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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Power Shuttle Characteristics of Agricultural Tractor
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2002, Pages 479~490
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.6.479
A dynamic model of a power shuttle transmission was developed and its validity was verified using the experimental data obtained from a transmission test bench. A 40㎾, 4WD tractor was also modeled using an application software EASY5 to investigate parameters and their effects on the power shifting performance. For a tractor model, the manual reverse gear was replaced by a power shuttle transmission. The tractor model also included an engine, main-gears for transmission, wheels, differentials and planet gears. Using the tractor model, the effects of the parameters such as modulating pressure and time, engine speed, tractor speed. tractor weight. reverse to forward speed ratio and torsional damper on the transient characteristics at starting and shuttle shifting were investigated by the computer simulation. The transient characteristics were represented by variations in clutch pressure, torque transmitted to input shaft and driving wheels, and power transmission capacity of the clutch. It was found that the modulating pressure and time affected most significantly the torque transmission and shifting time. The input torque, axle torque, power transmission capacity of the clutch and transmission time all increased with increase in engine speed, tractor speed. tractor weight and ratio of reverse to forward speeds. However, the axle torque decreased with tractor speed. Both the axle torque and power transmission capacity of the clutch also decreased with the ratio of reverse to forward speeds.
The Effect of Tire Inflation Pressure on Soil Compaction and Tractive Performance of Tractor
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2002, Pages 491~500
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.6.491
This study was carried out to investigate experimentally the effect of the tire inflation pressure of a tractor on soil compaction and tractive performance. Two kinds of field experiments were conducted using an agricultural tractor. One experiment is concerned with the tractive performance of the tractor at the three levels of tire inflation pressure; 50kpa, 100kpa and 200kpa, and the other one is about the soil compaction at the four levels of tire inflation pressure; 50kpa, 100kpa, 150kpa and 200kpa, at three different numbers of passes; 1, 3 and 5 passes. From the results of the field experiment, it was found that decreasing the tire inflation pressure decreased the motion resistance of tractor and increased the tractive force and tractive efficiency. The tractive and working performance of the tractor could be improved by the reduction of tire inflation pressure. Increasing the inflation pressure and the number of passes increased the soil compaction. Rate of compaction increased rapidly at the first pass and declined at subsequent passes. To reduce the effect of soil compaction for the whole field, it is recommended that tractor should follow the rut of the first pass from the subsequent passes, and decrease the inflation pressure of the driving tires up to allowable minimum level.
A Study on Zero-Condition of ASAE for Estimating Slip-Traction Relationship of Off-Road Vehicles
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2002, Pages 501~512
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.6.501
Traction performance of off-road vehicles is estimated using slip-traction relationships Two zero condition accepted by ASAE have been used widely to obtain the slip-traction relationships of off-road vehicles. This study was carried out using the soil bin systems to investigate the characteristic of slip-traction curves obtained using two zero conditions defined by ASAE. which are driving and driven zero condition, and to present disadvantage of slip-traction relationship based on two zero conditions of ASAE. The results of this study are summarized as follows : 1. For the driving zero condition, the curve of slip-traction relationship shows some issues. The first question is that the slip is zero when the traction is zero. The second question is that the value of slip is smaller than that of corresponding real slip, as the rolling radius decreased f3r the setting zero condition with driving wheel. 2. For the driven zero condition. slip occurs when the traction is zero, which is more realistic results than driving zero condition. But when a zero condition is set, skid occurs and this result increased the rolling radius of tire and increased slip value f3r the specific traction value of whole slip range. This kind of trend was getting bigger as the soil is softer, or the tire inflation pressure is higher. 3. From the results of this study, it was found that slip-traction relationship obtained by two zero conditions of ASAE is not realistic in estimating the traction performance of off-road vehicles. And also slip-traction relationship obtained for the same experimental condition showed different result in accordance with chosen zero condition,
Development of a Walking Garlic Harvester with Pulling Mechanism
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2002, Pages 513~520
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.6.513
A 5-row walking garlic harvester with pulling mechanism was developed in the study, based upon a kinematical analysis and related preliminary field tests on the conventional garlic harvesting method. The harvesting efficiency of the developed harvester was more than 98% in the garlic field irrigated before harvesting, 80-85% in the field without irrigation. The harvesting performance of the harvester was 660∼825㎡/hr at the forward speed of harvester of 0.3m/s in the irrigated field before garlic harvesting. For proper garlic drying and collection, the harvester discharged the harvested garlic on the ground uniformly at the angles of 135。∼150。 to its forward direction with the garlic bulb's placing toward the harvester. In the field tests, it was recommended that the forward speed of the harvester be approximately less than 0.2m/s, and that the spacing of planting garlic seeds should be standardized in the future fur increasing its harvesting efficiency.
Study on a Implement Control System for Agricultural Tractors
;;;;J. Y. Lee;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2002, Pages 521~528
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.6.521
Rotary and plow implements are mainly utilized for the tillage operation in Korea, and a implement control system for agricultural tractors was designed and fabricated to improve the working accuracy and efficiency. The control system was composed of three units: 1) sensors fur detection of angle of liftarm, draft force, engine rpm, tillage depth and so on, 2) a controller, and 3) hydraulic circuits, which included solenoid valves and so on, for operation of three point linkage and implements. The control system can control the speed(high and low speed) of implements by adjusting input flow rates of the hydraulic cylinder which was controled by two speed valve, which was composed of a solenoid valve and a orifice. Indoor experiments were conducted to evaluate response characteristics of the designed implement control system under experimental conditions of various engine nm, two kinds of input flow rates of the cylinder and some input frequency. The results of experiments showed the response characteristics sufficient to use as the implement control system fur agricultural tractors.
Basic Study on the Regenerator of Stilting Engine (II) - Heat transfer and flow friction loss characteristics of the regenerator with wire screen matrix -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2002, Pages 529~536
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.6.529
The performance of stilting engine, in particular, its energy conversion efficiencies are critically influenced by the regenerator characteristics. The regenerator characteristics are influenced by effectiveness, void fraction. heat transfer loss and fluid friction loss in the regenerator matrix. These factors were influenced by the surface geometry and material properties of the regenerator matrix. The regenerator design goals arc good heat transfer and low pressure drop of working Bas across the regenerator. Various data for designing a wire screen matrix have been given by Kays and London(1984). The mesh number of their experiment. however, was confined below the No. 60. which seems rather small for the Stirling engine applications. In this paper. in order to provide a basic data for the design of regenerator matrix, characteristics of heat transfer and flow friction loss were investigated by a packed mettled of matrix in oscillating flow as the same condition of operation in a Stirling engine. Seven kinds of sing1e wire screen meshes were used as the regenerator matrices. The results are summarized as follows; 1. While the working fluid flew slowly in the regenerator. the temperature difference was great at the both hot-blow(the working fluid flows from healer to cooler) and cold-blow(the working fluid flows from cooler to healer). On the other hand. while the working fluid flew fast. the temperature difference was not distinguished. 2. The No.150 wire screen used as the regenerator matrix showed excellent performance than tile others. 3. Phase angle variation and filling rate affected heat transfer or regenerator matrices. 4. Temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the regenerator is very hish in degree of 120 phase angle.
Development of an Automatic Soil Hardness Measuring System Mountable on Agricultural Tractors
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2002, Pages 537~546
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.6.537
In this study an automatic soil hardness measuring system mountable on agricultural tractors was developed to improve the accuracy of manual soil hardness testers by a constant penetrating rate, right direction of the cone-penetrometer and the isolation of vibration from the operator. This was necessary to supply similar experimental condition for performance test of new model and comparative experiment. The results of the study are summaried as follows; 1. The system consisted of a sensing part of soil hardness, a driving part of the measuring system and an attaching part between the tractor and the measuring system. 2. The allowable limit value of the system developed was set to 392N to protect from breaking the serve motor and the coupling used in this system. 3. The driving shaft penetrated into soil by 0.3m to measure soil hardness. The soil hardness was measured at the depth of 0.3m from the soil surface but the penetrating work was stopped and the driving shaft was pulled out to protect the system when the value of the soil hardness was too big on foreign substances like stones or straws. 4. Two values measured by automatic measuring system developed in this research and manual penetrometer were compared by statistics hypothesis testing method. When two people measured the soil hardness at the depth of 0.1 and 0.15m by manual cone penetrometer, there was no relationship between two values by two people but the values at the same depths by automatic measuring system developed showed similarity. The automatic system, therefore, developed in this research was proper for measuring soil hardness.
Development of a Garlic Clove Planter (II) - Design factors for a garlic clove planter -
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2002, Pages 547~556
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.6.547
Upright positioning of garlic cloves in mechanical planting has been considered as an essential process because pose of garlic affects not only initial budding and rooting of garlics but quality and yield. Due to the geometrical uniqueness and irregularity of garlic cloves in shape, manual planting operation has been conducted. The overall objective of this research was to determine design factors for designing a garlic clove planter The results are summarized as follows : 1. A vibrating-type clove-metering device was designed and tested. Effects of tilted angle of metering plate and magnitude of vibration on metering performance were investigated. The successful planting rates of the metering device were 96.7% for Hanji varieties. 2. Clove upright-positioning device, posture inducer was designed and tested. When the clearance between the hoppers was set at 4mm, the rates of upright positioning of the device were 92.2% for with Hanji varieties. 3. Optimum metering performance was observed at the plate tilted angle of 80。 with the posture type positioning device.
Finite Element Analysis of a Ventilating Box Structure
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2002, Pages 557~564
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.6.557
Corrugated board is an efficient low-cost structure material fur the boxes that are widely used for transporting, storing and distributing goods. Corrugated board is also considered as an orthotropic because the principal material directions are the same as in paperboard. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the principal design parameters of ventilating box through the FEA on the various types of ventilating hole. From the viewpoint of the stress distribution and stress level, the optimum pattern and location of the ventilating hole were vertically oblong, and symmetry position with a short distance to the right and left from the center of front and rear panel. And, the optimum location and pattern of hand hole were a short distance to the top from the center of both side panels, and modified shape to increase the radius of curvature of both side in horizontal oblong. In general, the optimum pattern and location of both the ventilating hole and hand hole based on the FEM analysis were well verified by experimental investigation. It is suggested that decrease in compressive strength of the box could be minimized in the same ventilating hole area under the condition of the length of major axis of ventilating hole is less than 1/4 of box length, the ratio of minor axis/major axis is 113.5∼l/2.5, and number of the ventilating holes is even and symmetrical.
Development of Heating and Cooling System with Heat Pump for Nutrient Solution Bed In Greenhouse
Kang, Geum-Chun ; Kim, Yeong-Jung ; Yu, Yeong-Seon ; Baek, Lee ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2002, Pages 565~572
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2002.27.6.565
In order to control the root-zone temperature of greenhouse crops in the hydroponics at hot and cold season, heat pump system for cooling and heating was built and tested in this work. The system was air-to-water type and vapour compression type. The heating and cooling mode was selected by the four way valve. Capacity of the compressor was 3.75㎾ and heat transfer area of the evaporator and the condenser were 3.05㎡ and 0.6㎡, respectively. According to the performance test, it could supply heat of 42,360 to 64,372kJ/h depending on the water circulation rate of 600 to 1,500ℓ/h, respectively, when indoor air temperature was 10∼20
. COP of heat pump system was 3.0 to 4.0 in the heating mode. But, COP of the cooling mode was 1.3 to 2.1 at indoor temperature of 20∼35
. The feasibility test in the greenhouse the developed heating and cooling system was installed, showed that the heating cost of the developed system was only about 13% of that of the conventional heating system. The heating cost of the developed system was 367won/day(electric consumption 9.7㎾h/day), while that of the conventional system was 2,803won/day(oil consumption 7.7ℓ/day) at the same heating mode.