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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 52, Issue 6 - Nov 2010
Volume 52, Issue 5 - Sep 2010
Volume 52, Issue 4 - Jul 2010
Volume 52, Issue 3 - May 2010
Volume 52, Issue 2 - Mar 2010
Volume 52, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
Selecting the target year
Ecological Function Assessment for a Fishways of Geumgang Estuary Dike
Kim, Jae-Ok ; Jang, Kyu-Sang ; Shin, Hyun-Sang ; Yang, Hyun ; Jang, Jun-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.001
The ichthyofauna and passing efficiency of fishways were surveyed in Geumgang estuary from May to October in 2009. The fishes collected were classified into 24 species, 23 genera belonging to 8 families. These 24 species consist of 17 freshwater fish species, 3 migration fish species and 4 peripheral freshwater fish species. Seasonal function of fishways showed the migration from May to June and returning to the reservoir of fishes be washed out to sea when sluice gate open by rainfall in July and August. Most of the fishes catched in fishways moved from middle tide to high tide except for July. Fishes ascended fishways between the middle ebb tide and the ebb tide only July, because small freshwater swim against the fishway for leaching the reservoir through the newly formed flow when the water level at the fishway kept dropping. Small fishes that body length less than 200 mm mainly used gabion type fishways and fishes over 200 mm utilized a cascade type fishways. Based on the total individuals collected, the efficiency of the fishway was 1 % for the anadromous fish and over 80 % for freshwater fish. Therefore, it is concluded that ecological function of the fishway in the Geumgang estuary dike be very important not only for fish migration but also freshwater fishes's returning.
Performance Evaluation of Porous Hwang-toh Concrete Using Blast Furnace Slag Cement
Kim, Hwang-Hee ; Kang, Su-Man ; Park, Jong-Sik ; Park, Sang-Woo ; Jeon, Ji-Hong ; Lee, Jin-Hyung ; Cha, Sang-Sun ; Park, Chan-Gi ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 9~17
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.009
This study aims to evaluate a porous concrete using hwang-toh, blast furnace slag and blast furnace slag (BFS) cement instead of type I cement. The tests that were carried out to analysis the properties of porous hwang-toh BFS cement concrete included compressive strength, continuous void ratio, absorption rate, and pH value, repeated freezing and thawing test were conducted. Test results indicated that the performance in porous hwang-toh concrete are effective on the kaoline based binder materials. The pH value were shown in about 9.5 ~ 8.5. The compressive strength was increased and void ratio was decreased with increasing the kaoline based binder materials, respectively. The void ratio and compressive strength were in the range of about 21 ~ 30 %, 8 ~ 13 MPa, respectively. The increased in void ratio of more than 25 % is showed to reduce the resistance of repeated freezing and thawing. Also, the resistance of repeated freezing of thawing and the compressive strength of porous hwang-toh BFS cement concrete are independent with hwang-toh content and BFS cement amount. But, the void ratio was decreased with increasing the high volume hwang-toh contents (more than 15 %).
Analysis on the Optimum Location of an Wet Air Cleaner in a Livestock House using CFD technology
Kwon, Kyeong-Seok ; Lee, In-Bok ; Hwang, Hyun-Seob ; Bitog, Jessie.P. ; Hong, Se-Woon ; Seo, Il-Hwan ; Choi, Ji-Sun ; Song, Sang-Hyeon ; Moon, Oun-Kyung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 19~29
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.019
In South Korea, as the living standard has been getting higher, meat consumption is steadily increasing. To meet the country's demand, livestock houses become larger and wider with increased raising density. In larger livestock houses, pollutants such as flake of pig skin, excrement, odor, various dusts and noxious gas like ammonia are excessively accumulated inside the facility. These will cause weak immunity for the pigs, diminution of productivity and degeneration of working condition. These problems can be solved through the ventilation performance of the facility. In the winter time, ventilation must be controlled to minimum to maintain a suitable thermal condition. However, this affects the other internal environmental condition because of the minimum ventilation. The installation of "wet air cleaner" especially in the winter time can be an alternative solution. For efficient application of this machine, there is a need to understand the existing ventilation condition and analyze the interaction of existing ventilation system with the wet air cleaner considering its appropriate location. In this study, the existing ventilation system as well as the internal environmental condition negatively inside the facility with the wet air cleaner has been studied using CFD technology. The CFD simulation model was validated from the study conducted by Seo et al. (2008). Results show that the elimination rate of ammonia was 39.4 % and stability could be improved to 35.1 % (Comparing case 5 to 1 where wet air cleaner machine was not used). It can therefore be concluded that case 5 shows the optimum location of a wet air cleaner in the livestock house.
Simulation of Generable Nutritive Salts by Artificial Rainfall Simulator in field - By Varying Amount of Fertilization and Slope -
Shin, Min-Hwan ; Won, Chul-Hee ; Choi, Yong-Hun ; Seo, Ji-Yeon ; Choi, Joong-Dae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 31~38
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.031
Various fundamental and practical theories and technologies are needed for the development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to manage the problems. The objectives of this paper was to investigate the effect of fertilizer and Non-point suource (NPS) pollution discharges from the field. The effect of fertilizer application was measured with respect to 10 % and 20 % slopes, respectively, using artificial rainfall simulator. The effect of fertilizer application on runoff was not significant because the effect of slope and rainfall intensity were overwhelmed. Runoff from 20 % plots was 21 % larger than that from 10 % plots. While groundwater discharge from 10 % plots was about 70 % larger than that from 20 % plots. It was concluded that runoff and groundwater discharge were largely affected by slope. T-N concentration in groundwater was much higher than that in runoff for both 10 % and 20 % plots. While T-P concentration in groundwater was lower than that in runoff. It explained that T-N moved well through soil pores without adsorption and other chemical reactions but T-P was well adsorbed on the surface of soil particles.
Estimation of Carbon Absorption Distribution by Land Use Changes using RS/GIS Method in Green Land
Na, Sang-Il ; Park, Jong-Hwa ; Park, Jin-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 39~45
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.039
Quantification of carbon absorption and understanding the human induced land use changes (LUC) forms one of the major study with respect to global climatic changes. An attempt study has been made to quantify the carbon absorption by LUC through remote sensing technology. The Landsat imagery four time periods was classified with the hybrid classification method in order to quantify carbon absorption by LUC. Thereafter, for estimating the amount of carbon absorption, the stand biomass of forest was estimated with the total weight, which was the sum of individual tree weight. Individual tree volumes could be estimated with the crown width extracted from digital forest cover type map. In particular, the carbon conversion index and the ratio of the
molecular weight to the C atomic weight, reported in the IPCC guideline, was used to convert the stand biomass into the amount of carbon absorption. Total carbon absorption has been modeled by taking areal estimates of LUC of four time periods and carbon factors for land use type and standing biomass. Results of this study, through LUC suggests that over a period of construction, 7.10 % of forest and 9.43 % of barren were converted into urban. In the conversion process, there has been a loss of 6.66 t/ha/y (7.94 %) of carbon absorption from the study area.
Investigations on Inundation Damage in Greenhouse Complex Established at Lowlands on the Geumgang Riverside
Nam, Sang-Woon ; Kim, Tae-Cheol ; Kim, Dae-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 47~55
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.047
Investigations on the inundation damage and improvement measures were carried out centering around the protected horticultural complex concentrated in lowlands on the side of Geum river, in Nonsan and Buyeo, Chungnam. Most greenhouses were single-span plastic houses in this area, and tomato, strawberry and watermelon were cultivated mainly. 45.8 % of whole farmhouse were experienced in damage by inundation, and a frequency of the damage was average once in 11 years. The most urgent problem at the greenhouse culture in this area was showed in order of drainage improvement, irrigation water resources and energy saving. Consideration items in drainage improvement project for protected horticulture were showed in order of extending drain pumps, extending drain canals, using concrete flume in drain ditch. It needs to consider systematic plans that can restrain new establishment of greenhouses on the lowland paddy field in drainage area. It is difficult to remove greenhouses which are already established or prohibit cultivation. Therefore we should impose minimum duty items so that greenhouse tillers can cope with inundation. And it is thought that managing agency need to minimize farmers damage by improving drainage ability and introducing maintenance pattern that is different from rice cropping.
Simulating Evapotranspiration and Yield Responses of Rice to Climate Change using FAO-AquaCrop
Chung, Sang-Ok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 57~64
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.057
The impacts of climate change on yield and evapotranspiration of rice have been modeled using AquaCrop model developed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Climate change scenario downscaled by Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) regional model from ECHO-G General Circulation Model (GCM) outputs by Korea Meteorological Research Institute (METRI) was used in this study. Monthly average climate data for baseline (1971-2000) and three time periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) were used as inputs to the AquaCrop model. The results showed that the evapotranspiration after transplanting was projected to increase by 4 % (2020s), 8 % (2050s) and 14 % (2080s), respectively, from the baseline value of 464 mm. The potential rice yield was 6.4 t/ha and water productivity was 1.4 kg/
for the baseline. The potential rice yield was projected to increase by 23 % (2020s), 55 % (2050s), and 98 % (2080s), respectively, by the increased photosynthesis along with the
concentration increases. The water productivity was projected to increase by 19 % (2020s), 44 % (2050s), and 75 % (2080s), respectively.
Nutrient Behavior in an Upland Field of Cabbage Adjacent to the River
Song, Chul-Min ; Kim, Jin-Soo ; Jang, Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 65~71
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.065
This study was conducted to investigate the dynamics of nutrients such as total nitrogen (TN), nitrate nitrogen (
-N) total phosphorous (TP), and phosphate phosphorous (
-P) in outflow from a cabbage farmland in a mixed land-use watershed. The TN concentrations in groundwater showed twice peaks in late July 2006 and late March 2007 (3.8, 4.7 mg/L, respectively), when it rained shortly after fertilizer application, indicating that nitrogen leaching is greatly influenced by fertilization and rainfall. The mean concentrations of TN and
-N in surface water were not significantly higher than those in groundwater, while the mean concentrations of TP and
-P in surface water were significantly (p < 0.05) were higher than those in groundwater. The TN concentrations in groundwater were generally higher than those in surface water during fertilization and early growing season due to the effect of fertilization, but vice versa in the other periods. In contrast, the TP concentrations in groundwater were always lower than those in surface water due to the sorption of particulate phosphorous by soil. The ratio of TN load in baseflow to that in total TN load (39 %) was much greater than the TP ratio (7 %), suggesting that baseflow contribute to nitrogen export. Therefore, proper fertilization management should be taken to reduce nitrogen load through baseflow.
Loading Frequency Dependencies of Cyclic Shear Strength and Elastic Shear Modulus of Reconstituted Clay
Ishigaki, Shigenao ; Yeon, Kyu-Seok ; Kim, Yong-Seong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 73~79
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.073
In the present study, the loading frequency dependencies of cyclic shear strength and elastic shear modulus of reconstituted clay were examined by performing undrained cyclic triaxial tests and undrained cyclic triaxial tests to determine deformation properties. The result of undrained cyclic triaxial test of reconstituted and saturated clay shows that a faster frequency leads to higher stress amplitude ratio, but when the frequency becomes fast up to a certain point, the stress amplitude ratio will reach its maximum limit and the frequency dependence becomes insignificant. And also, the result of undrained cyclic triaxial deformation test shows a fact that a faster loading frequency leads to higher equivalent shear modules and smaller hysteresis damping ratio, and confirms the frequency dependence of cohesive soil. Meanwhile, the result of the creep test shows that continuing creep is created in the undrained cyclic triaxial test with slow loading frequency rate, and since loading rate becomes slower at the vicinity of the maximum and the minimum deviator stress due to sine wave loading, the vicinity of the maximum and the minimum deviator stress shall be more influenced by creep.
Spatial Analysis of BOD Data in Namgang-Dam Watershed for TMDLs
Kim, Sang-Min ; Kim, Sung-Min ; Park, Tae-Yang ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 81~88
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.081
The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial characteristics of Namgang-Dam watershed for a Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). Three TMDL target sites, Gyeonghogang1, 2, Namgang-Dam2, are located within Namgang-Dam watershed. Under the current criterion for TMDLs, 3-year arithmetic mean BOD concentration of the target sites should not exceed the target concentration for 2 consecutive years. Two and three times of violation were observed for Gyenghogang2 and Namgang-Dam2 sites while no violation was found for Gyeonghogang1 site. However, no violation was found since 1999 for all three sites. Correlation between each 12 stations within the watershed were analyzed and cluster analysis was conducted to figure out the spatial characteristics of the watershed. Correlation coefficient between Gyonghogang1 and 2 was high (0.758) while the coefficients between lake station (Namgang-Dam2) and stream stations (Gyonghogang1 and 2) were very low. Dendrogram indicated that all of three Namgang-Dam stations were very close and Gyenghogang1, 2 stations were also close.
Micro-Structure Change Characteristics of Clay Suffered Freeze and Thaw Hysteresis
Kodaka, Takeshi ; Yeon, Kyu-Seok ; Kim, Yong-Seong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 89~95
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.089
There is the freezing method as one of the ground improvement methods for excavating an underground tunnel, and due to its improved reliability, recently construction cases of applying this method into sandy soil grounds as well as cohesive soil grounds of cities have been reported. But, applying the freezing method into cohesive soil grounds could bring concerns of the expansion of the whole ground and the settlements from thawing of ground. In this study, the deformation strength characteristics of cohesive soil which received freezing and thawing hysteresis were examined using the sample collected from the site of cohesive soil ground applied with the freezing method and its structural characteristics were analyzed using an electronic microscope. And, the test with cohesive soil reconstituted from cohesive soil which received freezing and thawing hysteresis was carried out and its result was analyzed comparatively. The result of this test showed that the structure of natural clay was significantly changed due to freezing and thawing hysteresis.
Analysis of Soil Erosion Reduction Effect of Rice Straw Mat by the SWAT Model
Jang, Won-Seok ; Park, Youn-Shik ; Choi, Joong-Dae ; Kim, Jong-Gun ; Shin, Min-Hwan ; Ryu, Ji-Chul ; Kang, Hyun-Woo ; Lim, Kyoung-Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 97~104
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.097
The purpose of this study is to evaluate sediment yield reduction under various field slope conditions with rice straw mat. The Vegetative Filter Strip Model-W (VFSMOD-W) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were used for simulation of sediment yield reduction effect of rice straw mat. The Universe Soil Loss Equation Practice factor (USLE P factor), being able to reflect simulation of rice straw mat in the agricultural field, were estimated for each slope with VFSMOD-W and measured soil erosion values under 5, 10, and 20 % slopes. Then with the regression equation for slopes, USLE P factor was derived and used as input data for each Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) in the SWAT model. The SWAT Spatially Distributed-HRU (SD-HRU) pre-processor module was utilized, moreover, in order to consider spatial location and topographic features (measured topographic features by field survey) of all HRU within each subwatershed in the study watershed. Result of monthly sediment yield without rice straw mat (Jan. 2000 - Aug. 2007) was 814.72 ton/month, and with rice straw mat (Jan. 2000 - Aug. 2007) was 526.75 ton/month, which was reduced as 35.35 % compared without it. Also, during the rainy season (from Jun. to Sep. 2000 - 2007), when without vs. with rice straw mat, monthly sediment indicated 2,109.54 ton and 1,358.61 ton respectively. It showed about 35.60 % was reduced depending on rice straw mat. As shown in this study, if rice straw mat is used as a Best Management Practice (BMP) in the sloping fields, rainfall-driven sediment yield will be reduced effectively.
Deformation Characteristics of Subgrade Materials and Soil at Abutment
Song, Chang-Seop ; Lim, Seong-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 105~111
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.105
It is very important to select carefully backfill materials and build for the structural integrity of abutment in bridge. In general, backfill materials of unbound crushed stones (SB-1) are used to provide the safety of abutment structure and to reduce differential settlement around abutment that is significantly related with performance of road pavement under working conditions. In this study, to evaluate the compatibility of backfill materials at abutment and to develop the abutment design program, i) basic properties of subgrade soils in Korea, ii) evaluation of deformational characteristics of backfill materials from RC/TS tests, cyclic TX tests and Creep tests were accomplished.
Evaluation of Installation Damage Factor for Geogrid with Particle Size
Lim, Seong-Yoon ; Song, Chang-Seop ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 52, issue 3, 2010, Pages 113~120
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2010.52.3.113
Reduction factor for installation damage required to calculate design strength of geogrid used in MSEW(mechanically stabilized earth wall) design is usually obtained in the field test simulating real construction condition. However, damages occurred in geogrid during backfill work are influenced by many factors such as polymer types, unit weight per area, backfill construction method and gradation of backfill material and field test considering these factors demand lots of time and costs. In this study, factors affecting installation damage are analyzed and empirical method to evaluate reduction factor for installation damage using maximum particle size in backfill material is suggested.