Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 1994
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 1994
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 1994
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 1994
Selecting the target year
Automatic Control of Engine Speed and Transmission Ratio for Efficient Tractor Operations(II) -Performance of Optimal System-
Kang, S.B. ; Ryu, K.H. ; Oh, K.K. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 19, issue 4, 1994, Pages 291~300
It is desired to operate tractor engines at or near maximum torque much of the time in field operation to increase fuel efficiency. To do this it is necessary to reduce engine speed and to shift gears to higher ratios as frequently as possible. Because of load variations in most drawbar work and inconvenience in gear shift, however, gear-type transmission are usually set in one ratio at unnecessarily high engine speeds, and engine-torque variations are used to compensate for changes in drawbar load. As a result, the most of time the tractor is not operated efficiently in terms of fuel consumption and work output. The objective of this study was to develop an automatic control system which is able to operate a tractor equipped with gear transmission under the optimal condition in terms of fuel efficiency with automatic governor setting and gear shift. An indoor experimental test set which can be used to simulate tractor operation, control engine speed and transmission ratio was developed in the previous paper. In this paper, the performance of the optimal operation system is reported. Through a series of tests, it was found that the automatic control system for optimal operation of tractors with gear transmission had a satisfactory performance.
Measurement of True Forward Velocity of Agricultural Machinery using Ultrasonic-wave
Kim, K.U. ; Shin, B.S. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 19, issue 4, 1994, Pages 301~310
The feasibility of using ultrasonic-wave doppler sensors for a measurement of the actual ground speed of agricultural machines was investigated. The actual ground speed is estimated from the doppler shift frequencies of the two ultrasonic-waves transmitted to and received from a moving object. A prototype of the speed-measurement system was designed and constructed for the performance test. The measurement system showed a good performance with a flat surface at speeds lower than 3m/s. However, it was failed to receive the reflected signals from the rough and irregular soil surfaces. Further researches to solve this problem and to improve its performance are now underway.
A Study on the Development of Orchard Crop Security Equipment -Bark Remover of Apple Trees-
Kim, T.H. ; Jang, I.J. ; Lee, J.T. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 19, issue 4, 1994, Pages 311~317
Warts and barks of apple trees were vector of White rot. Two devices removing warts and barks for the use of pest control on apple trees were developed and evaluated in this study, and their results are as follows ; 1. A total of 148 warts were examined to determine the average size. About 35 percent of the examined warts were 6~8mm long, 4~8mm wide and 4~6mm thick in size. About 30 percent of the examined warts were 4~6mm long, 2~4mm wide and 6~8mm thick in size. 2. Seventy-one percent of the examined barks removed were 4~8mm in thickness. 3. A blade with 30 degree of cutting angle required 3 to 22 percent less cutting energy than those with 15 and 45 degrees of cutting angles. 4. The cutting torque decreased from 31 N-cm to 12 N-cm with an increase of cutting speed from 26cm/s to 104cm/s for a feeding speed of 0.31 mm/s with the blade angle of 30 degrees. 5. The cutting torque increased from 6N-cm to 32N-cm with an increase of branch diameter from 6mm to 14mm for a feeding speed of 0.31 mm/s with the blade angle of 30 degrees. 6. Two devices mounted on a mower for removing warts and barks were evaluated and proved effective.
An Analysis of Business Management in the Farming Service Company
Kang, C.Y. ; Wui, Y.S. ; Park, H.T. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 19, issue 4, 1994, Pages 318~328
This study was carried out to find out the possibility of continuity of the Farming Service Company (FSC), which has been founding since 1991 by the public administration to obtain the scale economy in the rice production, through the only financial analysis of the FSC. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The FSC's business is forward to the off-farm business rather than farm business. Based on the profit ratio, the profit ratio of off-farm business is more than that of farm business. It may cause the difficulty of policy to obtain the scale economy in the farming through the FSC. 2. Without subsidies the average net profit of the FSC was negative, which may provide the motives to the FSC to seek out the way to survive through the off-farm business, unless the FSC's could break up. 3. After all, the possibility of continuity of the FSC through the only financial analysis seems to be very little. Therefore the public administration should reconsider the present policy which is to found the more FSC continuously. If government wants to support the FSC continuously, government should focus on the conglomeration of farm land to increase the productivity of farming and on the subsidy of off-farm business to increase the profit ratio of the FSC.
Development of Farm Size Dairy Feedmill System in Korea(I) -Development of the TMR Terminal-
Park, K.K. ; Kim, T.W. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 19, issue 4, 1994, Pages 329~342
In order to reduce the production cost and improve the quality of dairy feed, several dairy feed mill models suitable for Korean farm size were developed. 6 TMR models were developed for the 1000, 600, 200 head of dairy cattle, and evaluated for capital investments and production costs to suggest the best model. Followings are summary of this study : 1. TMR terminal models were designed that dairy production capacity of TMR1000 models are 40 ton/day, TMR600 model is 20 ton/day and TMR200 models are 10 ton/day. Also, they can be extended their capacity up to twice. 2. Capital investment of TMR terminal models is 145 million won for TMR200-1,205 million won for TMR600 and 609 million won for TMR1000-3 model. 3. The bigger TMR terminal model has the more advantage in production cost. The best model for 1000 head of dairy cattle farm was TMR1000-3 with 10,849 won/ton of production cost, TMR600 for 600 head of dairy cattle farm with 13,829 won/ton, TMR200-1 for 200 head of dairy cattle farm with 16,943 won/ton of production cost, so feed production cost for the 200 head farm was 50% higher than 1,000 head size farm.
Development of Farm Size Dairy Feedmill System in Korea(II) -Development of the TMR Main Center-
Kim, T.W. ; Park, K.K. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 19, issue 4, 1994, Pages 343~357
Current commercial dairy feed has various problems in low feed productivity, inadequate formulation and higher feeding cost due to excessive capital investment and non-specialized system for the end product. To solve those problems, 6 TMR terminal models were developed in this study. The developed TMR terminal system consists of TMR terminal, TMR main center and combined system linked TMR terminal and TMR main center. 15 TMR main center models were developed to support 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 TMR terminal(30 ton/day basis) by 3 different types, and evaluated for capital investment and operation cost by the analysis of the newly developed computer program. Optimum model size is analyzed and suggested for each model. Followings are summary of this study : 1. The capital investment costs of TMR main centers were 1,600 to 3,800 million won for type 1, 2,200 to 4,500 million won for type 2 and 2,200 to 4,800 million won for type 3. Also model MACE30 or bigger were justified as the economical models. 2. The feed production costs of TMR main center models were 3,166 to 4,824 won/ton for type 1, 3,816 to 6,182 won/ton for type 2 and 3,990 to 6,263 won/ton for type 3. So feed production cost range was 3,166 to 6,263 won/ton. 3. The bigger production capacity, the less TMR main center production cost. The feed production cost of the biggest model MACE50 was 62~65% of smallest model MACE10.
Improvement and Analysis of Stacking Durability of Corrugated Fiberboard Boxes for Agricultural Products -Moisture Absorption Properties and Compressive Strength Reduction-
Park, J.M. ; Kwon, S.H. ; Kwon, S.G. ; Kim, M.S. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 19, issue 4, 1994, Pages 358~368
Major factors in reducing the stacking strength of corrugated fiberboard boxes in cold storage or transport conditions are high relative humidity, causing elevated moisture absorption by the boxes. The bottom boxes in a stack will deform to the critical deflection causing agricultural products damage there, and eventually additional deflection will cause box collapse and finally toppling of the stack. The study was conducted to determine the water absorption characteristics and the compressive strength of the corrugated fiberboard boxes being widely used in packaging agricultural products in Korea. The sample boxes for the study were selected from the regular slotted containers (RSC) types, and one was the box used in apple packaging (Box A), another one was the box used in pear packaging (Box B). The corrugated shipping containers were made from a large portion of recycled fibers in Korea, and comparing with Box B, Box A was fabricated from fiberboard which contained more percentage of old corrugated containers (OCC) imported from foreign countries than domestic waste paper. The results obtained from the study were summarized as follows ; 1. Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of the sample boxes was established after about 20 hours, and the EMC by absorption was lower than that by desorption. The EMC increased with the increasing of relative humidity and with the decreasing of temperature, and the rate of increasing was much higher above the relative humidity of 50%. 2. The maximum compressive strength of Box A was about 100 kgf greater than that of Box B on the same enviromental conditions. The strength of the sample boxes decreased rapidly with the increasing of relative humidity. The effect of relative humidity on the strength was a little higher than that of temperature. 3. As the applied load was progressively increased and a level was reached, the vertical side panels (
) deflected laterally inwards or outwards. The panels deflected laterally inwards at higher relative humidity. 4. The maximum compressive deflection ratio and the critical deflection ratio of the sample boxes were increased linearly with the increasing of relative hunidity, but trends for its ratios showed inconsistant response to temperature.
Development of a Method to Measure Droplet Size and Spray Deposition Using Computer Vision
Suh, S.R. ; Kim, T.H. ; Sung, J.H. ; Chung, J.H. ; Yoo, S.N. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 19, issue 4, 1994, Pages 369~379
A computer vision system consisted of a microscope, a CCD camera, a frame grabber and a personal computer was used to analyze spraying pattern. An algorithm was developed for the system to measure size of droplets including overlapped droplets, to count number of droplets, and to estimate spray deposition in a certain area from the data obtained. A series of experiment was carried out to test validity of the algorithm. The experiment resulted that accuracy of the droplet size measurement, accuracy of counting the number of droplets and the estimation of spray deposition were within an acceptable range. It was concluded from the results that the computer vision system operated by the developed algorithm is very useful tool to analyze spraying pattern.
Extraction of Geometric and Color Features in the Tobacco-leaf by Computer Vision
Cho, H.K. ; Song, H.K. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 19, issue 4, 1994, Pages 380~396
A personal computer based color machine vision system with video camera and fluorescent lighting system was used to generate images of stationary tobacco leaves. Image processing algorithms were developed to extract both the geometric and the color features of tobacco leaves. Geometric features include area, perimeter, centroid, roundness and complex ratio. Color calibration scheme was developed to convert measured pixel values to the standard color unit using both statistics and artificial neural network algorithm. Improved back propagation algorithm showed less sum of square errors than multiple linear regression. Color features provide not only quality evaluation quantities but the accurate color measurement. Those quality features would be useful in grading tobacco automatically. This system would also be useful in measuring visual features of other agricultural products.