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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 55, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 55, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 55, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 55, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 55, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 55, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Hydraulic Conductivity Function in Unsaturated Soils using an Inverse Analysis
Lee, Joonyong ; Han, Jin-Tae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.001
Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function is one of key parameters to solve the flow phenomena in problems of landslide. Prediction models for hydraulic conductivity function related to soil-water retention curve equations in many geotechnical applications have been still used instead of direct measurement of the hydraulic conductivity function since prediction models from soil-water retention curve equations are attractive for their fast and easy use and low cost. However, many researchers found that prediction models for the hydraulic conductivity function can not predict the hydraulic conductivity exactly in comparison with experimental outputs. This research introduced an inverse analysis to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity function corresponding to experimental output from the flow pump system. Optimisation process was carried out to obtain the hydraulic conductivity function. This research showed that the inverse analysis with flow pump system was suitable to assess the hydraulic conductivity in unsaturated soil, and the prediction models for the hydraulic conductivity were led to the significant discrepancy from actual experimental outputs.
Evaluation of Applicability and Hydrologic Parameter Calibration for HSPF Model using Expert System for HSPF
Kim, Sung Min ; Kim, Sang Min ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 13~20
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.013
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the HSPEXP expert system for the calibration of the Hydrological Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) for the study watershed. HSPEXP offers advice to the modeler, suggesting parameter changes that might result in better representation of a river basin and provides explanations supporting the recommended parameter changes. The study watershed, Sancheong, is located within the Nakdong River Basin and having the size of
. Input data for the HSPF model were obtained from the landuse map, digital elevation map, meteorological data and others. Water flow data from 2006 to 2008 were used for calibration and from 2009 to 2010 were for validation. Using the HSPEXP expert system, hydrological parameters were adjusted based on total volume, then low flows, storm flows, and finally seasonal flows. For the calibration and validation period, all the HSPEXP model performance criteria were satisfied.
Application of Surface Cover Materials and Soil Amendments for Reduction of Non-Point Source Pollution from Upland Fields
Shin, Min Hwan ; Jang, Jeong Ryeol ; Shin, Hyun Jun ; Kum, Dong Hyuk ; Choi, Yong Hun ; Won, Chul Hee ; Lim, Kyoung Jae ; Choi, Joong Dae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 21~28
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.021
The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of rice straw mat, rice straw mat with PAM (Polyacrylamide) and gypsum addition on surface runoff and sediment discharge in field. Six experimental plots of
in size and 3 % in slope prepared on gravelly sandy loam soil were treated with control, rice straw mat cover with gypsum and rice straw mat cover with gypsum and PAM. Radish in Spring and Chinese cabbage in autumn growing seasons were cultivated. Non point source (NPS) pollution discharge was monitored and compared among the treatments. Rainfall of the 10 monitored events ranged from 17.0 mm to 93.5 mm. Runoff coefficient of the events was 0.005~0.239 in control plot, 0~0.176 in rice straw plot with gypsum and 0~0.046 in rice straw mat plot with gypsum and PAM. When compared to the control plot, the runoff amount was reduced by 10.4~100 % (Ave. 60.8) in rice straw plot with gypsum and 80.7~100 % (Ave. 96.7 %) in rice straw mat plot with gypsum and PAM. The reduction of NPS pollution load was 54.6 % for BOD5, 71.5 % for SS, 41.6 % for TN and 61.4 % for T-P in rice straw with gypsum plot and 91.9 % for BOD5, 92.0 % for SS, 88.0 % for TN and 88.5 % for T-P in rice straw mat with gypsum and PAM plot. This research revealed that rice straw mat cover with soil amendments on the soil surface could not only increase the crop yield but also reduce the NPS pollution loads substantially.
Mechanical Properties and Impact Resistance of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Type of Reinforcing Fibers for Precast Concrete
Oh, Ri-On ; Park, Chan Gi ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 29~35
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.029
The objective of the current study is to evaluate the effects depending on the types of reinforcing fibers being influential in view of mechanical properties and impact resistance of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) for applications to precast concrete structure. Hybrid fibers applied therefor were three types such as PP/MSF (polypropylene fiber+macro synthetic fiber), PVA/MAF (polyvinyl alcohol fiber+MSF) and JUTE/MSF (natural jute fiber+MSF), where the volume fraction of PP, PVA and natural jute was applied with 0.2 %, respectively, while based on 0.05 % volume fraction of MSF. The HFRC was tested for slump, compressive strength, flexural strength and impact resistance. The test result demonstrated that mixture of such hybrid fibers improve compressive strength, flexural strength and impact resistance of concrete. Moreover, it was found that HFRCs to which hydrophilic fibers, i.e. PVA/MSF and JUTE/MSF, were mixed show more improved features that HFRC to which non-hydrophilic fiber, i.e. PP/MSF was mixed. Meanwhile, the finding that PVA/MSF HFRC exhibited better performance than JUTE/MSF HFRC was attributed from the former having higher aspect ratio than that of the latter.
Evaluation of NPS Pollutant Reduction of Rice Straw Mats in Field
Won, Chul-Hee ; Shin, Min-Hwan ; Choi, Yong-Hun ; Lim, Kyoung-Jay ; Han, Young-Han ; Kwon, Jay-Hyouk ; Choi, Joong-Dae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.037
We have examined the effect of rice straw mat (RSM) on the reduction of non-point source (NPS) pollution loads at soybean cultivations. The slope of the experimental plot was about 3 %. Monitoring was carried out for four years at conventional tillage (CT) in 2008~2009 years and RSM covered tillage in 2010~2011 years. Thirty-two rainfall events were monitored and analyzed during the study period. During the 2 years of 2008 and 2009, 20 rainfall runoff events were monitored. But in 2010 years, only 2 rainfall runoff events could be monitored. And in 2011 years, 10 rainfall runoff events was monitored. It was because the RSM cover enhanced infiltration and reduce runoff in 2010 and 2011. Average NPS pollution load (organic matters) of the RSM covered field was reduced by 72.1~94.2 % compared to that of CT field. NPS pollution load of TN and TP reduced by 67.5 % and 55.7 %, respectively. Especially, SS pollution load was reduced by 97.3 %. Based on the results, rice straw mat cover was considered as a promising best management practices (BMP) to reduce NPS pollution load. However, it was recommended that the results are limited to the field conditions and the same experiments must be performed on different soil textures, slopes, and crops if it is applied to the development of policies.
Assessment of Irrigation Efficiencies using Smarter Water Management
Nam, Won Ho ; Choi, Jin Yong ; Hong, Eun Mi ; Kim, Jin Taek ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 45~53
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.045
Efficient water operation and management of an irrigation system plays an important element in the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. An agricultural water is delivered in many open canals of irrigation delivery system by reservoirs. The poor water distribution and management in an irrigation system is a major factor leading to low water efficiency. It is necessary to compare the estimated irrigation demands with the actual water supplies for decision making to maintain the water supply according to demand strategy. Smarter water management, new technologies and improvement of water management system, is essential to solve the problem of water efficiency and availability. In this paper, the irrigation efficiencies according to water delivery performance indicator were measured with automatic water gauge at irrigation canals, and calculated from spatial and temporal distribution of water supply for the lack of planning in water delivery. The analysis of results are obtain an insight into possible improvement methods to develop canal water management policies that enable irrigation planners to optimally manage scarce available water resources.
Uncertainty of Simulated Paddy Rice Yield using LARS-WG Derived Climate Data in the Geumho River Basin, Korea
Nkomozepi, Temba D. ; Chung, Sang-Ok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 55~63
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.055
This study investigates the trends and uncertainty of the impacts of climate change on paddy rice production in the Geumho river basin. The Long Ashton Research Station stochastic Weather Generator (LARS-WG) was used to derive future climate data for the Geumho river basin from 15 General Circulation models (GCMs) for 3 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (A2, A1B and B1) included in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th assessment report. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) AquaCrop, a water-driven crop model, was statistically calibrated for the 1982 to 2010 climate. The index of agreement (IoA), prediction efficiency (
), percent bias (PBIAS), root mean square error (RMSE) and a visual technique were used to evaluate the adjusted AquaCrop simulated yield values. The adjusted simulated yields showed RMSE, NSE, IoA and PBIAS of 0.40, 0.26, 0.76 and 0.59 respectively. The 5, 9 and 15 year central moving averages showed
of 0.78, 0.90 and 0.96 respectively after adjustment. AquaCrop was run for the 2020s (2011-2030), 2050s (2046-2065) and 2090s (2080-2099). Climate change projections for Geumho river basin generally indicate a hotter and wetter future climate with maximum increase in the annual temperature of
in the 2090s A1B, as well as maximum increase in the rainfall of 45 % in the 2090s A2. The means (and ranges) of paddy rice yields are projected to increase by 21 % (17-25 %), 34 % (27-42 %) and 43 % (31-54 %) for the 2020s, 2050s and 2090s, respectively. The A1B shows the largest rice yield uncertainty in all time slices with standard deviation of 0.148, 0.189 and
for the 2020s, 2050s and 2090s, respectively.
Physical·Mechanical and Temperature Properties of Fiber Reinforced Porous Green Roof Hwang-toh Concrete
Oh, Ri On ; Kim, Chun Soo ; Kim, Hwang Hee ; Jeon, Ji Hong ; Kwon, Wan Sig ; Park, Chan Gi ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 65~72
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.065
The physical, mechanical, water purification and temperature properties of fiber reinforced porous hwang-toh green roof concrete have been evaluated in this study. The effect of the depending on replacement ratio of blast furnace slag to cement was investigated such that the replacement ratio is varied to 0 % and 30 %. Also, the replacement ratios of hwang-toh were 0, 20 and 30 %. The polyvinyl alcohol fiber was used for the reinforcing fiber. A series of pH test, unit weight, void ratio, compressive strength, after purification and variation of temperature test have been performed to evaluate the performance, water purification effect and temperature properties of the fiber reinforced porous hwang-toh green roof concrete. The test results indicate that the physical and mechanical properties of fiber reinforced porous hwang-toh green roof concrete is affected by the replacement ratio of the blast furnace slag and hwang-toh contents. Results of purifying water showed that the water purification effect of porous hwang-toh green roof concrete is about 40 %. Also, the temperature properties test results indicate the green roof blocks using fiber reinforced porous hwang-toh green roof concrete have insulation and temperature reduction effect.
Flood Risk Assessment Based on Bias-Corrected RCP Scenarios with Quantile Mapping at a Si-Gun Level
Park, Jihoon ; Kang, Moon Seong ; Song, Inhong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 73~82
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.073
The main objective of this study was to evaluate Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios-based flood risk at a Si-Gun level. A bias correction using a quantile mapping method with the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution was performed to correct future precipitation data provided by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). A series of proxy variables including CN80 (Number of days over 80 mm) and CX3h (Maximum precipitation during 3-hr) etc. were used to carry out flood risk assessment. Indicators were normalized by a Z-score method and weighted by factors estimated by principal component analysis (PCA). Flood risk evaluation was conducted for the four different time periods, i.e. 1990s, 2025s, 2055s, and 2085s, which correspond to 1976~2005, 2011~2040, 2041~2070, and 2071~2100. The average flood risk indices based on RCP4.5 scenario were 0.08, 0.16, 0.22, and 0.13 for the corresponding periods in the order of time, which increased steadily up to 2055s period and decreased. The average indices based on RCP8.5 scenario were 0.08, 0.23, 0.11, and 0.21, which decreased in the 2055s period and then increased again. Considering the average index during entire period of the future, RCP8.5 scenario resulted in greater risk than RCP4.5 scenario.
Analysis of Flood Control Effects of Heightening of Agricultural Reservoir Dam
Lee, Gwan Jae ; Park, Ki Wook ; Jung, Young Hun ; Jung, In Kyun ; Jung, Kwang Wook ; Jeon, Ji Hong ; Lee, Ji Min ; Lim, Kyoung Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 83~93
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.083
Annual average precipitation of Korea is 1,277 mm and around 2/3 of annual precipitation and 74 % of available water resources occurred during monsoon period. In recent years, many agricultural reservoirs have been heightened to increase flood control capacity, reduce flooding damage at downstream areas, and provide sustainable environmental flow during drought period. Thus in this study, the flood control effects of heightening of reservoir banks were simulated with HEC-ResSim and HEC-RAS models. These modes were applied to Bonghak reservoir and it was found that flood control effects were 3~4.5 % with 7 -m heightening. Also, with proper operation (1 m lower of full water level) of reservoir right before the monsoon period, flooding at downstream could be prevented even with design storm of 80 -year recurrence interval. As shown in this study, heightening of agricultural reservoir provides positive effects in flood control and flood damage reduction.
Uncertainty in Regional Climate Change Impact Assessment using Bias-Correction Technique for Future Climate Scenarios
Hwang, Syewoon ; Her, Young Gu ; Chang, Seungwoo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 95~106
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.095
It is now generally known that dynamical climate modeling outputs include systematic biases in reproducing the properties of atmospheric variables such as, preciptation and temerature. There is thus, general consensus among the researchers about the need of bias-correction process prior to using climate model results especially for hydrologic applications. Among the number of bias-correction methods, distribution (e.g., cumulative distribution fuction, CDF) mapping based approach has been evaluated as one of the skillful techniques. This study investigates the uncertainty of using various CDF mapping-based methods for bias-correciton in assessing regional climate change Impacts. Two different dynamicailly-downscaled Global Circulation Model results (CCSM and GFDL under ARES4 A2 scenario) using Regional Spectial Model for retrospective peiod (1969-2000) and future period (2039-2069) were collected over the west central Florida. Total 12 possible methods (i.e., 3 for developing distribution by each of 4 for estimating biases in future projections) were examined and the variations among the results using different methods were evaluated in various ways. The results for daily temperature showed that while mean and standard deviation of Tmax and Tmin has relatively small variation among the bias-correction methods, monthly maximum values showed as significant variation (~2'C) as the mean differences between the retrospective simulations and future projections. The accuracy of raw preciptiation predictions was much worse than temerature and bias-corrected results appreared to be more significantly influenced by the methodologies. Furthermore the uncertainty of bias-correction was found to be relevant to the performance of climate model (i.e., CCSM results which showed relatively worse accuracy showed larger variation among the bias-correction methods). Concludingly bias-correction methodology is an important sourse of uncertainty among other processes that may be required for cliamte change impact assessment. This study underscores the need to carefully select a bias-correction method and that the approach for any given analysis should depend on the research question being asked.
The Impacts of Operational Conditions on Charcoal Syngas Generation using a Modeling Approach
Wang, Long ; Hong, Seong Gug ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 107~119
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.107
Analysis of Sediment Reductions Effects of VFS Systems for the General Characteristics of Uplands in Korea
Seo, Jeong-Hoon ; Choi, Kyung-Sook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers, volume 55, issue 4, 2013, Pages 121~131
DOI : 10.5389/KSAE.2013.55.4.121
This study focused on the sediment reduction effects of VFS (vegetative filter strip) systems for the general characteristics of uplands in Korea. General conditions of upland fields were investigated through national scales of annual agricultural statistics. 7-15 % of slope with loam soil was the dominant types of uplands, and the hydrologic soil group feature usually belong to Type B. The common sizes of uplands were bigger than 0.1 ha and less than 0.2 ha, and 86.2 % of them account for less than 1.0 ha. With this information, 0.1 ha, 0.5 ha, and 1.0 ha of uplands with various shapes and 7-15 % of slopes were considered for the VFS system simulations. 20 mm, 40 mm, and 100 mm of daily precipitation were applied. As a result, the trapping efficiencies of VFS systems were obtained 37.4~100 % for 7 % slope and 18.1~98.0 % for 15 % slope of the less than 1.0ha of uplands. As rainfall increased, sediment loads also increased with slope and slope length increase. Also as size and slope of uplands and slope length increased with VFS length decrease, the trapping efficiency decreased for the same amount of rainfall. The optimum lengths of VFS systems for the givien upland conditions were suggested based on the modelling results with condition of VFS length less than 20 % of upland areas.