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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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Journal DOI :
Korean Association of Agricultural Medicine and Community Health
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Jan 1983
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A Study and Review on the Mutagenecity of Pesticides Used in Korea
Oh, Chung-Uk ; Kim, Young-Whan ; Cha, Chul-Whan ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 8, issue 1, 1983, Pages 5~11
The purpose of this paper is to investigate domestic pesticides on their mutagenecity through a literature review on mutagenecities of chemical compounds : and to report the results of experimental tests on the mutagenecity of other pesticides for which mutagenecity had not been previously demonstrated. For the experiments on mutagenecity, Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 was performed. Subjects of this research were 167 kinds of pesticides utilized in Korea during the last 10 years from 1973 to 1982. The results were as follows : 1) The total amount of pesticide which was consumed in Korea during the past ten years(1973-1982) was 113,038tons. The average ingredient amount utilized per hectare of areble land in 1982 was 6.6kg. 2) Among mutagenic pesticides, it was found that there were 11 kinds of insecticides, 6 kinds of fungicides and 3 kinds of herbicides. The total amount of these mutagenic pesticide used during the past 10 years is as follows: 8,911 tons of insecticides; 2,708tons of fungicides; and 14,087 tons of herbicides. 3) For the regulation and restriction on the use of toxic pesticides, the mutagenecities of ingredient chemicals should be considered. 4) The three kinds of herbicides and two kinds of growth regulators whose mutagenecity was not mentioned in the literature review, were all found to be negative in the mutagenecity test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100.
A Study on Accident of the Residents in Rural Area
Nam, Bock-Dong ; Lee, Sung-Kook ; Kang, Pock-Soo ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 8, issue 1, 1983, Pages 12~18
This study was carried out in identify the accidents of the residents in the rural community for a year from January to December in 1980 in the area of Bugae Myun, Gunwee Gun, Kyungpook province in Korea. The annual incidence was 3.9% and there was significant difference between sexes(p < 0.01) ; 5.5% in male, 2.3% in female. The age group of 50-59 showed the highest incidence as 5.7%. In summer the incidence was the highest as 37.5% and in winter, the lowest as 18.7%. Farming tool was the most frequent cause of accident as 44.3% and followed by insecticide and bite of snake and dog, etc. Hands and fingers were the most frequent injured parts as 33.0% and upper extremities(40.3%) were twice as high as the lower ones(20.5%). By kinds of injuries, laceration was highest as 33.0% and followed by contusion(24.4%) and abrasion(15.9%). Average duration of treatment was 6.1 days and most of the cases(85.2%) were within 10 days. Average duration of labor loss was 8 days and 84.6% of the total were less than 10 days. Twenty-six cases had some parts of their bodies lost due to accidents and five cases died from drownina and poisoning.
Plasma Cholinesterase Activity Level of Agricultural Workers in Korea
Suh, Suk-Kweon ; Hwang, In-Dam ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 8, issue 1, 1983, Pages 19~27
This study was carried out to obtain the basic data for the prevention of chronic poisoning by organic phosphorous pesticides and to estimate the normal range of plasma cholinesterase activity level for Korean agricultural workers. The 285 agricultural workers were randomly selected for the study in Jungup Gun, Jeonbug Province, 135 persons of them were tested in the period of pre-exposure of organophosphorous pesticides (April 1981) and rest of them were tested after exposure(August 1981). Cholinesterase activity levels were measured by the Micro-method of Takahashi Hiroshi. Major findings are as following: 1) There is significant difference in plasma cholinesterase activity levels between the pro-exposed and post exposed group(p > 0.01). Mean values of plasma cholinesterase activity levels were
/hr. in the pre-exposed group and
/hr. in the post-exposed group. 2) Plasma cholinesterase activity in Korean agricultural worker could be estimated
/hr. with 95% confidence interval.
Epidemiology of Pesticide Poisoning in Kyungpook
Chung, Jong-Hak ; Cho, Jae-Yeun ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 8, issue 1, 1983, Pages 28~34
In spite of the world-wide increase of incidence of pesticide poisoning due to greater use of pesticides, the epidemiological study of pesticide poisoning in Korea has been grossly neglected. The author gained access to the medical records for two year period (1981 through 1982) from local clinics, hospitals and health centers of Kyungpook area to investigate the status of the pesticide poisoning. During these two years, there were 1,618 cases of documented pesticide poisoning, of which in 1981 were 765 and in 1982 were 853. Those in the twenties decade of age was the most frequent and the male(70%) was more liable than the female (30%). In view of manner of poisoning, occupational poisoning was 27.8%, accidental 5.6%, and suicidal 66.6%. There are three distinct groups which make up the large majority of both fatal and nonfatal cases; young children who accidentally ingest pesticides, young to middle age adult who are occupationally poisoned, and middle age to older adults who suicidally ingest pesticides. The seasonal distribution of these poisonings disclosed the peak month to be July, with August next, followed by June and September. Only 11% of cases occurred during the three-month winter season of December to February. Thus pesticide caused poison- ing was primarily a summer and early fall occurrence. During these two years, average of 67 cases of poisoning was observed monthly. Of the pesticide poisoning documented, 49% were treated with poisoning patients from local clinic and 43% from hospital. The case fatality rate of occupational poisoning was 0.9%, accidental 5.6% and suicidal 20.3%. The mean overall case fatality rate was 14.1%. Annual incidence of pesticide poisoning was 25.4 per 100,000 population in the study area. There is a nationwide need for more reliable date on pesticide poisoning. This need can only grow more acute with the passage of time because of the increasing importance of pesticides as a cause of morbidity and mortality.
A Study on Attitudes on Health Institution and their Utilization
Choi, Young-Joo ; Cha, Hyung-Hun ; Yum, Yong-Tae ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 8, issue 1, 1983, Pages 35~43
Health institutions in Korea include a wide range of traditions, most notable of which are hospitals, clinics, pharmacies and health centers as foci for the dispension of western medicine care ; and herb clinics and shamans acting as centers for traditional medicine. Health consumers have pluralistic conceptions of illness(or disease) and act accordingly, using what they consider as appropriate medical practices. The research conducted surveyed residents of Jeomdong-Myon(a rural farming district), Guro 6-Dong(an urban district) and the Banwol(a semiurban district) area on attitudes about health institutions and their utilization of them. The results indicate that the hospital is considered the most reliable health institution, however, the most widely known and commonly used institution was the pharmacy. Hospitals and clinics were found to be utilized more frequently by those residents who were familiar with them than by others less familiar with them. In addition respondents with higher education, those with medical insurance, and those living in urban areas tended to utilize hospitals and clinics more frequently than their less educated, uninsured, or rural counterparts. Converse to the ranking of western medical institutions, traditional health institutions were rated low with regards to reliability, familiarity and utilization. This indicates that western medical care has pervaded the Korean medical system.
Epidemiological Studies of Clonorchiasis. - I. Current Status and Natural Transition of the Endemicity of Clonorchis sinensis in Gimhae Gun and Delta, a High Endemic area in Korea
Kim, D.C. ; Lee, O.Y. ; Lee, J.S. ; Ahn, J.S. ; Chang, Y.M ; Son, S.C. ; Moon, I.S. ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 8, issue 1, 1983, Pages 44~65
As a part of the epidemiological studies of clonorchiasis, this study was conducted to evaluate the current endemicity and the natural transition of the Clonorchis infection in Gimhae Gun and delta area a high endemic area in Korea in recent years, prior to the introduction of praziquantel which will eventually influence the status of the prevalence. The data obtained in this study in 1983 were evaluated for natural transition of the infection in comparison with those obtained 16 years ago in 1967 by the author(Kim, 1974). The areas of investigation, villages and schools surveyed, methods and techniques used in this study were the same as in 1967, except for the contents of the questionnaire for raw freshwater fish consumption by the local inhabitants. 1) The prevalence rate of clonorchiasis in the general population of the villages was 48.1% on the average out of a total of 484 persons examined. The average of those of the riverside-delta area was 65.2% and 43.0% in the inland area. Among the schoolchildren, the prevalence rate was 8.2% on the average out of a total of 1,423 examined. By area, the prevalence rate was 10.8% in the riverside delta area and 2.8% in the inland area. By sex, difference in the prevalence was seen only in the inhabitants of the inland area showing 52.4% in the male and 33.5% in the female. 2) In the natural transition of the infection, the prevalence rate among the inhabitants has decreased from 68.8% in 1967 to 48.1% in 1983, and in the schoolchildren from 56.4% in 1967 to 8.2% in 1983. The reduction rate was higher in the riverside-delta area than in the inland area. 3) In the prevalence rate by age, 11.9% was first seen in the 5-9 age group and the rate gradually increased up to 75.0% in the 50-59 age group. By sex, the rate was higher in the male than in the female in the 20-29 age group and over. 4) In the natural transition of the prevalence rate by age, the reduction rate of the infection during the past 16 years was greater in the younger age groups up to the 40-49 age group and reached the same level in the age group 50-59. Reduction was seen again in the age group over 60s. By sex, the reduction rate was greater in the female than in the male in the 20-29 age group and over. By area, the reduction rate was greater in the riverside delta area than in the inland area, particularly in the young age groups. 5) In the intensity of the infection among the cases, the mean egg out-put per mg feces per infected cases(EPmg) in the inhabitants was 6.3. EPmg of those of the river-side-delta area was 15.4 and that of the in-land was 2.8. On the other hand, in the schoolchildren, EPmg was 3.2, and no difference was seen between the two areas, the river-side-delta area and the inland area. 6) In the transition of the intensity of the infection by area, EPmg among the inhabitants inexplically increased from 7.8 in 1967 to 15.4 in 1983. This was probably caused by uneven specimen collection in the process of sampling the population. EPmg of the inhabitants in the inland area and those of the schoolchildren of both riverside delta and inland areas showed a similar decrease in the past 16 years. 7) The intensity of the infection by age showed a relatively low level in the 20-29 age group and below, and EPmg 5.1-9.5 was seen in the 30-39 age group and over. Sex, Epmg was 5.8 in the male and 4.7 the female. By in 8) In the transition of the intensity of the infection, EPmg decreased from 6.2 in 1967 to 5.4 in 1983. By age, in contrast to the figures of 1967 in which EPmg gradually increased with some fluctuation from 1.1 in the 0-4 age group to peak 10.5 in the 50-59 age group, in 1983 lower intensity of the infection was seen in the age group from 10-14 to 20-29 with the EPmg range of 0.6-2.7. 9) In the distribution of the clonorchiasis cases by the range of EPmg value, 43.2% of the cases were in 0.1 0.9 and 34.6% in 1.0-4.9. As a whole by cumulative percent, 44.6% of them were under 0.9 as light infection and 86.1% of them under 9.9 up to moderate infection. By sex, no difference was seen in Epmg. 10) In the transition of the distribution by the range of Epmg, the cases were distributed up to the range 80.0-99.9 in 1967 and to 60.0-79.9 in 1983. By cumulative percent, in the range of 0.1-0.9 and less, light infection, 34.3% of them were distributed in 1967 and 44.6% in 1983 with about 10% increase. In the range of 5.0-9.9 and less, up to moderate infection, 83.2% in 1967 and 86.1% in 1983 of the cases were seen, respectively. 11) The practice of raw freshwater fish consumption among the inhabitants seems to have decreased in recent years. Those who admitted to raw freshwater fish consumption in the last two years among the infected inhabitants were 59.3%, although 86.8% of them professed to have experience with raw freshwater fish consumption. 31.7% of those who have had experience of the raw freshwater fish consumption denied any further consumption in recent years. From an interview of 543 school-children, 24.1% of them admitted to an experience of raw freshwater fish consumption. However, those who have practised in the past two years comprized 17.9%. Those who denied raw freshwater fish consumption in recent years among those who had such experience were 26.0% out of 131 interviewed. The rate of raw freshwater fish consumption in both inhabitants and schoolchildren were higher in the male than in the female. On the contrary, the rate of those who did not practise in recent years among those who had experience of raw freshwater fish consumption was higher in the female than in the male. 12) The major reason for the reduction of raw freshwater fish consumption among the local inhabitants was the risk of the fluke infection. However, it has become apparent that such change of taste has resulted from water pollution impact which has affected throughout the areas of the freshwater systems in this locality since last several years. 13) In animal survey, Clonorchis infection was seen in 14.8% of 88 dogs examined and 3.7% of 27 house rats examined. It was noted that populations of dogs and cats have increased in the villages surveyed. Although the prevalence rate was lower in the present survey than those of 1967, the significance of the animals as the reservoir host has not changed. 14) Prevalence rate of Clonorchis infection by cercariae in the first intermediate host, Parafossarulus manchouricus, was 0.6% out of 517 snails examined. The infection rate was lower in comparison with 2.3% out of 2,124 examined in 1967. Moreover, sharp decreases in number and distribution of the intermediate host snails in many watershed areas of the huge freshwater systems in this locality seemed to reduce transmission of Clonorchis in connection with the intermediate host stage of its life cycle. 15) Clonorchis infection in the second intermediate fish hosts was relatively low. The mean number of Clonorchis metacercaria per fish in Pseudorasbora parva was 517 in 1983, whereas it was 1943 in 1968 through 1969. Environmental water pollution has also caused the decreased fish population density in these areas, and this has also apparently affected to the practice of raw freshwater fish consumption among the local inhabitants. 16) In conclusion, endemicity of Clonorchis infection in Gimhae Gum and delta area of the Nagdong River has sharply decreased during the past 16 years. The major cause of the regressive transition of the infection was the water pollution of the land water systems of this locality. The pollution has upset the ecosystems comprizing of the intermediate hosts of Clonorchis in many areas, and also affected to a significant extent to the discontinuance of the local inhabitants for raw freshwater fish consumption.
Epidemiological Studies of Clonorchiasis - II. Current Status and Natural Transition of the Endemicity of Clonorchis sinensis in Goyang Gun, a Low Endemic Area in Korea
Kim, D.C. ; Lee, O.Y. ; Lee, J.S. ; Ahn, J.S. ; Chang, Y.M. ; Son, S.C. ; See, S.H. ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 8, issue 1, 1983, Pages 66~80
As a part of the epidemiological studies of clonorchiasis in Korea, this study was conducted to evaluate the current endemicity and the natural transition of the Clonorchis infection in Goyang Gun a low endemic area in recent years, prior to the introduction of praziquantel which will eventually influence to the status of the prevalence. The data obtained in this study in 1983 were evaluated for natural transition of the infection in comparison with those obtained 16 years ago in 1967 by the author (Kim, 1974). The areas of investigation, villages and schools surveyed, methods and techniques used in this study were the same as in 1967, except for the contents of the questionnaire for raw freshwater fish consumption by the local inhabitants. 1) The current prevalence rate of Clonorchis infection among the inhabitants was 7.5% on the average out of a total of 479 persons examined. The prevalence rate was 9.0% in the riverside area and 4.2% in the inland area. Among the schoolchildren, the prevalence rate was 1.1% out of a total of 1 319 examined. By area, it was 1.4% in the riverside area and 0.7% in the inland area. By sex, the prevalence rate was 13.3% in the male and 1.3% in the female in the inhabitants and no difference was seen in the schoolchildren. 2) In the natural transition of the infection, the prevalence rate in the inhabitants has decreased from 22.5% in 1967 to 7.5% in 1983, and in the schoolchildren, from 9.5% in 1967 to 1.1% in 1983. The reduction rate was higher in the riverside area than in the inland area. 3) In the prevalence rate by age, 1.2% was seen in the 10-14 age group and gradually increased to 8.1% in the 30-39 age group and reached peak 18.1% in the 40-49 age group. By sex, in the male, the prevalence rates have increased to 31.9% and 33.3% in the 40-49 and 50-59 age groups, respectively and decreased thereafter. In the female, the prevalence rate less than 5% was seen only in between the 10-14 and 30-39 age groups. 4) In the natural transition of the prevalence rate by age, sharp decrease was seen in the male from around 50% in 1967 between 15-19 and 30-39 age groups. The generation over 40s showed less decrease. In the female, the prevalence rate has decreased from 13% in 1967 to 5% in 1983 in the middle age groups and dropped to 0% in the rest of the age groups. 5) The intensity of the infection among clonorchiasis cases by mean EPmg (number of eggs per mg feces) value was 1.4. In the inhabitants, the value was 2.0 in the riverside area and 0.4 in the inland area. While in the schoolchildren, the value was 0.2 in both riverside and inland areas. 6) In the transition of the intensity of the infection, EPmg among the inhabitants has decreased from 3.9 in 1967 to 2.0 in 1983 in the riverside area, and from 2.9 to 0.4 in the inland area. In the schoolchildren, the reduction was similar in both riverside and inland areas resulting from 1.0-1.1 in 1967 to 0.2 in 1983. 7) In the intensity of the infection by age, EPmg 3.4 was peak at the 40-49 age group and 0.2-1.0 was seen in the rest of the age groups. The mean value was 1.5 in the male and 0.6 in the female. 8) In the natural transition of the intensity of the infection, the EPmg has decreased from 2.7 in 1967 to 1.4 in 1983. By age, reduction was seen in all of the age groups, particularly in the young and the old age groups of 50s and over, except in the 40-49 age group in which reverse phenomenon was seen. By sex, it has decreased from 3.5 in 1967 to 1.5 in 1983 in the male and from 1.0 to 0.6 in the female. 9) In the distribution of the clonorchiasis cases by the range of EPmg value, 70.3% of the cases were placed in the range of 0.1-0.9 as the most and 16.2% in 1.0-4.9 as the next. With such figures, those included in the range less than 0.9 as light infection were 78.4% and under 5.0-9.9 up to moderate infection 99.3% of the cases were covered. The cases were distributed up to 20.0-39.9 in the male and to 1.0-4.9 in the female. 10) In the transition of the distribution of the clonorchiasis cases by EPmg, the highest intensity reached up to 60.0-79.9 in 1967 and to 20.0-39.9 in 1983. In the range of light infection, under 0.1-0.9, the distribution in rate was 64.5% in 1967 and 78.4% in 1983. Up to the range of moderate infection, under 5.0-9.9, 91.7% in 1967 and 97.3% in 1983 were seen respectively. 11) In a survey for raw freshwater fish consumption among the local inhabitants,78.3 of the clonorchiasis cases interviewed admitted their experience of the raw consumption. However, those who practised in the past two years were 34.8% 55.6% of those who have such experience in the past professed that they did not practise raw freshwater fish consumption in the past two years. 12) The major cause of the reduction of the raw freshwater fish consumption among the inhabitants were the wide spread water pollution in the locality. The most common reason professed for stopping raw freshwater fish consumption among the inhabitants was the risk of the fluke infection. 13) In animal survey, 3.1% of dogs were found infected with Clonorchis, decreasing from 21.6% in 1967. 14) The distribution of the first intermediate host, Parafossarulus manchouricus has greatly diminished in this locality and found only in two localized ponds. No Clonorchis infection was found from the snails examined. 15) The second intermediate freshwater fish host has been further limited by extended water pollution. No susceptible fish host could be examined. 16) In conclusion, the endemicity of Clonorchis infection in Croyang Gun, low endemic area, has significantly decreased during the past 16 years. The major cause of the regressive transition of the infection was the water pollution of the freshwater system of this locality. This has upset the ecosystems of the intermediate host of Clonorchis sinensis in many areas of waterbodies and further discouraged to a significant extent the local inhabitants from raw freshwater fish consumption.
가족계획(家族計劃) 및 모자보건(母子保健)의 효율적(效率的)인 통합방안(統合方案)에 관(關) 연구(硏究) - 보건지소(保健支所)의 기능통합(機能統合)을 위한 서산군(瑞山郡) 현지조사(現地調査) 사례보고(事例報告) -
Kim, Eun-Sil ; Bang, Suk ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 8, issue 1, 1983, Pages 81~87
Hereditary Multiple Exostosis with Chondrosarcomatous Change (Report of One Case)
Hwang, M.S. ; Choi, W.H. ;
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 8, issue 1, 1983, Pages 88~92
Hereditary multiple exostosis is familial disturbance in the growth of cartilagenous bone tissue, most marked at the metaphyseal region of long bone. In most of the reported cases, the disease appears to have been transmitted through the male. And chondrosarcomatous transformation of the exostotic area is not uncommon, particularly in adult subjects.
농촌(農村)의 고혈압증(高血壓症), 그 특성(特性) 및 대책(對策)
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health, volume 8, issue 1, 1983, Pages 93~110