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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Selecting the target year
Measurements of Soil Deformation Using 3-Dimensional Form Determination
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2001, Pages 409~414
This paper reports a technique for measuring a three-dimensional soil deformation and a simplified method to determine the three-dimensional contact area of agricultural tires in a soil bin. A Pirelli 12.4R28 radial-ply tire was used on soft soil. Effects of dynamic load and inflation pressure were determined using the equipment for measuring soil deformation on the soil surface. Soil deformation measurements were made under three conditions of over-load (59kPa-14.2kN), rated-load (108kPa-11.8kN) and under-load (157kPa-9.3kN) in the combinations of the inflation pressures (kPa) and the tire load (kN). The results from three conditions were shown that the contact area of the over-load increased considerably bigger than those of the rated-load and the under-load. Therefore, to regulate soil deformation, the inflation pressure and the tire load should be set according to the soil conditions.
Development of a Pick-up Device for Plug-Seedlings
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2001, Pages 415~422
A seedling pick-up device for vegetable transplanters was developed and its work performance was evaluated at the laboratory. The pick-up device extracts seedlings from a 200-cell tray of seedlings and transfers them to the place where they are to be transplanted into the soil. The device consists of a path generator, pick-up pins and a pin driver. The path generator is a five-bar mechanism comprised of a fixed link, a driving link, a driven link, a connecting link and a slider. The slider is constrained to move along the driven link and a fixed slot of combined straight-line and circular paths. The connecting link joins the driving link and the slider. When the slider moves along the straight-line path of the slot it takes seedlings out from the cell and transfers them to the transplanting hopper when moving along the circular path. A proto-type of the pick-up device was built and tested under the various operational conditions such as age of seedling, approach direction and penetration depth of pins to the cell, holding method of seedling and extracting velocity. The device extracted 30 seedlings per minute with the maximum success ratio of 97% using the seedlings of 23 days old. Some design details were also discussed and suggested to enhance the performance of the device.
Study on the Development of High-speed Rotary Tilling System for Power Tiller
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2001, Pages 423~430
The purpose of this study is to develop high-speed rotary tillage system for a power tiller by improving the rotary blade and the power train of transmission. Mechanical structure of gear train of rotary drive of conventional power tiller was simplified so that power can be transmitted directly from second shaft to tilling speed change shaft by rotating freely the transfer gear which changes the direction of rotation of shafts using needle bearing installed into middle shaft. A new gear train suitable for the single-edged rotary blade and high-speed rotary drive was developed with the rotational speed of rotary shaft faster than 7.5% at 1st-speed and 1.4% at 2nd-speed the one of conventional system by changing the numbers of teeth of gears of middle shaft, tilling speed change shaft and PTO shaft. Using the developed gear train for high-speed rotary drive, field tests were performed to compare tillage performances by the developed single-edged blade and by the conventional double-edged blade. The results showed that the performances by the single-edged blade compared with the one by the double-edged blade was improved about 18% in field capacity, about 34% in fuel consumption, and 9.4% in soil crushing ratio. Therefore, it may be concluded that tillage performance by the single-edged blade was improved compared to the one by the conventional blade. Evaluation of the developed system consisting of single-edged blade and gear train for high-speed rotary drive in field revealed that tillage performance of the developed system was similar to the one of field test conducted using the system consisting of single-edged blade and gear train for rotary drive of conventional power tiller However, considering the higher cone index of the upland field where evaluation was carried out compare to the one of the ordinary paddy field, it may be concluded that tillage performance of the developed rotary tilling system better than the one of conventional system.
Size Distribution of Droplets Sprayed by an Orchard Sprayer
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2001, Pages 431~440
Generated agri-chemical droplets by orchard sprayers are evaporated regenerated and transported along wind streams. The droplets are deposited to targets after changing their sizes, affecting the retention of droplets. An orchard sprayer, designed for spraying grapevines was studied on the spatial distribution of droplet size. The experimental variables were spray direction (0, 22.5, 45, 67.5 and 90˚), distance(2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 m) and fan speed (2,075 and 3,031 rpm). Droplet sizes were converted and analyzed from spray stains, sampled using water sensitive papers. The number median diameter (NMD) increased with an increase of the distance due to disappeared fine droplets (<50 ㎛): however, the volume median diameter (VMD) decreased due to shrunken large droplets (>100 ㎛). Fast fan speed delivered large droplets to 3.5 m, but the spatial distributions of NMD and VMD were not uniform. Slower fan speed decreased the possibility of evaporation and drift; therefore, plenty of droplets were maintained up to 3.0 m. The upward blasting distance was limited within 3 m, but the limit to the ground level was extended to 3.5 m. Concentrated wind and droplets to the ground level should be redistributed to upper canopy direction, leading more uniform deposits. High speed wind and system pressure should be avoided because of generating fine droplets, which would be disappeared and drifted away.
Heat Recovery Characteristics of the Exhaust Heat Recovery System with Heat Pipe Unit Attached to the Hot Air Heater in the Greenhouse
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2001, Pages 441~448
Hot air heater with light oil combustion is used as the most common heater for greenhouse heating in the winter season. However, exhaust gas heat discharged to atmosphere through chimney reaches up to 10~20% of total heat capacity of the oil burred. In order to recover the heat of this exhaust gas and to use for greenhouse heating, the heat pipe type exhaust heat recovery system was manufactured and tested in this experiment. The system consisted of a heat exchanger made of heat pipes, ø15.88
600mm located in the rectangular box of 675(L)
370(H)mm, an air suction fan and air ducts. The number of heat pipe was 60, calculated considering the heat exchange amount between exhaust gas and air and heat transfer capacity of a heat pipe. The working fluid of heat pipe was acetone because acetone is known for its excellent heat transfer capacity. The system was attached to the exhaust gas path. According to the performance test it could recover 53,809 to 74,613kJ/h depending on the inlet air temperature of 12 to -12˚at air flow rate of 1.100㎥/h. The temperature of the exhaust gas left the heat exchanger dropped to 100
after the heat exchange between the suction air and the exhaust gas.
Simulation for Performance Analysis of a Grain Cooler
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2001, Pages 449~460
This study was carried out to develop a simulation model with EES(Engineering equation solver) for analyzing the performance of a grain cooler. In order to validate the developed simulation model, several main factors which have affected on the performance of the gain cooler were investigated through experiments. A simulation model was developed in the standard vapor compression cycle, and then this model was modified considering irreversibe factors so that the developed alternate model could predict the actual cycle of a grain cooler. The compressor efficiency in vapor compression cycle considering irreversibility much affected on the coefficient of performance(COP). The COP in the standard vapor compression cycle model was greatly as high as about 6.50, but the COP in an alternative model considering irreversibility was as low as about 3.27. As a result of comparison between the actual cycle and the vapor compression cycle considering irreversibility, the difference of pressure at compressor outlet(inlet) was a little by about 48kPa (8.8kPa), the temperatures of refrigerant at main parts of the grain cooler were similar. and the temperature of chilled air was about 8
in both. The model considering irreversibility could predict performance of the grain cooler. The theoretical period required to chill grain of 1,383kg from the initial temperature 24
to below 11
was about 55 hours 30 minutes, and the actual period required in a grain bin was about 58 hours. The difference between the predicted and an actual period was about 2 hours 30 minutes. The cooling performance predicted by the developed model could well estimate the cooling period required to chill the grain.
Estimation of Allowable Drop Height for Oriental Pears by Impact Tests
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2001, Pages 461~468
Impact between fruits and other materials is a major cause of product damage in harvesting and handling systems. The oriental pears are more susceptible to bruising than other fruits such as European pears and apples, and are required more careful handling. The interest in the handling of the pears for the processing systems has raised the question of the allowable drop height to which pears can be dropped without causing objectionable damage. Drop tests on pears were conducted using an impact device developed by authors to estimate the allowable drop height without bruising. The impact device was constructed to hold in a selected orientation and to release a fruit by vacuum for dropping on to a force transducer. The drop height was adjustable for zero to 60 cm to achieve the desired distance between the bottom of the fruits and the top of the impact force transducer. The transducer was secured to 150 kg
f/ concrete block. The transducer signal was sampled every 0.17 ms with a strain gage measurement board in the micro computer where it was digitaly stored for later analysis. The selected sample fruit was Niitaka cultivar of pears which is one of the most promising fruit for export in Korea. The pears were harvested during the 1998 harvest season from an orchard in Daejeon. The sample fruit was selected from two groups which were stored for 3 months and 5 months respectively by the method of current commercial practice. The pears were allowed to stabilize at environmental condition(18
, 65% rh) of the experimental room. One hundred fifty six pears were tested from the heights of 5, 7.5. 10 and 12.5 cm while measurement were made of impact peak force, contact time, time to peak force, dwell time, pear diameter and mass. The bioyield strength and modulus of elasticity were measured using UTM immediately after each drop test. The allowable drop height was estimated on the base of bioyield strength of the pears in two ways. One was assumed the peak force during impact test increasing linearly with time, and the other was based on the actual drop test results. The computer program was developed for measuring the impact characteristics of the pears and analyzing the data obtained in the study. The peak force increased while contact times decreased with increasing drop height and contact times of the sample from the hard tissue group. The allowable drop height increased with increasing bioyield strength and contact times, and also varied with Poisson\`s ratio, mass and equilibrium radius of the pears. The allowable drop height calculated by a theoretical method was in the range from 1 to 4 cm, meanwhile, the estimated drop height considering the result of the impact test was in the range from 1 to 6 cm. Since the physical properties of fruits affected significantly the allowable drop height, the physical properties of the fruits should be considered when estimating the allowable drop height.
Development of Automatic Rewetting System for Rough Rice Stored in Round Steel Bin with Stirring Device -Adsorption characteristics of rough rice-
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2001, Pages 469~474
Milling the rice with low moisture requires more energy, produces more cracked rice, and results in reducing taste of cooked rice. Accordingly, it is necessary to add moisture to the rice with low moisture to obtain optimum moisture level for milling and taste of rice. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of initial moisture content and absorption rate on rice crack, milling energy and whiteness of milled rice and to obtain the information for design of rewetting system mounted on stirring device in grain bin. The tests were conducted for the four levels of initial moisture content in the range of 11.4 to 14.5%(w.b.) and six levels of absorption rate in the range of 0.04 to 1.0%, w.b./hr. In the case of lower moisture content below 12%(w.b.), crack ratios of brown rice were remarkably high regardless of initial moisture contents. Therefore, it was found that rough rice below 12%(w.b.) in initial moisture content could not rewetted by spraying water without crack generation of low level. Absorption rate must be below 0.3%, w.b./hr to maintain crack ratio increase of less than 1% regardless of initial moisture contents. In the case of allowable crack ratio increase of 2% and 5%, it was found that the maximum absorprion rate was respectively 0.6%, w.b./hr and 1.0%, w.b./hr in the initial moisture content of above 13.5%(w.b.). Rewetting the rough rice in moisture content of 11.4 to 14.5%(w.b.) to 14.3 to 16.9%(w.b.) decreased milling energy consumption by 15.9 to 22.3%. The effect of energy saving was higher in the samples of higher initial moisture content. Whiteness of milled rice was decreased by 0.5 to 1.5.
Measurement of Soil Organic Matter Using Near Infra-Red Reflectance
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2001, Pages 475~480
Sensing soil organic matter is crucial for precision farming and environment friendly agriculture. Near infra-red(NIR) was utilized to measure the soil organic matter. Multivariate calibration methods, including stepwise multiple linear regression(MLR), principal components recession(PCR) and partial least squares regression(PLS), were applied to soil spectral reflectance data to predict the organic matter content. The effect of soil particle size and water content was studied. The range of soil organic matter contents was from 0.5 to 11%. Near infrared (NIR) region from 700 to 2,500nm was applied. For uniform soil particle size, result had good correlation (R
2/ = 0.984, standard error of prediction= 0.596). The effect of soil particle size could be eliminated with 1st order derivative of the NIR signal. However. moist soil had a little lower correlation. R
2/ was 0.95 and standard error of prediction was 0.94% using the PLS method. The results showed the possibility of soil organic matter measurement using NIR reflectance on the field.
Mounting Activity Detection of Cows by Radiotelemetry
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2001, Pages 481~486
To increase the production efficiency in dairy industry, proper artificial insemination is the most important operation. For the successful artificial insemination, accurate estrus detection is required. The Korean dairy farmers usually depended on visual observation for estrus detection of cows. Mounting behaviour is one of major inidications observed when cows are at an estrus. A mounting activity detection system for cows using radiotelemetry was developed. This system included a transmitter with a pressure switch, a receiver, a serial communication interface, a personal computer and a computer software. All components and a whole system were tested both in a laboratory and in a farm. The results of this study are as follows: 1. All components including transmitter, receiver and serial interface were operated according to the design specification. 2. A whole system tested with simulated mounting activity of 400 times showed 100% of success rate. 3. In the farm test for 4 days with three cows expecting estrus, one cows experiencing mounting activities showed correct response with this system. However two cows did not show mounting activities because of weak estrus and cold weather during the testing period.