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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 1995
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 1995
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 1995
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 1995
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Cutting-Pattern and Cutting Characteristics of the Reciprocating Cutter-bar of Combine Harvester(I) -Cutting Mechanism and Cutting Characteristics of the Standard Type Reciprocating Knife-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 3~12
This study was conducted to investigate the cutting mechanism of the reciprocating knife of combine harvester. The cutting operation of reciprocating knife was demonstrated through the cutting pattern diagram which was drawn by computer graphics. Various kinds and dimensions of standard-type reciprocating knives were analyzed by the developed program. The results are summarized as follows : (1) For the 50mm standard reciprocating knife, the bunching area and the maximum stalk-deflection were decreased rapidly according to the increase of cutting velocity ratio by 1.0 and decreased very slowly over this ratio. But, the secondary cut was occurred at ratio of 1.0 and increased rapidly over this ratio. (2) The 76mm standard knife showed better cutting mechanism than the 50mm, in two respects : the larger cutting area per one stroke and the lower revolutional speed of crank shaft for the same cutting velocity. (3) In respect to the bunching area and the secondary cutting length, the adequate height of 50mm standard reciprocating knife was 45~50mm. (4) In order to maintain the proper cutting mechanism, the adequate cutting velocity at forward speed of 0.5㎧ to 1.2m/s was from 0.4m/s to 1.2m/s for the standard knife.
Cutting-Pattern and Cutting Characteristics of the Reciprocating Cutter-bar of Combine Harvester(II)- Cutting Characteristics of the Low-Cutting Type and Double Cutting Type Reciprocating Knives-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 13~21
This study was conducted to investigate the cutting mechanism of reciprocating knife of combine harvester. The cutting operation of reciprocating knife with the arrangement of the low-cutting and the double-cutting was demonstrated through cutting pattern diagram which was drawn by computer graphics. Various kinds and dimensions of reciprocating knives were analyzed using the developed program. The results are summarized as follows (1) The low-cutting type reciprocating knife was represented similar cutting characteristics to the standard type, but the maximum stalk-deflection was decreased as 1/2 level of the standard type. And the first ledger plate should be designed shorter than the second ledger plate. (2) The bunching area and the maximum stalk-deflection for the double cutting knife almost were not changed since cutting velocity ratio of 0.6, but the secondary cut were occurred at ratio of 0.8 and increased rapidly over these ratio. (3) The double cutting knife was recommended for the high speed combine, because its bunching area and the maximum stalk-deflection were decreased as 1/2 level of the standard type. (4) In order to maintain the proper cutting mechanism characterized by the bunching area, the maximum stalk-deflection and the secondary cutting length etc., the adequate cutting velocity at forward speed of 0.5㎧ to 1.2㎧ was from 0.3㎧ to 0.96㎧ for the double cutting knives.
Determination of Development Strategy for a Pepper Harvester
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 22~35
Pepper is the most important horticultural plant in Korean farm. Pepper harvesting has been known to be the most difficult process in pepper cultivation so that demand for mechanization is strong. In a research to develop a pepper harvesting machine performance and capacity of the harvester should be determined based on both economical feasibility and machine design concept. In order to accomplish an economical analysis of the pepper harvester, a mathematical model for comparing manual harvesting cost to machine harvest cost was developed. Validity of the model depends on the data used in the model. Economical information for the model variables was acquired from the result of farm survey on pepper cultivation technique and economics of pepper farmer. Technical information on pepper harvester were also collected through literature review and analyzed. Based on the economical analysis and synthesis of the technical information on pepper harvesters, its performance and capacity were determined. The operating performances of the harvester such as cutting, conveying, flipping, pepper removing and post-processing (sorting) were determined. Daisy capacity of the machine was determined to be 0.41 ha. A pepper harvester with the suggested capacity was economically feasible if the price of pepper harvester, pepper recovery ratio and service life of harvester were about 6 million won, 80%, and 4 years, respectively.
Analysis of the Percentages of Possible Working Days for Combine Rice Harvesting
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 36~46
The number of possible working days is one of the major factors for estimating the coverage area of a combine harvester. The percentages of possible working days at 24 locations were presented by analyzing the amount of rainfall during the working periods of rice harvesting from the end of September to the end of October for past 20 years. The percentages of possible working days ranged from 75% to 85% in most cases.
Optimal Design and Development of a Rice Mill Pilot Plant by Computer Simulation -Simulation of a Rice Mill Pilot Plant-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 47~57
Rice Processing Complex(RPC) have being constructed with a rice mill plant and a facility of drying and storage to overcome problems caused by UR and to produce good quality of rice. An optimal design of a rice mill plant was required to successfully construct and operate it. The development of a simulation model was essential to the design of a rice mill plant. So, all the objectives of this study were to develop a simulation model for the design of a rice mill plant and to develop and evaluate the rice mill system. In this study the simulation model was developed to design a rice mill plant using SLAMSYSTEM, one of simulation languages. The results of this study were as followings. 1. A simulation model was developed with SLAMSYSTEM to represent the processes of a rice mill plant. The simulation model was used to design a rice mill pilot plant with the capacity of 0.5 ton per hour. The rice mill pilot plant was analyzed by the model with alternatives. 2. In the simulation the rice mill system was much influenced by the separating efficiency of a brown rice separator. Especially, the bottleneck of grain flow occurred at the buffer tank for brown rica. separator under 50% separating efficiency of brown rice separator. Hence, as the alternative simulation was conducted under 60% , 70% separating efficiency of brown rice separator, the bottleneck of the system could be minimized at the 60% separating efficiency of brown rice separator. 3. In the alternative simulation the bottleneck of the system was minimized under the hulling capacity of 1 t/h and 60% separating efficiency of brown rice separator with the capacity of 1 t/h. Under such a condition the max. weight of waiting entities at buffer tanks was less 250kg. So, the capacities of the buffer tanks were determined in the basis of simulation results. 4. The milled rice recovery and head rice recovery of the milling system were 74% and 92% in the simulation, respectively. These results of simulation almost corresponded to those of actual rice mill plants. The developed simulation model could be well applied to design a rice mill plant.
A Numerical Analysis of Flow and Beat Transfer Characteristics of a Two-Dimensional Multi-Impingement Jet(I)
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 58~65
A numerical study for a two dimensional multi-jet with crossflow of the spent fluid has been carried out. Three different distributions of mass-flow rate at 5 jet exits were assumed to see their effects upon the flow characteristics, especially in the jet-flow region. For each distribution, various Reynolds numbers ranging from laminar to turbulent flows were considered. Calculations drew the following items as conclusion. 1) The development of the free jets issued from downstream jets was hindered by the crossflow formed due to jets. Consequently, the free jet was developed into the channel flow without any evident symptom of impingement jet flow characteristics 2) The crossflow induced the pressure gradient along the cross section of jet exits and the value of the pressure gradient increased as going downstream. The crossflow generated also the turbulent kinetic energy as it collied with the downstream jets. 3) The skin friction coefficient along the impingement plate was affected more by the distribution of mass flow rate at jet exits rather than by the Reynolds number. The skin friction coefficient was inversely proportional to the square root of the Reynolds number, regardless of flow regime when a fully developed flow was formed in the jet flow region. 4) The distribution of the skin friction coefficient along the impingement plate was found to be controlled by adjusting the distribution of mass flow rate at jet exits.
A Numerical Analysis of Flow and Beat Transfer Characteristics of a Two-Dimensional Multi-Impingement Jet(II)
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 66~72
A numerical study for a two dimensional multi-impingement jet with crossflow of the spent fluid has been carried out. To study the flow characteristics especially in the jet flow region, three different distributions of mass flow rate at 5-jet exits were assumed. For each distribution, various Reynolds numbers ranging from laminar to turbulent flows were considered. Calculations drew the following items as conclusion. 1) A periodical fully developed flow was observed from the third protrusion. This was also observed from previous experimentally by Whidden at al. The Nessult number at the protrusion surface increased mildly as going downstream. 2) The low Reynolds number turbulence model of Launder and Sharma was found to be adequate for the prediction of fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of two dimensional multi-jet configuration. 3) The Nusselt number at the protrusion surface was nearly proportional to the square root of the Reynolds number.
Fundamental Studies for the Automatic Control System in the Greenhouse Using Microcomputer(II) -A Development of a Controller for an Automatic Control System-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 73~86
The automatic control system in the greenhouse have to be developed to the direction of considering various factors the variables such as condition of the cultivation and greenhouse, the properties and types of products. Therefore, it is more important to set up variables appropriately than the problems of automatic control system itself, and the automatic control system which satisfy these problems should be simplified in the aspect of operation. In addition, even the individual automations are not perfect yet, so more studies are required for the development of comprehensive automatic system in korea. This study was carried out to automatize environment control systems for greenhouse, especially from most intensive labor requiring parts such as watering, irrigating liquefied fertilizer, spraying chemicals, mixing and ventilation system, etc. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Control type tensiometer was expected to be desirable in the automation of watering system, therefore, a new tensiometer was designed and developed through this study. 2. The chemical spraying system developed through this study was found to be excellent in the aspect of operation. 3. When pulse type water discharge meter was used in the mixing of liquefied fertilizer and chemical solution, the error of mixing were range
0.1~0.15%. 4. The water level switch of electrod type used for controlling water level was found to be affective in both control performance and operation cost. 5. The water and level control system can be omitted if each tank size are standardized in accordance with greenhouse size, therefore, the installation cost might be significantly reduced. 6. The developed general controller was excellent in hardware parts, but still remained to be improved in software parts.
Backward Control Simulation of Tractor-Trailer Using Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 87~94
When farmer loads and unloads farm products with a trailer, linked to a tractor, the tractor-trailer is backed up to the loading duck. However, travelling backward is not easy and takes a time for even skilled operators. Therefore, unmanned backing up is necessary to save the effort. A backward controller of tractor-trailer was simulated using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Operators drive the tractor-trailer back and forth several times for backing up to the loading duck. As the operators did it, a backward controller was designed using fuzzy logic. And genetic algorithms was applied to improve the performance of the backward controller. With the strings coded with the fuzzy membership functions, genetic operations were carried out. After 30 generations, the best fitted fuzzy membership functions were found. Those membership functions were used in the fuzzy backward controller. The fuzzy controller combined with genetic algorithms showed the better results than the fuzzy controller did alone.
Fruit Grading Algorithms of Multi-purpose Fruit Grader Using Black at White Image Processing System
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 95~103
A series of study has been conducted to develop a multi-purpose fruit grader using a black ＆ white image processing system equipped with a 550 nm interference filter. A device and high performance algorithms were developed for sizing and color grading of Fuji apple in the previous study. In this study an emphasis was put on finding correlations between weights of several kinds of fruits and their area fractions(AF), and on compensating the blurring effect upon sizing and color grading by conveying speed of fruit. Also, the effect of orientation and direction of fruit on conveyor during image forming was analyzed to identify any difficulty (or utilizing an automatic fruit feeder. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The correlation coefficients(r) between the weights of fruits and their image sizes were 0.984~0.996 for apples, 0.983~0.990 for peachs, 0.995 for tomato, 0.986 for sweet persimmon and 0.970~0.993 for pears. 2. It was possible to grade fruits by color with the area weighted mean gray values(AWMGV) based on the mean gray valves of direct image and the compensated values of reflected image of a fruit, and also possible to sort fruits by size with AF. Accuracies in sizing and color grading ranged over 81.0% ~95.0% and 82.0% ~89.7% respectively as compared with results from sizing by electronic weight scale and grading by expert. 3. The blurring effect on the sizing and color grading depending on conveying speed was identified and regression equations were derived. 4. It was found that errors in sizing and coloring grading due to the change in direction and orientation of Fuji apple on the conveyor were not significant as far as the stem end of apple keeping upward.