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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
Selecting the target year
Computer Aided-Optimum Design of Tractor-Rotary Power Driveline (II) - Optimum Design -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 105~116
Using the design variables and conditions reported in the rut part of this paper, an analysis and optimum design of the tractor-rotary power driveline were carried out. The optimum design method involved 1 variable, 2 variable and multiple variable analysis performed as requested in the design process. In order to evaluate the effects of the design variables on the power transmission performance a sensitivity analysis were also conducted. the results indicated that the length and link point of the upper link, the upper hitch point of the implement master and the location of the implement input connection affect most significantly the driveline performance. The optimum design improved the performance of an exampled tractor-rotary driveline by 93% in terms of cosine ratio.
Experimental Study for Draft Prediction of Tillage Implement by Analog Tool
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 117~126
A series of soil bin experiment was carried out on sandy loam to investigate if it is possible to predict implement draft by some analog tool. Chisel configuration resembling a cone penetrometer section was used as an analog tool. The angle of cone was 30 degree. Three types of tillage implement, or oriental janggi, moldboard plow and chisel plow were chosen for this study. Experimental tillage speed was 0.22, 0.33, 0.49 m/s ad tillage depth was 8, 12, 16cm. For the experimental tillage speed range, the increase of tillage speed did not affect the tillage draft for the three types of implement and analog tool, but as the tillage depth increased, tillage draft of the three types of implement and analog tool increased linearly. The linear relationship was found between the tillage draft of analog tool and that of three types of tillage implement for the experimental tillage depth and speed range with high value of
Thus it was concluded from the above results that an analog tool can be used to predict the tillage draft of oriental janggi, moldboard plow and chisel plow. But more experiment for various soil types and theoretical verification are needed for more generallization.
A study on Development of a Pneumatic Granular Applicator for Paddy Field (I) - Granular Discharge Rate, Diffuser and Optimal Application Conditions -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 127~136
This study was accomplished to develop a pneumatic granular applicator that can be attached to the conventional ride-on rice transplanter. Operating conditions of a metering device for the applicator were determined so as to obtain the required discharge rate of granules for field application. The shape and size of diffuser was selected for the applicator and the spacing between diffusers on a boom and the boom height were determined as an optimal application condition for uniform distribution. The diffuser spacing of 1m for the fertilizer and the diffuser spacing of 0.8m for the pesticide at the boom height over 0.8m were acceptable.
A Experimental Study on Coverage Characteristic of a Self-Propelled Boom Sprayer for Paddy Field
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 137~150
To investigate the feasibility of a boom sprayer in the paddy field, an experimental boom sprayer for both broadcast and directed spraying to the lower part of rice plants was developed. The droplet deposition characteristics of the boom sprayers were experimentally compared to those of power sprayer. Water sensitive papers(WSP) and a machine vision system were used to evaluate the coverage rate and droplet density. It was shown that the broadcast application by the boom sprayer was the best coverage among the tested sprayers. Coverage tate and droplet density were affected by the distance between nozzles and the sprayer ground speed, The best result was obtained when the distance of 30cm and the speed of 1.7km/hr. The directed application showed inconsistency in overall droplet distribution. The inconsistency was judged to be caused by conflict between plants and boom extenders. The power sprayer showed a very wide range of droplet size distribution, relatively larger droplets and inconsistency in cove The power sprayer was judged to be inadequate for the low-volume precision application because of inconsistency in performance and difficulty in adjusting the spraying rate. Based on the droplet coverage characteristics, it was concluded that the self-propelled boom sprayer for the broadcast application was feasible for an alternative to the power sprayer in case of low volume, precision application in paddy condition.
A Study on Control System for Balancing a Boom of Self-Propelled Boom Sprayer
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 151~162
Chemical application is one of the most important field operation in rice production. Rolling of a boom due to local unevenness and softness in fields causes a local under/over-application of spray. In this study, the vertical movement of boom tips due to unevenness of ground in paddy fields was investigated, and an active pendulum suspension control system was designed and tested for compensating the movement and balancing the boom to the ground. The results for testing the performance of the control system showed that the system could balance the boom both in flat and inclined fields. The active pendulum control system developed in this study could be properly used for improving spraying performance of a boom sprayer.
Development of a Pellet Seed Machine for Sesame (I) - Prototype and Its Performance -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 163~176
Sesame was one of the economical crops in Korea. However, cultivation area of sesame has been decreasing rapidly due to the lack of mechanization for this crop and the opening of agricultural product market. Sesame seed is so small that ordinary seeder can not seed properly. In rural practice, farmers seed sesame with hand and do thinning after shoot emerges. Seeding and thinning in sesame cultivation take more than 40% of total labor To reduce labor in seeding and thinning, a pellet seed machine for sesame has been developed. The pellet seed machine is very simple in structure. It utilizes the chemical reaction between alginate solution and
. Two material forms a membrane when they meet The uniqueness of the pellet seed machine for sesame were 1) a counter rotating roller for metering the mixture of activated carbon and alginate and 2) swinging plate for submerging seed into the mixture. The prototype machine can produce 30, 000 pellets per hour and costs ￦6, 891 per 1 km sesame.
Development of a Pepper Removal Mechanism for a Red-Pepper Harvester (I)- Size Reduction of the Pepper Removal Mechanism and Improvement of Pepper Recovery Ratio -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 177~188
A pepper harvester using a pair of counter rotating helically wound cylinders as a pepper removal mechanism has been developed. Pepper harvesting by machines under the customary cultivation practice was expected to lower land productivity, that most farmers were concerned about. As one way to compensate for loss in land productivity by machine harvest, experts on pepper cultivation suggested change of both varieties and plant density per area. From the view of machine design, their suggestion implied that distance between rows should be narrower and height of the pepper removal mechanism could be shorter. Experiments to improve perfect pepper recovery ratio and to reduce size of the pepper removal mechanism was accomplished. In order to be a economically feasible harvester, minimum pepper recovery ratio was required to be greater or equal to 80%. The research goal was achieved by both reducing the diameter of the wire-helices from 30 cm to 18 cm and increasing rotational speed of the wire-helices up to 425 rpm. The best perfect pepper recovery ratio was 82.3%. Validity of experiment design and interpretation on statistical analysis were discussed. To understand the pepper removal mechanism properly, a pepper removal theory based physics was judged to be necessary.
Study on the LP Gas as a Fuel for Farm Kerosene Engine
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 189~198
In order to find out the potential of LP gas as a substitute fuel for small fm engine, experiments were carried out with a four-stroke spark-ignition engine which was modified from a kerosene engine mounted on the power tiller. Performance characteristics of kerosene and LP gas engine such as torque, volumetric efficiency fuel consumption rate, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust temperature, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions were measured and analyzed under various levels of engine speed and compression ratio. The results were summarized as follows. 1. It showed that forque of LPG engine was 41% lower than that of kerosene engine with the same compression ratio, but LPG engine with compression ratio of 8.5 it was showed similar torque level to kerosene engine with compression ratio of 4.5. 2. Fuel consumption of LPG engine was reduced by about 5.1% and thermal efficiency was improved by about 2% compared with kerosene engine with the same compression ratio. With the incrasing of compression ratio in LPG engine fuel consumption rate decreased and thermal efficiency increased. 3. Exhaust temperature of LPG engine was about 15% lower than that of kerosene engine. Concenrations of emissions from LPG engine was affected insignificantly by compression ratios, and carbon monoxide emissions from the LPG engine was not affected by engine speed so much. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions from LPG engine were about 94% and 66% lower than those of kerosene engine, respectively.
Development of One-Pass Rice Whitener with Cutting Blades of Hard Metal
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 199~209
A one-pass rice whitener with hard metal blades was developed to solve the problems of the existing one-pass rice whitener. The developed one-pass rice whitener was tested and improved through various milling experiments. It showed high performance such as the capacity of 3.5 t/h, the energy consumption of
, milled rice recovery of 91.6%, broken rice rate of 2.2%, the crack rate of 1.9% at the 750 rpm of the roller shaft, compared with those other domestic and foreign one-pass rice whiteners. Especially, it could whiten broun rice of high moisture (16～l7%) with water sprayed at low internal pressure of less than
and low temperature due to the characteristics of the cutting part composed of 24 hard metal blades. The developed one-pass rice whitener was industrilized and distributed to some rice processing complexs in one fourth price compared with that of imported one-pass rice whiteners.
Selection of Apple Ground Color for Maturity Index Using Color Machine Vision
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 210~216
A study to select ground colors of Fuji apple for maturity index which are needed to standardize grading of the apples is presented. Two extreme colors of immature and fully mature Fuji and Zonagold apples produced in Korea were determined. Various ground colors of Fuji apple between the two extreme colors were collected and classified by human vision and colors of Fuji apple for maturity index were selected from the classification. Coordinates of the selected colors in xy chromaticity diagram were determined by spectrophotometers to define them in a standard coordinate system. Coordinates of the colors in r-g chromaticity diagram using a color machine vision system were also determined to use the colors in apple grading by the machine vision system. Grading Fuji apples using the machine vision system was performed and result of the grading was compared with Ending results of human vision and colorimeter. The comparison was performed with the same Fuji apple samples and showed 65% md 75% of same grades, respectively, as the grades determined by the machine vision system. Differences of fading performance between the compared three grading methods were explained as mainly because of the differences of observation area of the grading methods.
Detection of Apple Defects Using Machine Vision
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 217~226
This study was to develop a machine vision system to detect and to discriminate 5 kinds of apple surface defectbruise, decay. fleck, worm hole and scar. To detect the defects from an image of apple, thresholding technique was applied to images on various frames (R, G, B, H, S and I) of the color machine vision and an image of near infrared (NIR). To discriminate the detected region of defect, various features of the 5 kind defect regions were extracted from the 4 kinds of images selected above. The features were size of area, roundness, axes length ratio, mean and valiance of pixel values, standard deviation of real part of amplitude spectrum in frequency domain obtained by Fourier transform of pixel data and mean and standard deviation of power spectrum obtained by the same transform of pixel data. Routines to discriminate the defects from the features of image were developed and tested to prove their validity. The test resulted that I-frame and NIR images were the most desirable. Accuracies of the two images to discriminate the defects were noted as 76% and 77%, respectively.
Computer Vision System for Automatic Grading of Ginseng - Development of Image Processing Algorithms -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 227~236
Manual grading and sorting of red-ginsengs are inherently unreliable due to its subjective nature. A computerized technique based on optical and geometrical characteristics was studied for the objective quality evalution. Spectral reflectance of three categories of red-ginsengs - "Chunsam", "Chisam", "Yangsam" - were measured and analyzed. Variation of reflectance among parts of a single ginseng was more significant than variation among the quality categories of ginsengs. A PC-based image processing algorithm was developed to extract geometrical features such as length and thickness of body, length and number of roots, position of head and branch point, etc. The algorithm consisted of image segmentation, calculation of Euclidean distance, skeletonization and feature extraction. Performance of the algorithm was evaluated using sample ginseng images and found to be mostly sussessful
Image Processing Software Development for Detection of Oyster Hinge Lines
J. D. So ; Fred W. Wheaton ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 237~246
Shucking(removing the meat from the shell) an oyster requires that the muscle attachments to the two shell valves and the hinge be severed. Described here is the computer vision software needed to locate the oyster hinge line so it can be automatically severed, one step in development of an automated oyster shucker. Oysters are first prepared by washing and trimming off a small shell piece on the oyster hinge end to provide access to the outer hinge surface. A computer vision system employing a color video comera then gabs an image of the hinge end of the oyster shell. This image is Processed by the computer using software. The software is a combination of commercially available and custom written routines that locate the oyster hinge. The software uses four feature variables, circularity, rectangularity, aspect-ration, and Euclidian distance, to distinguish the hinge object from other dark colored objects on the hinge end of the oyster. Several techniques, including shrink-expand, thresholding, and others, were used to secure an image that could be reliably and efficiently processed to locate the oyster hinge line.
Nondestructive Measurement of Sugar.Acid Contents in Fruits Using Spectral Reflectance
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 247~255
This study was conducted to develop regression models predicting sugar and acid contents in intact fruits nondestructively by using the second derivative of absorbance spectrum measured with a spectrophotometer wavelength range of 400nm to 2, 400nm. The correlation analysis was made in wavelength range of 600nm to 1, 100nm and 600nm to 2, 400nm respectively, in order to examine the feasibility of using a real time spectrophotometer, which covers the former range, in predicting sugar and acid contents. The second derivative data of the spectrum were obtained by varying smoothing size and derivative size of the original absorbance spectrum. SAS statistical package program was used for the regression analysis. The sugar contents of Fuji apple, Shingo pear md Yumyung peach could be predicted with SEPs of 0.40, 1.17 and 0.77 respectively, in the spectrum range of 600 to 1, 100nm. The highest correlation coefficient of the titratible acidity of apple was -0.45 at 2, 346nm and regression models indicated determination coefficient less than 0.47.
Prediction of Soluble Solid and Firmness in Apple by Visible/Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 256~265
The objectives of this study were to examine the ability to predict soluble solid and firmness in intact apples based on the visible/near-infrared spectroscopic technique. Two cultivars of apples, Delicious and Gala, were handled, tested and analyzed separately. Reflectance spectra, Magness-Tayor (MT) firmness, and soluble solids in apples were measured sequentially. Maximum and minimum diameters, height, and weight of apples were recorded before the MT firmness tests. A spectrophotometer was used to collect reflectance spectra of intact apples over a wavelength range of 400 to 2, 498 nm. The W firmness tests were conducted using a standard 11.1mm (7/16 in.) MT probe mounted in an Instron universal testing machine. A digital refractormeter was used to measure soluble solid contents in the apples. Apple samples were divided into a calibration set and a prediction set. The calibration set was used during model development, and the prediction set was used to predict soluble solids and firmness from unknown spectra. The method of partial least square (PLS) analysis was used. An unique set of PLS loading vectors (factors) was developed for soluble solid content and firmness. The PLS model showed good correlations between predicted and measured soluble solids of intact apples in 860～1078 nm of the wavelengths. However, the PLS analysis was not good enough to predict the apple firmness.