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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Soil-Lug Interaction Characteristics
;T. Kishimoto;;大友功一(K. ohotomo);;;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 25, issue 3, 2000, Pages 179~186
Interactions between wheel lug surfaces and soil were analyzed through wheel motion. In this paper, lug surfaces such as trailing and leading lug sides and a lug face were analyzed and reported. The interactions between the surfaces and soil were expressed as the horizontal and vertical directions of resultant forces acting on the surfaces. There analysis indicated qualitatively that (1) the trailing lug side is mainly related to produce motion resistance and reaction to dynamic load, (2) the lug face is related to produce not only the motion resistance, the reaction to the dynamic load but also the traction and (3) the leading lug side is mainly related to produce the traction and the reaction to the dynamic load. Experiments were conducted to prove the results of the motion analysis. Normal and tangential forces acting on the surfaces were measured, and the traction, the motion resistance and the reaction to the dynamic load were calculated with wheel rotational and lug design angles. The experiments proved that the results of wheel motion analyses above mentioned as (1), (2) and obtained from the analysis were correct.
Production of Carbonized Rice Husk by a Cyclone Combustor (III)
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 25, issue 3, 2000, Pages 187~194
One of effective utilization technique of rice husk is known to carbonize it for using as the culture materials. A series of study on the production of carbonized rice husk by a cyclone combustor shows that the carbonized rice husk produced have a strong alkalinity. Therefore, carbonized rice husk produced by a cyclone combustor is required to neutralize with proper normality. This work is the third part of a series on the production of carbonized rice husk by a cyclone combustor. In this work, the development of neutralization process was carried out in the range of experimental conditions recommended in the previous study. Those include the preheat temperature of combustion chamber of T1b=1273∼1373K, equivalence ratio =1.68∼2.17, auxiliary gas flow rates Qg=5.15∼6.43
/min. The injection technique of dilute acid was employed for neutralization. At the lower position of the outside of combustor, a dilute nitric acid selected as neutralization liquid was injected to the carbonized rice husk exhausted from the combustion chamber. The normalities of dilute nitric acid were varied to 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05N, respectively. The injection flow rates of the solution were changes from 1.7∼4
/min. The required carbonized and neutralized rice husk could be obtained at the dilute nitric acid with normality of 0.3N and flow rate of dilute nitric acid of 2∼3.5
/min. However, the carbonized and neutralized rice husks of about 10∼20% were destroyed by spray with high injection pressure.
Prediction of tillage Workability by Cone Index
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 25, issue 3, 2000, Pages 195~202
This study was conducted to recognize a possibility that cone index can be used as a means of evaluating the tillage workability. Cone indexes were measured every 24 hours after rainfall at the experimental plots, and the rotary and plowing operations were conducted at the same time. The workability was evaluated on a basis of three categories of good, fair and poor depending on the quality of the performed works. Although the workability was affected by many factors such as soil type, moisture content ground slope and weather condition, the duration and amount of rainfall were of most influence. Results of the study showed that a good workability was resulted from the cone indexes greater than an average of 552 kPa for rotary operations and 671 kPa for plowing operations. Fair work was obtained with cone indexes greater than an average of 331 kPa for rotary operations and 459 kPa for plowing operations. The cone indexes less than an average of 171 kPa and 149 kPa resulted in poor workabilities for rotary and plowing operations, respectively. The experimental results may provide a general guideline for evaluating the tillage workability by cone index.
Development of a Tractor Attached TMR Mixer (I) - Design of a TMR mixer and its performance test
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 25, issue 3, 2000, Pages 203~212
One of the obstructing factors against managing large-scaled dairy farm in Korea has been heavy labor requirement for feeding dairy cows. A tractor attached TMR mixer was developed to reduce the cost and to provide economic benefit in this research. The TMR mixer was designed to have a feeding capacity of 35 heads at a batch with various functioning systems of paddle type mixer, cutter and grinder, delivery conveyor, weighing console, power transmission train, and mounting trailer. The maximum power required during the mixing operarion was 26.3 kw(P.T.O), readily available from 32kw-rated tractors, which had been widely used in Korea. Low coefficient of variation(14.0%) revealed an uniform mixing performance of the mixer. The mixer can also be used in compost mixing as well as concentrates and roughage.
Design of a Prototype System for Graft-Taking Enhancement of Grafted Seedlings Using Artificial Lighting - Effect of air current speed on the distribution of air temperature and relative humidity in a graft-taking enhancement system
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 25, issue 3, 2000, Pages 213~220
Grafting of fruit-bearing vegetables has been widely used to increase the resistance to soil-borne diseases, to increase the tolerance to low temperature or to soil salinity, to increase the plant vigor, and to extend the duration of economic harvest time. After grafting, it is important to control the environment around grafted seedlings for the robust joining of a scion and rootstock. Usually the shading materials and plastic films are used to keep the high relative humidity and low light intensity in greenhouse or tunnel. It is quite difficult to optimally control the environment for healing and acclimation of grafted seedlings under natural light. So the farmers or growers rely on their experience for the production of grafted seedling with high quality. If artificial light is used as a lighting source for graft-taking of grafted seedlings, the light intensity and photoperiod can be easily controlled. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype system for the graft-taking enhancement of grafted seedlings using artificial lighting and to investigate the effect of air current speed on the distribution of air temperature and relative humidity in a graft-taking enhancement system. A prototype graft-taking system was consisted by polyurethane panels, air-conditioning unit, system controller and lighting unit. Three band fluorescent lamps (FL20SEX-D/18, Kumho Electric, Inc.) were used as a lighting source. Anemometer (Climomaster 6521, KANOMAX), T-type thermocouples and humidity sensors (CHS-UPS, TDK) were used to measure the air current speed, air temperature and relative humidity in a graft-taking system. In this system, air flow acted as a driving force for the diffusion of heat and water vapor. Air current speed, air temperature and relative humidity controlled by a programmable logic controller (UP750, Yokogawa Electric Co) and an inverter (MOSCON-G3, SAMSUNG) had an even distribution. Distribution of air temperature and relative humidity in a graft-taking enhancement system was fairly affected by air current speed. Air current speed higher than 0.1m/s was required to obtain the even distribution of environmental factors in this system. At low air current speed of 0.1m/s, the evapotranspiration rate of grafted seedlings would be suppressed and thus graft-taking would be enhanced. This system could be used to investigate the effects of air temperature, relative humidity, air current speed and light intensity on the evaportranspiration rate of grafted seedlings.
Heat Recovery Characteristics of the Hot Water Supply System with Exhaust Heat Recovery Unit Attached to the Hot Air Heater for Plant Bed Heating in the Greenhouse
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 25, issue 3, 2000, Pages 221~226
Hot air heater with light oil burner is the most common heater for greenhouse heating in the winter season in Korea. However, since the thermal efficiency of the heater is about 80∼85%, considerable unused heat amount in the form of exhaust gas heat discharges to atmosphere. In order to capture this exhaust heat a heat recovery system for plant bed heating in the greenhouse was built and tested in the hot air heating system of greenhouse. The heat recovery system is made for plant bed or soil heating in the greenhouse. The system consisted of a heat exchanger made of copper pipes,
located in the rectangular column of
, a water circulation pump, circulation plastic pipe and a water tank. The total heat exchanger area is 1.5
, calculated considering the heat exchange amount between flue gas and water circulated in the copper pipes. The system was attached to the exhaust gas path. The heat recovery system was designed as to even recapture the latent heat of flue gas when exposing to low temperature water in the heat exchanger. According to the performance test it could recover 45,200 to 51,000kJ/hr depending on the water circulation rates of 330 to
/hr from the waste heat discharged. The exhaust gas temperature left the heat exchanger dropped to
by the heat exchange between the water and the flue gas, while water gained the difference and temperature increased to
at the water flow rate of
/hr. By the feasibility test conducted in the greenhouse, the system did not encounter any difficulty in operations. And, the system could recover 220,235kJ of exhaust gas heat in a day, which is equivalent of 34% of the fuel consumption by the water boiler for plant bed heating of 0.2ha in the greenhouse.
Development of a Grain Circulating Type Natural Air In-bin Dryer (I) - Development of dryer and analysis of drying performance
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 25, issue 3, 2000, Pages 227~232
A natural air in-bin grain dryer with a grain circulator was developed for on farm use. Natural air drying test for rough rice was carried out to evaluate drying rate, uniformity of moisture content distribution in grain bed and energy consumption. It took 10 days to dry 8 ton of paddy rice from 21.9%(w.b) of moisture contents to 16.7%(w.b), by prototype dryer and the average drying rate was 0.52%/day. The uniformity of moisture content after drying was superior to a conventional natural air dryer in which grains were not mixed during drying periods. The dryer performance evaluation index was 738.3kJ/(kg.water), which was more effective than that of grain circulation type hot air dryer(3,500∼5,000 kJ/kg.water)
Development of a Ground Speed Monitoring System for Aerial Application
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 25, issue 3, 2000, Pages 233~240
A commercially available Doppler radar was modified and evaluated for on-board monitoring of ground speed. The radar output was corrected for pitch angle of aircraft based on the output of an electrolytic tilt sensor. The effects of aircraft speed, height and mounting angle on error in the ground speed were evaluated. The speed error decreased with an increase of the mounting angle since the radar contact angle with respect to the ground approached to the mounting angle. The error increased with an increase of the nominal aircraft speed. The altitude insignificantly affected the speed error. The Doppler radar provided acceptable percent errors within 5% in most measurements. The error can be reduced within
1.5% by increasing the mounting angle (
). The error of -3.8% at the mounting angle of
could be reduced by adjusting the mounting angle with respect to the radar contact angle.
Determination of Variable Rate Fertilizing Amount in Small Size Fields for Precision Fertilizing
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 25, issue 3, 2000, Pages 241~250
The feasibility of precision fertilizing for small size fields was studied by determining fertilizing amount of nitrogenous and calcareous to a cite specific region. A detailed soil survey at three experimental fields of
revealed a considerable spatial variation of the pH and organic matter(OM) levels. Soil organic matter was measured using Walkley-Black method and soil pH was measured with a pH sensor. Soil sample was obtained by Grid Node Sampling Method. The soil sampling depth was 10∼20 cm from the soil surface. To display soil nutrient variation, a soil map was made using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. In soil mapping, soil data between nodes was interpolated using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. The variation was about 1∼1.8 in pH value and 1.4∼7% in OM content. Fertilizing Amount of nitrogenous and calcareous was determined by th fertilizing equation which was proposed by National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology(NIAST). The variation of fertilizing amount was about 3∼11 kg/10a in nitrogenous and 70∼140 kg/10a in calcareous. The results showed a feasibility of precision fertilizing for small size fields.