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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 1995
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 1995
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 1995
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 1995
Selecting the target year
Design Factors of Boom Sprayer(II) -Spray Droplet Size and Coverage Characteristics on Rice Plants-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 1995, Pages 313~322
This study was conducted to find the design factors of spraying device of the boom sprayer for low volume application. Specific objectives of this study were 1) to select proper nozzles for broadcast spraying and row crop spraying by the nozzle spray characterisic experiment, and 2) to investigate the coverage characteristic of rice plant at the row crop spraying. The results of this study are summarized as follows. (1) From the tested results on the droplet diameter spectrum and spray pattern the standard flat-fan nozzle and drift guard nozzle were judged as appropriate for the broadcasting. Even flat-fan nozzle showed similar span values to standard flat-fan nozzles and drift guard nozzle : however, the nozzles were found to be inappropriate for broadcasting because of their spray pattern. Hollow cone nozzle showed relatively small span values and uniform spray pattern. (2) For the upper and lower sides of the rice plants, coverage rates of even flat-fan nozzles and hollow cone nozzles were maximum at the second row, but decreased rapidly after the third row. For the middle side of the rice plants, coverage rates of them were maximum at the first row, but decreased rapidly. When one nozzle was tested, C.V. values were in the range of 90~160% and 60~160% on entire heights of rice plant for even flat-fan nozzles and hollow cone nozzles respectively. C.V. values at other parts were poor. Spray coverage rate at the middle part was improved by overlapping the nozzles whereas there was little difference on the upper and lower part of rice plants. (3) For spraying lower part of rice plant between rows, even flat-fan nozzles and hollow cone nozzle were judged as appropriate, but in order to ensure the uniform coverage, distance between nozzles, recommended to be less than 90cm.
Static Cushioning Properties of Corrugated Fiberboard and Creep Behavior of Boxes
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 1995, Pages 323~332
The horizontal compression test of some selected corrugated fiberboards was performed to determine the cushioning properties of them. Creep behavior of the corrugated fiberboard boxes, which have been widely used in rural area for packaging fruits and vegetables, was tested. The flute crushing stress of the corrugated fiberboard depended upon mainly the basic weight of the corrugated medium, comparing with the combined basic weight of corrugated fiberboard. When moisture content of the corrugated fiberboards was increased about 8% (d.b.), the flute crushing stress of them was decreased at the rate of 44%~64%. The cushion factor of the sample fiberboards showed much higher value at the lower moisture content of them. These trends appeared to be more obvious at the lower applied stress levels. Also, the cushion factors of the double wall corrugated fiberboards(DW) were observed to be little higher than those of the single wall corrugated fiberboards(SW). The creep behavior of the sample boxes was found to be highly moisture and static load dependent. The creep behavior of the corrugated fiberboard boxes could be well analyzed by the asymptotic slope derived from the creep model.
Resistance to Air Flow through Fruits and Vegetables in Bulk
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 1995, Pages 333~342
The resistance to air flow through fruits and vegetables in bulk was an important consideration in the design of the pressure cooling system. The amount of resistance to air flow through produce in bulk normally depended upon air flow rate, stacking depth, porosity, stacking patterns and shape and site of product. But, there was not enough information relating the effects of those factors on air flow resistance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of stacking depth, stacking patterns, porosity and airflow rate on airflow resistance and to develop a statistical model to predict static pressure drop across the produce bed as a function of air flow rate, stacking depth, bed porosity, and product size. Mandarins and tomatoes were used in the experiment. The airflow rate were in the range of 0.1~1.0 ㎥/s.
, the porosity were in the range of 0.25~0.45, the depth were in the range of 0.3~0.9m and the equivalent diameters were 5.3cm and 6.3cm for mandarins, and 6.5cm and 8.5cm for tomatoes. Three methods of stacking arrangement were used i.e. cubic, square staggered, and staggered stacking arrangement. The results were summarized as follows. 1. The pressure drops across produce bed increased in proportion to stacking depth and superficial air velocity and decreased in proportion to porosity. 2. The increasing rates of pressure drop according to stacking patterns with the increase of superficial air velocity were different one another. The staggered stacking arrangement produced the highest increasing rate and the cubic stacking arrangement produced the lowest increasing rate. But it could be assumed that the stacking patterns had not influenced greatly on pressure drops if it was of equal porosity. 3. The statistical models to predict the pressure drop across produce bed as a function of superficial air velocity, stacking depth, porosity, and product diameter were developed from these experiments.
Development of the Numerical Model for Temperature Prediction of Fruits
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 1995, Pages 343~350
In order to design efficient and effective pressure cooling system for fruits and vegetables, a numerical model for temperature prediction of fruits was developed. This model was extended to study the various factors affecting product cooling time, such as product depth, approach air temperature, entering air velocity and initial product temperature. Also, selection of these factors were examined with respect to the efficiency of the pressure cooling system, the overall precooling cost and the final quality of the product. When designing a pressure cooling system for a particular product, the range of the factors must be selected carefully according to the thermal and physiological properties.
Resistance to Air Flow through Packed Fruits and Vegetables in Vented Box
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 1995, Pages 351~359
In pressure cooling system, produce were packed in vented box and cooled rapidly by producing a difference in air pressure on opposite faces of stacks of vented box. So, energy requirements and performance of pressure cooling system depended upon the air flow rate and the static pressure drop through packed produce in vented box. The static pressure drop across packed produce in vented box normally depended upon air flow rate, vent area of box and conditions of produce bed (depth, porosity, stacking patterns, size and shape of products) in box. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of vent area and air flow rate on airflow resistance of empty box and packed produce in vented box, and to investigate the relationship between the air flow resistance of packed products in vented box and sum of air flow resistance of empty box only and products in bulk only. Mandarins and tomatoes were used in the experiment. The airflow rate were in the range of 0.02~1.0
, the opening ratio of vent hole were in the range of 2.5~20% of the side area. The results were summerized as follows. 1. The pressure drops across vented box increased in proportion to superficial air velocity and decreased in proportion to opening ratio of vent hole. A regression equation to calculate airflow resistance of vented box was derived as a function of superficial air velocity and opening ratio of vent hole. 2. The pressure drops across packed produce in vented box increased in proportion to superficial air velocity and decreased in proportion to opening ratio of vent hole. 3. Because of the air velocity increase in the vicinity of vent hole in box, the airflow resistances of packed products in vented box were always higher than sum of air flow resistance of empty box only and products in bulk only. 4. Based on the airflow resistance of empty box and products in bulk, a regression equation to calculate airflow resistance of packed products in vented box was derived.
The Effect of Air Vent Holes and Stacking Methods of Fruits and Vegetables Boxes on Static Pressure Drop in Pressure Cooling System
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 1995, Pages 360~367
The effect of air vent holes, stacking methods of boxes and clearance between boxes on static pressure drop, were measured to design of pressure cooling system. Static pressure drops in air vent hole of carton box were measured for different hole opening ratio from 1% to 5%. Static pressure drop was expressed as a function of superficial velocity as second-degree polynomial. At given static pressure in plenum chamber, static pressure drop in boxes was shown as second-degree polynomial of the number of carton box in series stacking method, as first-degree polynomial in height and parallel stacking method. In pressure cooling of 24 boxes of Tsugaru apple, air flow rates through clearance between the boxes were shown 1.27 and 1.65 times than those of through the inside of boxes at the plenum pressure of 10mmAq and 20mmAq, respectively.
Detection of Surface Defects in Eggs Using Computer Vision
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 1995, Pages 368~375
A computer vision system was built to generate images of a stationary egg. This system includes a. CCD camera, a frame grabber, and an incandescent back lighting system An image processing algorithm was developed to accurately detect surface holes and surface cracks on eggs. With 20W of incandescent back light, the detection rate was shown to be the highest. The Sobel operator was found to be the best among various enhancing filters examined. The threshold value to distinguish between the crack and the translucent spots was found to be linear with the average gray level of a whole egg image. Those values of both gray level and area were used as criteria to detect holes in egg and those values of both area and roundness were used to detect cracks in egg. For a sample of 300 eggs, this system was able to correctly analyze an egg for the presence of a defect 97.5% of the time. On the average, it took 59.5 seconds to analyze an egg image and determine whether or not it was defected.
Development of Apple Color Sorting Algorithm using Neural Network
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 1995, Pages 376~382
This study was intended to develop more reliable fruit sorting algorithm regardless of the feeding positions of fruits by using the neural network in which various information could be included as input data. Specific objectives of this study were to select proper input units in the neural network by investigating the features of input image, to analyze the sorting accuracy of the algorithm depending on the feeding positions of Fuji apple and to evaluate the performance of the algorithm for practical usage. the average value in color grading accuracy was 90%. Based on the computing time required for color grading, the maximum sorting capacity was estimated to approximately 10, 800 apples per hours. Finally, it is concluded that the neuro-net based color sorting algorithm developed in this study has feasibility for practical usage.
Development of Automatic Nutrient-Solution Controller Using Single-chip Microcomputer
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 1995, Pages 383~389
This study was conducted to develop an automatic nutrient control system for trickle application of nutrient solution. Temperature, electric conductivity(EC). pH and dissolved oxygen(DO) were selected as control variables. A controller using single-chip microcomputer was constructed. An automatic control system for nutrient solution and a controller using single-chip microcomputer with control algorithm were developed. The control system was tested, and could control temperature, EC and pH within the error ranges of
Development of A Computer Simulation Program of Emitter Discharges for Trickle Application
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 1995, Pages 390~396
This study was conducted to develop a computer simulation program for trickle application of nutrient solution. A computer simulation program using finite element method was developed to evaluate discharges of emitters on trickle application. The uniformity of application for two different lateral line lengths and three application methods was evaluated by the computer simulation program. The results of this study are as follows. 1. A computer simulation program was developed to determine emitter discharges from a trickle application system and pressures at emitter positions by finite element method and to design a uniform trickle application system. 2. The simulation program developed was verified by experiment. The root mean square error between experimental data and simulated data was 1.1% on the average discharge and it was found that the computer simulation program was an effective tool for the design of a trickle application system of nutrient solution. 3. The uniformity of trickle application system was evaluated for three different methods of supplying nutrient solution with different lateral line lengths. The best uniformity was obtained from the method, which supplies nutrient solution from both ends alternatively for the same period of time.