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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
Development of a Load Spectrum of Tractor Transmission
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 539~548
This study was intended to develop a load spectrum acting on a transmission of agricultural tractors. Transmission loads were measured at the input shaft of the transmission and final drive shaft of the tractors. The measurement were conducted in five field conditions at two speed levels under plowing operations in Korea. Two torque transducers were developed for the respective load measurements and other necessary instrumentations were made to collect the data and store them in a data logger. The time-histories of the torque loads were analyzed and transformed into the load spectra using the rainflow counting and Smith-Watson-Topper methods. Comparisons of the load spectra developed under different conditions were made to investigate their characteristics. The effects on the load levels of soil and plowing speeds were also investigated. Finally, a load spectrum combining the results of the spectrum analysis was developed and proposed as a load source for the reliability test of transmissions.
Simulation of Dynamic Characteristics of Agricultural Tractors(II) - Verification of Dynamic Model -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 549~560
The dynamic model of a tractor-trailer system developed in the first part of this paper was verified in this article by comparing the simulated acceleration responses of the system with actually measured ones. A commercially available tractor and a trailer were used for the verification test. Values of the model parameters were measured or theoretically derived if the measurement was practically impossible. The tractor-trailer system was operated with different forward speeds over three equally spaced half-sine bumps on the flat concrete surface. Results of the verification tests showed that autospectra of the measured and simulated accelerations of the tractor-trailer system agreed well up to the frequencies slightly feater than the fundamental frequencies of the ground excitations and at the frequencies of engine excitations. The mean of normalized errors of the simulated responses to the measured ones was estimated to be less than 10% for all the test runs. The peak responses in the autospectra also coincided well both in the frequency and magnitude.
Predicting the Soluble Solids of Apples by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (I) - Multiple Linear Regression Models -
;W. R. Hruschka;J. A. Abbott;;B. S. Park;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 561~570
The MLR(Multiple Linear Regression) models to estimate soluble solids content non-destructively were presented to make a selection of optimal photosensor utilized to measure the soluble solids content of apples. Visible and NIR absorbance in the 400 to 2498 nanometer(nm) wavelength region, soluble solids content(sugar content), hardness, and weight were measured for 400 apples(gala). Spectrophotometer with fiber optic probe was utilized for spectrum measurement and digital refractometer was used for soluble solids content. Correlation between absorbance spectrum and soluble solids content was analyzed to pick out the optimal wavelengths and to develop corresponding prediction model by means of MLR. For the coefficient of determination(
) to be over 0.92, the MLR models out of the original absorbance were built based on 7 wavelengths of 992, 904, 1096, 1032, 880, 824, 1048nm, and the ones of the second derivative absorbance based on 5 wavelengths of 784, 1056, 992, 808, 872nm. The best model of the second derivative absorbance spectrum had
=0.91, bias= -0.02bx, SEP=0.28bx for unknown samples.
Predicting the Soluble Solids of Apples by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (II) - PLS and ANN Models -
;W. R. Hruschka;J. A. Abbott;;B. S. Park;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 571~582
The PLS(Partial Least Square) and ANN(Artificial Neural Network) were introduced to develop the soluble solids content prediction model of apples which is followed by making a subsequent selection of photosensor. For the optimal PLS model, number of factors needed for spectrum analysis were increased until the convergence of prediction residual error sum of squares. Analysis has shown that even part of the overall wavelength with no pretreatment may turn out better performing. The best PLS model was found in the 800 to 1,100nm wavelength region without pretreatment of second derivation, having
=0.9236, bias= -0.0198bx, SEP=0.2527bx for unknown samples. On the other hand, for the ANN model the second derivation led to higher performance. On partial range of 800 to 1,100nm wavelengh region, prediction model with second derivation for unknown samples reached
=0.9177, SEP=0.2903bx in contrast to
=0.7507, SEP =0.4622bx without pretreatment.
Some Physical Properties of Chopped Rice Straw
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 583~590
This study was performed to determine the kinetic friction coefficient bulk density, dynamic and static angle of repose, and terminal velocity of the chopped rice straw in the moisture range of 8~23%, which could be used for better design and operation of the processing machinery and handling facilities. Friction coefficient was determined from the horizontal traction force measured by pulling the container holding the mass of rice straw on the various plate materials. Bulk density was measured with an apparatus consisting of a filling funnel and a receiving vessel. Dynamic angle of repose was calculated from the photos of bulk samples piled by gravity flow on a circular platform. Static angle of repose was determined by measuring the side angle of the bulk material which was left in the cylindrical container after natural discharge of the bulk sample through a circular hole in the bottom plate. Kinetic friction coefficients of rice straw on the PVC, mild steel, stainless steel, and galvanized steel were in the range of 0.303~0.434, 0.222~0.439, 0.204~0.448, and 0.206~0.407, respectively. and indicated linear increase with moisture content. The effects of moisture change on the friction coefficients were in the order of PVC, mild steel, galvanized steel, and stainless steel. Bulk density, dynamic and static angle of repose, and terminal velocity were in the range of 56.8~60.3 kg/m
, and 1.07~4.48 m/s, respectively, and were increased linearly with the moisture content.
Light Intensity and Spectral Characteristics of Fluorescent Lamps as Artificial Light Source for Close illumination in Transplant Production Factory
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 591~598
Light intensity and spectral characteristics of different types of fluorescent lamps were tested to investigate their possibility as the artificial lighting sources for the close illumination applied in the transplant production factory. Photosynthetic photon flux densitiy(PPF), illuminance and irradiance for all lamps decreased logarithmically with an increase of the vertical distance from the lighting source. The fluorescent lamp specially designed plant growth (PG lamp) showed a maximum spectral irradiance at the wavelength of 660nm. However, it showed lower irradiance than that of a standard fluorescent lamp at the range of wavelength between 500 and 600nm. On the other hand, PG lamp showed higher PPF and lower illuminance than those of the standard fluorescent lamp. The maximum peak of spectral characteristics for both of the single and twin three-bind fluorescent lamps was shorn at the wavelength of 545m and the next peaks were shown at the wavelength of 610nm and 435nm, respectively. Since the red fluorescent lamp has a narrower peak at the wavelength of 660nm, it may be useful for the supplementary red lighting. For three of standard, single three-band and twin three-band fluorescent lamps, the values of conversion factor for converting illuminance to PPF fell within the narrow range from 76 to 791x/
. However, for PG lamp, it was 29.71x/
. Also, the values of conversion factor for converting PPF to irradiance of fluorescent lamp used in this study ranged between 4.85 and 5.34
Control of Environments in Greenhouse Using Programmable Logic Controller
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 599~606
This study was carried out to develop the control system with PLC and its operating software and to investigate its control ability of greenhouse environments. Two experimental greenhouses were controlled by PLC and ON/OFF controller, respectively. In greenhouse controlled by PLC, target values of air temperature, relative humidity and
concentration were automatically changed. In warm-water heating, the variation of air temperature was reduced to
by the method of proportional-integration(PI) control with an inverter. In ventilation, the variation of air temperature was reduced, since windows open and close with multistage by mutual relation formula among the target, indoor, and outdoor temperature. Relative humidity at daytime was maintained with range of 35% to 55% by PLC controlled fogger.
concentration was automatically controlled from 300 to 800
according to amount of solar radiation. The suppling amount and frequency of nutrient solution were controlled by total integrated solar radiation. Difference in the yield of cucumber in the greenhouse controlled by PLC and by ON/OFF controller was not significant at the 5% level.
Automatic Grading Algorithm for White Ginseng
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 607~614
An automatic grading algorithm was developed to replace the manual trading of white ginseng. The algorithm consists of three consecutive stages, (a) image acquisition and preprocessing, (b) mathematical feature extraction, and (c) grade decision using artificial neural network. Mathematical features such as area ratio, mean and standard deviation of graylevel, skewness of graylevel histogram, and the number of run segment are extracted from five equally divided parts of ginseng. An artificial neural network model was used to classify white ginsengs into three categories. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated using 120 ginseng samples and the rate of successful classification was 74%.
An Experimental Study on the Propagation Characteristics of Ultrasonic Wave in Watermelon
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 615~620
The nondestructive internal quality evaluation of agricultural products has been strongly required from the needs for individual inspection. In recent, ultrasonic wave has been considered as a solution for this problem. It transmit well through most materials and can handle safely and easily. However, specially in a watermelon, it is known that general frequency band (higher than 20kHz) ultrasonic waves do not transmitted well due to severe attenuation. The objectives of this study were to find out the proper waveform and frequency of the ultrasonic waves that transmit well inside the watermelon, and to analyze the transmitted waveform in order to make clear the structure of wave propagation in watermelon. The result of several experiments showed that 2kHz shear wave was the most suitable for the detection of internal cavity in the watermelon. Also, it was found that the surface wave did not influence the directly transmitted bulk wave. These results could be a basis of application of ultrasonic wave on the evaluation of internal quality of the watermelon.
Acoustic Impulse Method with Neural Network for Detection of Cracks in Eggshell
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 621~628
In order to develop an inspection algorithm for an automatic eggshell inspection system, acoustic impulse response with neural network method was studied. An improved error backpropagation algorithm was selected as a loaming rule of neural network, and three layer network was chosen for the neural network architecture. Acoustic signals in time domain and theirs power spectrum were studied as the input to the neural network. The classification feasibility and success rate were investigated in terms of statistical analysis and neural network approach. As a result, the success rate was 95% with the statistical model having five independent variables. Among the neural network models studied, the power spectrum of acoustic signal as the input with 64 input neurons and the two impact data showed the success rate of 95.5% which was slightly higher than of statistical analysis.
Development of Automatic Lettuce Harvesting System for Plant Factory
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 629~634
Factory-style plant production system aims to produce the standardized horticultural products with high quality and cleanness. In Korea, researches for year-round leaf vegetables production system are in progress and the most of them are focused on environment control. Automating technologies for harvesting, transporting and grading need to be developed. A lettuce harvesting system applicable to the plant factory was studied. It was composed of an articulated robot with a cutter and a gripper, lettuce feeding conveyor and air blower. Success rate of the developed system was 94.7 %. The system carried out harvesting a lettuce smoothly and the harvesting time was about 6 seconds per lettuce. The results showed a feasibility of robotic lettuce harvesting.
Dead Animal Composting Facility Operating Management
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 635~640
Research Trends and Their Perspectives in Milking Robot
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 1998, Pages 641~648