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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Selecting the target year
Development of a Linear Chemigation System
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 93~104
A linear chemigation system, integrating agrichemical appication units of pesticide and fertilizer into an irrigation system, was selected as a suitable model for the cost savings in farm management and automation. Technical designs were conducted in the areas of structure, power, drive, control, and hydraulic systems. An experimental farm was sectioned into the fields of 40m by 200m and systemized with the linear-move chemigation system of 36m in span. The chemigation system consisted of a base unit monitoring and controlling overall operation, and a driving unit traveling linearly and injecting agrichemicals. Monitoring and interlocking systems were utilized against unexpected malfunctions of power, injection and drive systems using radio freuency modems between the units. The system can be also modified to various farm sizes and stationary systems of indoor and outdoor.
Vibration Characteristics of Boxthorn(Lycium chinense Mill)
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 105~114
Modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity, damping ratio, and natural frequency of three varieties of boxthorn (Lycium chinense Mill) (Cheongyang #2, Cheongyang gugija, and Cheongyang native) branches were analyzed. Modulus of elasticity and modulus of elasticity and modulus of rigidity of the boxthorn branch was determined using standard formula after simple beam bending and torsion test, respectively, using an universal testing machine. Damping ratio and natural frequency of branches were determined using a system consisted of an accelerometer, a PC equipped with A/D converter, and a software for data analysis. Relationship between the elastic modulus and branch diameter in overall varieties and branch types showed a good correlation (r -0.81). There was, however, no correlation between torsional rigidity and branch diameter. The internal damping results were highly variable and the overall range of the damping ratio of the boxthorn branch was 0.014-0.087, which indicated that the branch was a lightly damped structure. The natural frequency of the boxthorn branch was in the range of 89-363 rad/s for the overall varieties and branch types. A good correlation (r 0.82) existed between the natural frequency and branch diameter in overall varieties and branch type.
Development of An Impact-Type Seed-Metering Device for Rice-Seed Pellets
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 115~122
An impact-type seed-metering device was developed for the planting of rice-pellets. In this study, new design of pellet-metering device focused on simplicity and precision seeding for the planting of rice-seed pellets. In addition of seed-metering device, several devices were also developed such as seed-guiding device, seed-supplying tube and furrow opener for precision pellet planting. Field test was conducted to estimate the planting performance of the developed metering device. As a cam rotates, the impact bar of the metering device pushes a rice-seed pellet so that the seed can be discharged from the seed-supplying tube in the impact-type seed-metering device. Results of the tests showed that mean seeding spacing was 12cm at the traveling speed of 1.0m/s, corresponding to a target spacing for planting of rice-seed pellets. Also, both miss-seeded rate and damaged-seed rate were less than 2.0%, indicating acceptable levels for the precision planting. The developed mechanism of the impact-type metering device can be directly applied to the design of metering devices for the precision pellet planting of other crops.
Tire Inflation Pressures Effects on 3 Directional Contact Pressures Between Soil and Undertread for a Tractor Tire
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 123~130
The research described in this paper was aimed toward improving the understanding of the interaction of tire inflation pressure and the soil-tire interface stresses. A three-directional stress transducer was developed to measure stress distribution on undertread for a tractor tire. The transducer can directly measure three-directional stresses (normal stress, tangental stress and lateral stress and lateral stress) simultaneously and has both strong structure and high sensitivity, which is not changed by the abrasion of the detecting plate. Measurements of soil-undertread interface stresses were made at tire center on undertread on a 12.4-R24 radial tractor tire opeated at three combinations of a dynamic load (11.8kN) and three inflation pressures (59kPa, 108kPa and 157kPa). These measurements showed that as inflation pressure increased, the soil-undertread interface stresses increased. The results of three stresses comparisons were shown that the peak normal stresses were considerably higher than the tangential peak stresses and the peak lateral stresses.
Development of Rotating Corn Type Garlic Separator(I) -Prototype and its performance test-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 131~140
This study was conducted to develop a garlic separator which could to reduce the labor in preparation of seeding. After consideration of the design criteria of a garlic separator such as no additional conveying device, simple construction and operation, enhancement of separating efficiency, reduction of damage, degree a rotating corn type garlic separator was designed. The effects of design parameters such as height and angle of the inner and outer corns, rotating speed of inner corn on the separating performance of the prototype were estimated. In performance was compared with manual work. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Garlic bulbs were separated by a spiral movement in the gap between inner rotating corn and outer fixed corn. At constant feed rate of garlic bulbs, the capacity of garlic separation increased with increase of rotating speed of inner corn. Especially, the capacity was very high at the rotating speeds of 300 and 400rpm. 2. The damage degree of separated garlics increased with rotating speed of corn within 10%. Above 300rpm, separability of Uisung garlic was about 100% and incomplete separation of Namdo garlic was within 2%. 3. The capacity of prototype garlic separator developed in this study was 30 times as large as that of human being.
Development of Internet Expert System Tool using ASP
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 141~146
Lots of the agricultural information come from human experiences and are in non-numerical forms. Therefore, it is difficult to process to be processed in a conventional data processing way. An internet expert system for agricultural application using the ASP(active server page) was developed to solve this problem and consisted of databases, an inference engine, and an user interface. The databases were composed of rule base, question base and link data. The inference engine was developed with the ASP for connection with web between databases. The used interface was developed with the CGI(common gateway interface), so that question could be answered on a web browser, and the session technique was used to provide proper result to each of multi-users. A prototype internet expert system was developed for diagnosis of diseases and nutritional disorders of paddy rice. The expert system was interactively worked through WWW(world wide web) at remote sites by multi-users, even at the same time. The rule base could be easily updated and modified from a web server computer by a knowledge engineer.
Development of Automatic Grading and Sorting System for Dry Oak Mushrooms -2nd Prototype-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 147~154
In Korea and Japan, dried oak mushrooms are classified into 12 to 16 different categories based on its external visual quality. And grading used to be done manually by the human expert and is limited to the randomly sampled oak mushrooms. Visual features of dried oak mushrooms dominate its quality and are distributed over both sides of the gill and the cap. The 2nd prototype computer vision based automatic grading and sorting system for dried oak mushrooms was developed based on the 1st prototype. Sorting function was improved and overall system for grading was simplified to one stage grading instead of two stage grading by inspecting both front and back sides of mushrooms. Neuro-net based side(gill or cap) recognition algorithm of the fed mushroom was adopted. Grading was performed with both images of gill and cap using neural network. A real time simultaneous discharge algorithm, which is good for objects randomly fed individually and for multi-objects located along a series of discharge buckets, was developed and implemented to the controller and the performance was verified. Two hundreds samples chosen from 10 samples per 20 grade categories were used to verify the performance of each unit such as feeding, reversing, grading, and discharging unites. Test results showed that success rates of one-line feeding, reversing, grading, and discharging functions were 93%, 95%, 94%, and 99% respectively. The developed prototype revealed successful performance such as the approximate sorting capability of 3,600 mushrooms/hr per each line i.e. average 1sec/mushroom. Considering processing time of approximate 0.2 sec for grading, it was desired to reduce time to reverse a mushroom to acquire the reversed surface image.
Thermal Characteristics and Simulation Model Development for Greenhouse Heating System with Heat Pump
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 155~162
The greenhouse heating system with heat pump was built for development of simulation model and validation. The computer simulation model for the system to predict temperature of air and soil and moisture content of soil in the greenhouse were developed, and its validity was justified by actual data. From the analysis of experimentally measured data and the simulation output, following results were obtained. 1. The expected values of inside air temperature for the heating system with heat pump were very much close to the experimental values. 2. In the heating system with heat pump, the expected values of day time surface temperature of soil by computer simulation were very much similar to the measured values, but those of night time were higher than the measured value by at most 2.0
. 3. The simulation model predicted temperature of greenhouse film as of 1
below than the mean value of ambient air and greenhouse air temperature. 4. Heat loss value of daytime was found to be larger than that of nigh as much as 1.3 to 2.3 times for the heating system with heat pump. 5. In the heating system with heat pump, when the lowest ambient temperature was -8
the air temperature of greenhouse was 5
, thus the heat pump heating system contributed in greenhouse heating by 13
A Robotic Milking Manipulator for Teat-cup Attachment Modules
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 163~168
A manipulator for test-cup attachment modules, which was a part of a robot milking system, was developed to reduce cost and labor for cow milking processing. A Cartesian coordinate manipulator was designed for the milking process, because it was quite flexible and can be constructed more economically than any other configuration. The manipulator was made use of DC motors, screws for power transmission, a RS422 interface system for the transmission of coordinate values and a one-chip microprocessor, 89C52. Performance tests of the manipulator were conducted to measure experimentally the precision of all axes. Some of the results are as follows. 1. The Cartesian coordinate manipulator was designed and built. Dimension of the three perpendicular axes (X, Y, and Z) and one arm’s axis(W) to pick up and transfer the modules were 700㎜
650㎜. The arm’s axis moved the teat-cup attachment module, which attached four teat-cup to four teats, detached four teat-cup from four teats, was designed and manufactured by using CAD, CAM and CNC. 3. After 10 replications of exercising the manipulator, mean precision values(positioning error) of X, Y, Z axes wee 0.48㎜, 0.20㎜, 0.19㎜, respectively. Therefore, we conclude the axes to have a precision better than 0.5㎜, had no problem to operate correctly the milking manipulator.
Defect Detection of ‘Fuji’ Apple using NIR Imaging(I) -Optical characteristics of defects and selection of significant wavelelength-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 169~176
Defect of apple was depreciated the product value and causes storage disease seriously. To detect the defect of ‘Fuji’apple with machine vision system, the optical characteristics of defect should be investigated. In this research, absorbance spectra of defect were acquired by spectrophotometer in the range of visible and NIR region(400∼1,100nm) and L*a*b* color values were also acquired by colorimeter. NIR machine vision system was constructed with B&W camera, frame grabber, 16 tungsten-halogen lamps, variable focal length lens and NIR bandpass filter which was mounted to lens outward. Average gray values of defect at 15 NIR wavelength were acquired and the significant NIR wavelength was selected by comparing Mahalanobis distance between sound and defective apple. As the result of Mahalanobis distance analysis, the significant wavelength to discriminate the defectives in ‘Fuji’apple were found to be 720nm for scab and 970nm for bruise and cuts and 920nm was also effective regardless of defective types.
Milling Characteristics of Vertical Small Scale Milling Machine for the Rough Rice -Optimum design conditions of main spindle speed, ceramic coating length of roller and feed screw pitch-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 177~188
This research was carried out to examine the optimum design conditions of a vertical small-scale milling machine where the rough rice is processed directly into the white rice in one pass. Effects of the main spindle speed, feed screw pitch and ceramic coating length of the roller on various milling characteristics such as white rice processing capacity, electric energy consumption, rice temperature increase, broken rice ratio, moisture reduction, outlet force and crack ratio increase were studied. The results are as follows. 1. The maximum white rice processing capacity and the lowest crack ratio increase, were obtained from a machine with specification: main spindle speed of 970rpm having a feed screw pitch of 19㎜. 2. The minimum electric energy consumption was obtained with the main spindle speeds of 900 and 970rpm respectively having a feed screw pitch of 19㎜. 3. The rice temperature was increased as the feed screw pitch decreased and the main spindle speed increased. 4. Broken rice ratio was relatively low with the range of 0.8∼1.3%. 5. Moisture content loss was with the range of 0.05∼0.4%. 6. The highest outlet force was 0.72kg
f/ with 900rpm of the main spindle speed and 19㎜ of the feed screw pitch and the lowest outlet force was 0.18∼0.34kg
f/ with 970rpm of the main spindle speed and 16㎜ of the feed screw pitch. 7. The optimum design conditions for the vertical small-scale milling machine were obtained at 970rpm of the main spindle speed, 19㎜ of the feed screw pitch and 20㎜ of the ceramics coating length.
Biosensor for Agriculture and Bio-industry
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 2, 2001, Pages 189~196