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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Selecting the target year
Design of a Tire-Attachable Cage Wheel for Wetland Use (II) -Soil-cage wheel interaction-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~10
Interactions between cage wheel and soil under the wet paddy field condition were analyzed. The cage wheel as a traction aid to driving tires of tractor was attached to the outside of the tires. The driving torque transmitted only to the cage wheel was measured and its effect on the total driving torque by both the tires and cage wheel was analyzed. Mathematical models were developed to predict the soil thrusts y a single lug and by the cage wheel with many lugs, respectively. Experimental results showed that as the diameter of cage wheel increased, positive effects of the cage wheel on the traction also increased. About 33-40% of the total traction force was obtained by the cage wheel with a diameter 1,182mm and 49-55% with a diameter 1,222mm. The peak thrust of the single lug of cage wheel increased by 31% and 59%, respectively when the diameter of the cage wheel increased from 1,182mm to 1,222mm and 1,262mm. The thrust by the cage wheel was estimated by using the developed mathematical models and the results were proved that the models are reliable for the estimation of the traction by the cage wheels.
A Study on the Vibration Characteristics of a Head-Feeding Combine by Spectral Analysis
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 1, 2001, Pages 11~20
Experiments under the stationary and harvesting condition, were performed in order to investigate the vibration characteristics of a head-feeding combine. 6 degrees of freedom components of acceleration at the location of the center of the gravity, and 3 degrees of freedom components of acceleration at the location of the operator seat were measured independently. The vibration characteristics of the combine were estimated with the power spectral density of the time series data of accelerations. From this research, the following results were obtained. 1. Vibration of a head-feeding combine under the stationary condition(engine, thresher and cutter are driven without harvesting) is mainly influenced by the engine. Further, 1/3, 1/2 (sub-harmonic) frequency components of the engine are observed besides engine driving frequency component(45Hz). 2. Vibration of a head-feeding combine under the harvesting condition is influenced by the engine, threshing unit and driving unit. Namely, some kinds of vibration frequency components in harvesting are observed compared with stationary condition. Further, sub-harmonic frequency components of the engine are observed besides engine driving frequency component as same as stationary condition. From these results, it may be concluded that vibration of a head-feeding combine is characteristics of semi-periodic and nonlinear vibration.
Automation of Bio-Industrial Process Via Tele-Task Command(I) -identification and 3D coordinate extraction of object-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 1, 2001, Pages 21~28
Major deficiencies of current automation scheme including various robots for bioproduction include the lack of task adaptability and real time processing, low job performance for diverse tasks, and the lack of robustness of take results, high system cost, failure of the credit from the operator, and so on. This paper proposed a scheme that could solve the current limitation of task abilities of conventional computer controlled automatic system. The proposed scheme is the man-machine hybrid automation via tele-operation which can handle various bioproduction processes. And it was classified into two categories. One category was the efficient task sharing between operator and CCM(computer controlled machine). The other was the efficient interface between operator and CCM. To realize the proposed concept, task of the object identification and extraction of 3D coordinate of an object was selected. 3D coordinate information was obtained from camera calibration using camera as a measurement device. Two stereo images were obtained by moving a camera certain distance in horizontal direction normal to focal axis and by acquiring two images at different locations. Transformation matrix for camera calibration was obtained via least square error approach using specified 6 known pairs of data points in 2D image and 3D world space. 3D world coordinate was obtained from two sets of image pixel coordinates of both camera images with calibrated transformation matrix. As an interface system between operator and CCM, a touch pad screen mounted on the monitor and remotely captured imaging system were used. Object indication was done by the operator’s finger touch to the captured image using the touch pad screen. A certain size of local image processing area was specified after the touch was made. And image processing was performed with the specified local area to extract desired features of the object. An MS Windows based interface software was developed using Visual C++6.0. The software was developed with four modules such as remote image acquisiton module, task command module, local image processing module and 3D coordinate extraction module. Proposed scheme shoed the feasibility of real time processing, robust and precise object identification, and adaptability of various job and environments though selected sample tasks.
Development of Autonomous Combine Using DGPS and Machine Vision
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 1, 2001, Pages 29~38
A navigation system was developed for autonomous guidance of a combine. It consisted of a DGPS, a machine vision system, a gyro sensor and an ultrasonic sensor. For an autonomous operation of the combine, target points were determined at first. Secondly, heading angle and offset were calculated by comparing current positions obtained from the DGPS with the target points. Thirdly, the fuzzy controller decided steering angle by the fuzzy inference that took 3 inputs of heading angle, offset and distance to the bank around the rice field. Finally, the hydraulic system was actuated for the combine steering. In the case of the misbehavior of the DGPS, the machine vision system found the desired travel path. In this way, the combine traveled straight paths to the traget point and then turned to the next target point. The gyro sensor was used to check the turning angle. The autonomous combine traveled within 31.11cm deviation(RMS) on the straight paths and harvested up to 96% of the whole rice field. The field experiments proved a possibility of autonomous harvesting. Improvement of the DGPS accuracy should be studied further by compensation variations of combines attitude due to unevenness of the rice field.
Study on the Conditioning of Brown Rice (I) -Property variation and predicted model of brown rice after Conditioning-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 1, 2001, Pages 39~46
This research conducted to investigate the variation of the moisture content, crack ratio, and hardness of the whole and cracked brown rice after conditioning at the initial moisture content of 13, 14, and 15% with time lapse. The conditioning was conducted by increasing the moisture content of the sample to 0.4 and 0.8%. For basic information and conditioning characteristics for the development of a conditioning machine for the brown rice, predicted models of above three properties were developed using a nonlinear regression analysis of SAS with Gauss-Newton, Gradient, and DUD methods. Results of this research could be summarized as follows. 1. No moisture variation occurred after 0.5 hour conditioning. 2. The increasement of the crack ratio was 7.6 and 17.5% with the sample increased the moisture content of 0.4 and 0.8%, respectively, after 8 hours conditioning. 3. The hardness of the conditioned whole grain of the brown rice decreased 0.82 and 1,000kg
f/ with the sample increased moisture content 0.4 and 0.8%, respectively, after 8 hours conditioning with respect to the non-conditioned sample. 4. The hardness of the conditioned cracked grain of the brown rice decreased 0.54 and 0.81kg
f/ with the sample increased moisture content 0.4 and 0.8%, respectively, after 8 hours conditioning with respect to the non-conditioned sample. The hardness of the broken grain was about 0.81∼1.88kg
f/ lower than whole grain. 5. The moisture content variation, increasing rate of the crack ratio, and hardness of the cracked and whole grain was predicted as a negative exponential function. 6. Each predicted model with the nonlinear regression analysis, which was very accurate and had a very small amount of sum of square of error between experimental value and predicted value, which could be used for predicting the physical variation after conditioning.
Development of Ceramic Roll Materials for Food Grinding Processing and Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 1, 2001, Pages 47~56
In order to prevent the possibility of mixing of metal powder during food grinding processing with the metal roll mill this study was conducted to develope the materials of ceramics roll as a substitute of gray cast iron mill. Since the ceramics is brittle material and can be broken easily by a crack, it was needed to develope engineering ceramics roll materials with high elastic modulus and fracture toughness. Adding 0∼50 wt% Al
as densification additives to porcelain body material and forming the ceramics an different condition, mechanical properties were evaluated. The material structure’s densification process was analyzed by SEM and XRD. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of ceramics roll materials were compared and analyzed by non-destructive test using Young’s modulus and destructive test using 3-point bending strength and fracture toughness. The results showed several correlative results. Porcelain body material with 40 wt% Al
content heated at 1,200
for 5h was high bulk density of 2.77, Young’s modulus of 118.4Gpa, 3-point bending strength of 137 MPa and fracture toughness of 2.88 MPa
/ . After analyzing the relationship between non-destructive test and destructive test, the coefficient of determination was more than 0.9. Therefore, the evaluation of non-destructive test by ultrasonic was turned out to be feasible in evaluating the mechanical properties of ceramics.
Adsorption Equilibrium Moisture Content of Rough Rice, Brown Rice, White Rice and Rice Hull
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 1, 2001, Pages 57~66
This study was performed to determine adsorption equilibrium moisture contents of rough rice, brown rice, white rice and rice hull grown in Korea. EMC values were measured by static method using saturated salt solutions at three temperature levels of 20
, and eight relative humidity levels in the range from 11.2% to 85.0%. The measured EMC values were fitted to modified Henderson, Chung-Pfost, and modified Oswin models by using nonlinear regression analysis. The results of comparing root mean square errors for three models showed that modified Henderson and Chung-Pfost models could serve as good models, and that modified Oswin model could not be applicable to rough rice, brown rice, white rice and rice hull.
Composting Agricultural Waste
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 1, 2001, Pages 67~73