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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Automatic Level Measurement for Land Leveling
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 269~278
An automatic level measurement system was developed to level the land fer direct seeding of rice. A laser transmitter/receiver set was used to measure land-level. The inclination error occurred in level measurement on irregular land surface could be compensated by attaching rotating mass. The level measuring experiments were performed on three kinds of different shapes(step, random, sine). This system could accurately measure step level of which amplitude was 40mm in 0.5s, random level change within
5mm maximum measurement error, and sine level change of which spatial frequency was 0.5m-1. To verify performance of the inclination error compensation system, frequency transfer function(acceleration input vs. inclination error) was computed by spectral analysis. The inclination error was decreased about 20㏈ by error compensation system.
Development of Continuous Cross-Flow Rice Drying Model
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 279~288
This study was worked out to obtain fundamental data needed for developing a continuous type dryer. The drying process in a cross-flow type continuous dryer was expressed as partial differential equations, and a drying simulation model for predicting rice moisture content, rice temperature, drying air absolute humidity, drying air temperature was developed by using the finite difference method. To validate the performance of the drying simulation model, a prototype continuous dryer was constructed in this study. The size of the test dryer was one-tenth to that of a commercial continuous dryer. The difference in the outlet rice moisture content between the predicted values and the measured values was within 0.5%, that of outlet rice temperature was below
, that of drying air temperature in drying bed was within
and that of relative humidity of outlet drying air was big because of the different measuring point. In addition, a drying simulation model for a actual size continuous dryer with double flow was developed in this study. This drying simulation model included the rice mixing effect in the middle of drying length. The difference of outlet moisture content between the predicted and the measured values showed below 0.5% in this study.
Development of Chestnut Peeling System
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 289~294
The chestnut is a well-known and important forest product in Korea. The annual production of chestnut is about 100, 000tons and its cultivating area is 80, 000ha. However, the peeling process of outer and inner skins of chestnut is very difficult due to hardness and adhesiveness of chestnut skin. The peeling process of chestnut was operated by manual work and the performance of chestnut peeling machine is very low. The purpose of this study is to develope the prototype of new chestnut peeling system. The hardness of chestnuts was tested with six different drying conditions and its range was from 949
to 2, 149
. The hardness of chestnuts was decresed gradually during the drying process. The chestnut peeling Process includes sorting, storage, drying, outer skin cutting, flame peeling, continuous frictional skin peeling, and inner skin cutting operation. The developed chestnut peeling system consists of outer skin cutter, flame peeler, continuous frictional skin peeler and inner skin cutter. The system can peel domestic chestnuts at 150
with peeling rate of 78%.
Algorithm for Discrimination of Brown Rice Kernels Using Machine Vision
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 295~302
An ultimate purpose of this study was to develop an automatic system for brown rice quality inspection using image processing technique. In this study emphasis was put on developing an algorithm for discriminating the brown rice kernels depending on their external quality with a color image processing system equipped with an adaptor magnifying the input image and optical fiber for oblique lightening. Primarily, geometical and optical features of images were analyzed with paddy and the various brown rice kernel samples such as a sound, cracked, peen-transparent, green-opaque, colored, white-opaque and brokens. Secondary, geometrical and optical parameters significant for identifying each rice kernels were screened by a statistical analysis(STEPWISE and DISCRIM procedure, SAS wer. 6) and an algorithm fur on- line discrimination of the rice kernels in static state were developed, and finally its performance was evaluated. The results are summarized as follows. 1) It was ascertained that the cracked kernels can be detected when e incident angle of the oblique light is less than 2
but detectivity was significantly affected by the angle between the direction of the oblique light and the longitudinal axis of the rice kernel and also by the location of the embryo with respect to the oblique light. 2) The most significant Parameters which can discriminate brown rice kernels are area, length and R, B and r values among the several geometrical and optical parameters. 3) Discrimination accuracies of the algorithm were ranged from 90% to 96% for a sound, cracked, colored, broken and unhulled, about 81 % for green-transparent and white-opaque and 75 % for green-opaque, respectively.
Basic Studies on Development of Electrical Weed Control System
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 303~310
Motivated by the need fir developing the new method of weed control in place of chemical weedicide, this paper aims at making good use of electricity against environmental pollution. Compared with chemical weedicide, the electric method of weed control is functionally more versatile, effectively more rapid, and lower in terms of cost. In particular, this method will contribute to environmental protection. In detail the electrical weed control system which is the simple circuit for generating the electric current of high voltage is comprised of step-up transformer which rectifies the current and the capacitor which stores the energy. The effectiveness of electrical weed control system is evaluated by germination rate and control of Dgitaria Sangvinalis(Galinsoga ciliate). As a result, the electrical weed control system(high voltage spark discharge) can kill weeds effectively
Measurement of Net Photosynthetic Rate in the Plug Stand
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 311~316
Two methods were used to detrermine the net photosynthetic rate(NPR) in the plug stand using a wind tunnel for plug seedlings Production. One is called as the integration method in which NPR calculated by the use of air current speed and
concentration measured at any heights above the medium surface in a wind tunnel were summed. It was assumed that the air flow at any layer did not mix with the lower or upper air layer. The other is called as the diffusion method in which eddy diffusivities above the plug stand were used to determine the NPR in the plug stand. In this method,
above or inside the plug stand was assumed to be absorbed vertically. NPR determined by the diffusion method was 28~45% of the NPR calculated by the integration method. Considering the magnitude of NPR and the effects of the air current speed on NPR, the integration method would be adequate for the calculation of NPR in the plug stand. Maximum NPR determined using the integration method appeared at the air current speed of 0.7m
. It was ascribed to the decreased diffusion resistances of
with the increasing air current speed. NPR at the rear region in plug stand was 20~34% lower than that at the front region. NPR sharply decreased with the increase of an elapsed time after the beginning of photoperiod. Therefore
enrichment would be effective to force the growth of plug seedlings in a semi-closed ecological system under artificial lighting.
Development of a Robotic Transplanter for Bedding Plants(I) - Machine Vision System -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 317~324
This study was conducted to develope a machine vision system for a robotic transplanter for bedding plants. Specific objectives of this study were 1) to get coordinates of the healthy seedlings in high-density plug tray, and 2) to get the angle of the leaves of the healthy seedlings to avoid the damage to seedlings by gripper. Results of this study were summarized as follows. (1) The machine vision system of a robotic transplanter was developed. (2) Success rates of detecting empty cell and bad seedlings for 72-cell and 128-cell plug-trays were 98.8% and 94, 9% respectively. (3) Success rates of calculating the angle of leaves fer 72-cell and 128-cell plug-trays were 93.5% and 91.0% respectively.
Development of a Robotic Transplanter for Bedding Plants(II) - Transplantiing Gripper -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 325~332
The use of a robotic transplanter reduces the labor requirement in the greenhouse by carrying out repetitive tasks in an accurate and reliable manner. The transplanter manipulates seedlings by means of end-effector. The end-effector is designed differently from an industrial robot because it manulates biological seedlings of variable size, shape, position, and orientation. This study was conducted to develop an end-effector of a robotic transplanter for bedding plants. The development of an end-effector included selection of the best finger type for the transplanting operation. The performance of developed end-effector was tested and compared with two different transplanting schemes depending on the leaf-orientation consideration. The end-effector developed in this research reliably handled seedlings during transplanting task. Results showed that the shovel type finger was suitable for transplanting with the damaging seedlings.
Determination of Rice Milling Ratio by Visible / Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 333~342
The objective of this research was to develop model equations for measuring rice milling ratio by using visible / HIR spectroscopy. Twelve kinds of brown rice(n = 149) were milled to obtain various milling ratio ranged from 86% to 94%. Visible/NIR spectra were collected with a spectrophotometer with sample transport module. The reflectance and transmission spectra were measured in the range of 400~2, 500nm and 600~1, 400nm, respectively, with 2 nm intervals. Multiple linear regression(MLR), Partial least square (PLS), and Artificial neural network(ANN) were used to develop models. Model developed with reflectance spectra showed better prediction results then those with transmission spectra. The MLR model with six-wavelength obtained from first derivative spectra gave to the best results for measuring the rice milling ratio(SEP = 0.535, ,
= 0.980). The PLS model(SEP = 0.604,
= 0.976) and ANN model(SEP = 0.566,
= 0.978) also can be used to determine the rice milling ratio effectively.
Expert system for Selecting Optimized Farm Machinery in Rice Farming(II) - Development of Expert System -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 343~350
In farm management, many factors should be considered to select optimum farm machinery Some factors such as fm size can be quantified, but other factors such as working experience can not be. Futhermore, as several factors are missed and assumptions are made for the selection using conventional computer programs, the result is sometimes questionable. This problem can be solved using artificial intelligent techniques such as expert system. In this study, an expert system was developed to select optimum machinery by considering available working days, machinery to on, farming environments, labor cost, population, etc. It also took into account the characteristics of machinery, turning radius, easiness of operation, subsidy, loan to purchase, asset. farmers age, Rest Metabolic Rate, and working experience, etc. Expertise and experience of human experts were utilized to develop the expert system. The developed expert system was evaluated by the human experts and others, and it was proved to be practically useful fir farmers.
Development of a Program for the Analysis of Management Cost for the Entrusted Farming Company
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 351~362
This study has been performed to develop a program which can help the management of the entrusted farming company(EFC). An algorithm for machinery cost estimation and computer programs were developed and those were tested with sample data of EFC for the fm size of 50 ha. The results of the test showed for the farm size of 50ha that tillage cost was 18, 785 thousand won ; 23, 441 thousand won for the transplanting, 24, 904 thousand won for the combining, and 4, 024 thousand won for drying. An algorithm for the critical entrusted In analysis and a computer program were developed and those were tested with data estimated. The results showed that tillage fee was 376 thousand won per ha, 496 thousand won for transplanting 495 thousand won for combining and, 32, 480 won per ton for drying. The algorithms and a computer program were developed for the analysis of the critical optimum working area when the entrusted working fee was provided.
Development of User-Interfaces for Expert System in Korean on Windows95 using CLIPS
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 363~370
Utilizing the tools such as CLIPS can reduce the time that it takes to develop expert systems. CLIPS is a development tool for expert system and has public inference engine and utilities. However, skilled programming is needed to run CLIPS on Windows 95, and proper interfaces for knowledge engineers or end-users who do not have good programming ability should be developed. Therefore, the user-friendly interfaces including htitle, hmenu, hyesno, htextdisplay, and hrun were developed and added to CLIPS. The intefaces were excuted in command-line mode of CLIPS on Windows 95. Also, htitle and hmenu can display graphic files for expert system users comprehension. An expert system was constructed using the interfaces and examples were displayed.
Research and Teaching in Food and Bio-process Engineering to Meet the 21st Century
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 1997, Pages 371~378