 55.3%for dry field farmers, and 20.5% for husbandry farmers, respectively, showing significant difference (p<0.001). Compared with non-exposure group, exposure groups (especially, orchard farmers) reported significantly more neurologic symptoms and had a higher overall neurological symptoms score (p<0.001). Factors related to the positive neurological symptoms (answers "yes" to six or more of Q-16 questionnaire) adjusted for age, sex, education level, smoking and alcohol drinking were type of farming (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.50-6.30 in orchard farmers vs non-exposure group), CEI (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.12-6.78 in Q3 vs Q1), past poisoning (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.21-3.20 vs normal), current mild poisoning (OR 3.03, 9500 CI 1.47-6.22 vs normal) and current moderate poisoning (OR 6.34, 95% CI 3.03-13.25 vs normal), respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that long-term exposure to pesticides appears to be associated with subtle changes in the central nervous system.
Development of Internet Information Push-Delivery System Design of Smoking Cessation for Health Promotion
Kim, Young-Bok ; Shin, Jun-Ho ; Kim, Shin-Woel ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 29, issue 2, 2004, Pages 287~301
Objectives: The development of internet programs for smoking cessation was motivated to quit smoking in the large group of smokers. This personalized program consisted of tailored message to consider the smokers characteristics, and contain the informations on the outcomes of smoking cessation and the skills to be used in the quit attempts. The purpose of this study was to develop the internet management program and information push-delivery system for smoking cessation to encourage the personal intention to quit smoking. Methods: We conducted in 3 steps as developing push service to encourage intention of smoking cessation, analyzing problems of smoking cessation program through the pilot test and suggesting improvements by implication stages. Results: This program is delivered for 30 days. if the participants do not fail to quit smoking. The contents consisted of 13 stages which were divided on starting period. practical period, maintenance period and success period. And push service afforded the tailored message to participants using their e-mail. According to the evaluation of pilot test, the problems of internet information push-delivery service for smoking cessation were the over-tasks per visiting time, recording style of participants, difficulty of terms and sentences, lack of visual effects, absence of follow-up module and unsuitable link with main homepage. Improvements were divided on 3 stages by implication period. The first stage included the immediate improvements as improving link with homepage, modifying menu of smoking information and upload file of notice part. The second stage included the short term improvements as alleviating condition of withdrawal, coordinating start stage of retrial, modifying errors of information push-delivery service and addition of educational materials. The third stage included the long term improvements as development of follow-up module, cost-effectiveness evaluation, reducing contents quantity, introduction of checking style, compensation of graphics effect and review for SMS utilization. Conclusions: This program contribute to improving smoking cessation rate. Therefore this program should be tested in a community to evaluate the effectiveness. To promote the effectiveness, this program should be developed the contents and the strategies for various targets, and established the follow-up system for ex-smokers.
A Studs on Exposure to Organic Dust and Ammonia in Poultry Confinement Buildings
Shin, Cheol-Lim ; Lee, Kyung-Suk ; Kim, Kyung-Ran ; Kang, Tae-Sun ; Paik, Nam-Won ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 29, issue 2, 2004, Pages 303~314
Objectives: This study was carried out to assess exposure levels of organic dusts and ammonia in poultry farms in Korea. Methods: A total of six poultry farms were investigated. The farms were located in Namwon, Chonlabuk-do and in Kae-San, Chungchongbuk-do. This study consisted of a questionnaire and measuring organic dusts and ammonia. The questionnaire included the characteristics of the farms, work patterns and the tasks of the poultry farms. Results and Conclusions: The farmers raised the chickens 45 times a year and the average number of years in the poultry farm were eight years ranging from 2 to 12 years. They worked for seven days per week and the average hours spent caring the chickens are 6.3 hours per day. The duration of staying in the confinement buildings was 3.3 hours per day. The work time in summer was longest. The feed and the water supply systems were automatic and the control of ventilation windows used "winch curtain" was semiautomatic. They used mechanical ventilation system in winter and used dilution ventilation system in the other seasons. The geometric mean concentration of total and respirable dust sampled in the poultry confinement buildings was 4.0 mg/
and 0.9 mg/
respectively. The ratio of respirable to total dusts range from 9 to 49 percent. There was no sample exceeding the criteria 10 mg/
for total dust and 3 mg/
for respirable dust in farms. The criteria have been recommended by Korean Ministry of Labor and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist. The personal respirable dusts measured during a circle work averaged geometric mean concentration 1.4 mg/
Two personal samples were exceeded the threshold 3 mg/
. There was a positive relation between an index and the personal samples of respirable dusts(
=0.98). The index is calculated by multipling the total number of chickens in the farm by the age of the chickens and then dividing by the volume of the confinement building. The geometric mean concentration of area and personal ammonia samples was 23.3 ppm and 22.2 ppm, respectively. Some of the ammonia samples, both area and personal samples, exceeded the short term exposure limit value 35 ppm.