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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Gear Rattle Using a Dynamic Load Model of Agricultural Tractor Driveline
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2002, Pages 371~380
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.5.371
The objectives of this study were to analyze gear rattle in a power drive line using its dynamic model and to derive design guidelines to eliminate it. A 72 degrees of freedom model of power driveline of an agricultural tractor was developed and proved to be valid fer predicting the collision characteristics of gears in mesh, which may determine whether or not the gear rattle will occur. Using the model the effects on the rattle of drag torque, backlash, mass moment of inertia, transmitting torque were analyzed. Increasing drag torque or decreasing mass moment of inertia reduced gear rattle. The gears transmitting power do not develop rattles. It was also found that a large amount of rattle is likely to be developed by the change gears placed at the end of idle shafts. Increasing the drag torque to such change gears may be the most effective way of reducing the gear rattle in a tractor driveline.
Development of a Rice Seed Pelleting Machine for Direct Seeding in Rice Cultivation
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2002, Pages 381~390
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.5.381
Direct seeding of rice-seed pellets is expected to be an alternative for solving problems in current direct seeding cultivation of rice. but mass production of rice-seed pellets is prerequisite for practical application. Design. construction and performance evaluation of an experimental rice seed pelleting machine were carried out for mass production of rice-seed pellets. The pelleting machine intended to make a ball type rice-seed pellet, which have 3∼5 rice seeds and diameter of which is 12 mm. Pellet materials ; rice seeds, soil, and binder were mixed and kneaded by the mixer. The designed rice seed pelleting machine fed pellet materials by screw conveyor to forming rolls and made rice-seed pellets. Capacity, ratio of perfect rice-seed pellets, seed and pellet material loss were investigated as mixing ratio of soil to rice seed and feeding rate of pellet materials. The pelleting machine showed up to 37,000 pellets/h of pelleting rate, 61∼71% of weight ratio of perfect rice-seed pellets to pellet materials supplied, 17∼48% of seed loss ratio. Average weight and average diameter of the pellets were 1.66 g and 12.0 mm. respectively. More than 3 rice seeds were included in most pellets at 6 : 1 of mixing ratio of soil to rice seed. And compression strength of the pellets was in the range of 88-130 N. To improve performance of the pelleting machine, improvements of the forming rolls, feeding mechanism, and discharging mechanism for reducing loss of pellet materials and seeds damage are needed.
Vibration Characteristics of Corrugated Fiberboard Boxes for Packages of Pears
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2002, Pages 391~398
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.5.391
During handling unitized products, they are subjected to a variety of environmental hazards. Shock and vibration hazards are generally considered the most damaging of the environmental hazards on a product and it may encounter while passing through the distribution environment. A major cause of shock damage to products is drops during manual handling. The increasing use of unitization of pallets has been resulted in a reduction of the shock hazards. This has caused an increasing interest in research focused on vibration caused dam age. Damage to the product by the vibration most often occurs when a product or a product component has a natural frequency that falls within the range of the forcing frequencies of the particular mode of transportation being used. Transportation vibration is also a major cause of fruit and vegetable quality loss due to mechanical damage. This study was conducted to determine the vibration characteristics of the corrugated fiberboard bones for packages of pears, and to investigate the degree of vibration injury of the pears in the boxes during the simulated transportation environment. The vibration tests were performed on an electrohydraulic vibration exciter. The input acceleration to exciter was fixed at 0.25 G for a single container resonance test and 0.5 G for the vertical stacked container over the frequency range from 3 to 100 Hz. Function generator (HP-33120A) was connected by wire to the vibration exciter for controlling the input acceleration at a continuous logarithmic sweep rate of 1.0 octave per min. The peak frequency and acceleration on the single box test were 22.02 Hz, 1.5425 G respectively, and these values on the vertical stacked boxes were observed from the bottom box 19.02, 18.14, 16.62 and 15.40 Hz and 2.2987, 3.7654. 5.6087, and 7.9582 G, respectively. The pear in the bottom box had a slightly higher damage level than the fruit packed in the other stacked boxes. It is desirable that the package and transportation system has to be so designed that 15∼20 Hz frequency will not occur during the transportation environment.
Development of an Automated Ordering and Packing Units for Sweet Persimmons
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2002, Pages 399~408
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.5.399
The sweet persimmons are producted 227,394 tons per year in Korea. They are preserved at cold storage after wrapping them in packing vinyl to maintain quality. Using conventional handwork, a skillful worker could probably produce only 1,000 packings a day. Hiring many skilled-labors to wrap sweet persimmons in packing vinyl seems to be difficult because of the recent rural crisis. Therefore, it was necessary to be developed for the automated ordering and packing unit that is convenient and laborsaving. This study were summarized as follows : Success rates of 99%, 100%, and 88% were observed for ordering parts, sealing and cutting films, and sealing films in the inlet part, respectively. The time required per 1 cycle was 16 seconds and the developed unit performed 225 cycles an hour. The unit showed an ability of 1,125 pieces per hour. Therefore, the productivity was 10 times greater than that of skillful handwork.
Development of an Autonomous Worker-Following Transport Vehicle (I) - Manufacture and indoor experiment of the prototype vehicle -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2002, Pages 409~416
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.5.409
This study was conducted to develop a vehicle, leading or following a worker at a certain distance to assist laborious transporting works in greenhouses. A prototype vehicle, which consisted of the rear driving, the front steering and the console units, was designed and tested in the ideal indoor conditions. Results of this study were summarized as following: 1. The driving unit was designed to travel at the speed ranges of 0.3∼0.8 m/sec depending on the operating modes with a maximum payload of 100 kg. 2. The console unit consisted of a main-board including a 80C196KC microprocessor and peripheral devices, a power-board and safety interlock. Worker-leading, and following modes were available in automatic and manual modes. 3. Steering was achieved by turning the steering motor against the sensed direction. Proper steering angles for correcting travel direction were determined as 5 and 9 degrees when sensing cultivation beds and plants, respectively.
Development of an Autonomous Worker-Following Transport Vehicle ( II ) - Supplementation of driving control system and field experiment -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2002, Pages 417~424
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.5.417
This study was conducted to develop a vehicle, leading or following a worker at a certain distance to assist laborious transporting works in greenhouses. A prototype vehicle was tested in the practical field conditions using a developed control algorithm. Results of this study were summarized as following: 1. The sensing device consisted of infrared sensors was attached to the front of the vehicle and turning following algorithm was developed to make the vehicle turned as it follows a worker simultaneously. 2. The measured average power consumptions were 110W and 89W, equivalent to 5.2-6.4 hrs battery durations, at low speed with and without the maximum payload, respectively. 3. Results of the travel tests showed that the deviations from the center of row spacing were
100 mm along the ridge and
85 mm along the hydroponic bed in the greenhouse. Therefore, the worker-following transport vehicle was feasible to travel along the row without collision in the greenhouse.
Study on Automatic Mixing of Nutrient Solution Using ion Electrodes for Closed-Loop Hydroponics
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2002, Pages 425~432
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.5.425
This study was carried out to develop an automatic mixing system of nutrient solution for closed-loop hydroponics using ion electrodes. The results of the study are summarized as follows: 1. It appeared that ion-electrodes had not to be soaked into nutrient solution for a long time since it was much less durable than EC or PH sensors. Once ion-electrodes were soaked into real nutrient solution for a long time, they became unstable. 2. ion measurement modules, which were able to sample recirculated nutrient solution and easily wash and dry ion-electrodes, were developed in order to use ion-electrodes continuously. 3. The results of calibration tests on three kinds of ion electrodes presented that the time required to read measurement data was over 30 seconds. Using the calibration data the regression equations for the ion electrodes were developed. 4. An automatic nutrient-solution mixing system using the three kinds of ion electrodes was developed and then its accuracy was examined. The control errors of the mixing system using ion electrodes were in the range of 9.8 to 12%.
Determination of Dairy Cow Food Intake using Simulated Annealing
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2002, Pages 433~450
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.5.433
The daily food intake for dairy cows has to be effectively controlled to breed a sound group of cows as well as to enhance the productivity of the cows. But, feed stuffs are fed in the common bulk for a group of cows in most cases despite that the individual food intake has to be varied. To obtain the feed for each cow, both the nutrient requirements and the nutrient composition of fred have to be provided in advance, which are based on the status of cows such as weigh marginal weight amount of milk, fat concentration in milk, growth and milking stages, and rough feed ratio, etc. Then, the mixed ration fur diet would be computed by the nutrient requirements constraints. However, when TMR (Total Mixed Ration) is conventionally supplied for a group of cows, it is almost impossible to get an optimal feed mixed ration meeting the nutrient requirements of each individual cow since the constraints are usually conflicting and over-constrained although they are linear. Hence, addressed in this paper is a simulated annealing (SA) technique to find the food intake for dairy cows, considering the characteristics of individual or grouped cows. Appropriate parameters fur the successful working of SA are determined through preliminary experiments. The parameters include initial temperature, epoch length. cooling scheduling, and stopping criteria. In addition, a neighborhood solution generation method for the effective improvement of solutions is presented. Experimental results show that the final solution for the mixture of feed fits the rough feed ratio and some other nutrient requirements such as rough fiber, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber, with 100 percent, while fulfilling net energy for lactating, metabolic energy, total digestible nutrients, crude protein, and undegraded intake protein within average five percent.
Development of Individual Electronic Identification System Using the Inductive Transmission Method for Stockbreeding Management
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2002, Pages 451~458
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.5.451
This paper introduces that livestock can be effectively managed by an individual electronic identification system. The proposed system was composed of the original code transmitter, receiver, personal computer, micro-processor, and RS485 telecommunications module. In the individual electronic identification system, the signal including encoded information of a milk-cow was transmitted from an original code transmitter to a micro-processor through RS485 telecommunications module. The transmitted signal can be successfully displayed in a personal computer. This system can be managed by 9999 individuals with a original code transmitter. The recognition rate of an individual electronic identification system was 98.5% and also auto-feeder operates very well. an individual electronic identification system was developed for automation of stockbreeding management. To automate the breeding management, it is necessary to obtain and analyze the individual information distinguished from others preferentially.
Development of Electronic Identification Unit Using RF
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2002, Pages 459~466
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.5.459
In Korea, a need of automatic dairy farm management system has been increased to lower production cost and to strengthen international competition. However, the present management system was mostly relied on foreign technologies and caused some problems in post management and after-sales services. Therefore, though there is a problem of price and quality at present, domestic technologies of the management system should be developed for the long run. This study was conducted to develop an electronic identification unit for an automatic dairy farm management system. The developed system was consisted of a tag, a reader, a switching circuit, and a personal computer. The tag attachable to each individual cow was developed to transmit individual radio frequency(RF) code into the air with modulation of ASK(amplitude shift keying). And the switching circuit was added to avoid confusion on reception and transmittance. The reader attached to a feeding device was developed to transmit activating signal periodically and to identify code of the individual tag when the tag was approached to the device. The reader was consisted of an active filter, a detecter, a comparator and a microcontroller. The test result was feasible enough to apply it for the automatic farm management system and the identified maximum distance was about 37cm.