Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Rattle Noise of a Direct Engine-driven PTO Driveline of Tractors
Park, Y.J. ; Kim, K.U. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 1, 2006, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.1.001
This study was conducted to identify the characteristics of PTO rattle noise of a direct engine-PTO driveline for agricultural tractors. In order to reduce production costs of agricultural tractors, a direct engine-PTO driveline was recently introduced to the tractors produced in Korea. This simplified drive line reduced a number of gears and counter shafts in previous one. However, it caused a severe rattle noise under an idle condition, which was perceived as intolerable by many tractor operators. PTO rattle noise was measured at two locations: one 3 em apart radially from the centerline of the PTO shaft and another 100 em apart backward from the PTO end and 160 em high from the ground. Characteristics of the rattle was analyzed using the data measured near the PTO shaft. It was found that the period of rattle noise was same as the explosion stroke of engine and its peak level was about 123 dB (A) with PTO engaged at an idle engine speed of 880 rpm. As the engine speed increased, the rattle noise decreased. The frequency band of the rattle was 0.5-2.0 kHz and the frequency of peak sound pressure was 1.4 kHz. When compared the rattle noise between the locally produced and imported tractors of the same type of PTO driveline, the former generated louder rattle noise than the imported one by 7 dB (A). It was suggested that the rattle noise of local tractors must be reduced at least by 7 dB (A) to meet the international level.
Development of a Draft Control System for Tractor Using a Proportional Valve
Lee, S.S. ; Lee, J.Y. ; Mun, J.H. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 1, 2006, Pages 9~15
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.1.009
Draft control is key technique in plow control system for automation of implement control system. To make the consistent draft force is an essential factor for preventing the reduction of working efficiency by tractor`s slip and also improving the working efficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop the draft sensor for draft control of plow and evaluate the usability of the algorithm of draft control system using proportional control valve. The developed draft control system could extract the draft force very well regardless of draft condition, change of setting draft force and response time in the response characteristic test. The maximum draft force at 3-Point linkage was 10,000 N and the deviation of the control system was 125.8 N in steady state condition. The developed control system worked very well with regard to the change of draft force in field and even in soil condition with soil reaction. The results of experiment showed the characteristics of response was sufficient to be used as the implement draft control system for tractor using proportional valve.
Development of a Depth and Working Load Control System for Tractor Using a Proportional Valve
Lee, S.S. ; Lee, J.Y. ; Mun, J.H. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 1, 2006, Pages 16~23
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.1.016
Depth and working load control is one of the most important technique in control system for tractor rotary implement automation. Keeping the depth consistent is critical to bring along crops and to improve the efficiency and quality of the following operations. Keeping the load of engine consistent is an essential factor for the efficiency of operation and engine protection of tractor. In this study we investigated the possibility of application of depth and working load control system for tractor using a proportional valve through field tests. Depth control was implemented by the ascent and descent of 3 point linkage for the change of setting depth. There were 4 mm and 5.2 mm control deviations for setting depths of 50mm and 100mm, respectively. Load control was operated appropriately by the ascent and of descent of 3 point link for the change of setting working load. The standard deviations between setting load and engine load were 171 rpm at 1.3 km/h and 164 rpm at 2.3 km/h tractor travel velocity. The results of experiment showed that the characteristics of response was sufficient to be used as the implement depth and working load control system for tractor using proportional valve.
Site-specific Quantification and Management of Soil Compaction: A Review
Chong, B.H. ; Chung, S.O. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 1, 2006, Pages 24~32
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.1.024
Compaction is becoming a greater concern in crop production and the environment because it can have deleterious effects on growing conditions that are difficult to remediate. Because compaction can vary considerably from point to point within a field, and also from depth to depth within the soil profile, it is important to consider quantification and management of the spatial and vertical variability in soil compaction when developing an overall site-specific crop management plan. In this paper, the importance of soil compaction, techniques for quantification of its variability, and the concept of site-specific tillage are examined. Methods and systems to detect within-field variation in soil strength as a surrogate measure of soil compaction and related soil properties are also compared and discussed. Quantification of variability in soil compaction and site-specific compaction management was motivated recently, and sensors and control systems are still under development. Future study will need to address a number of issues related to understanding and applying the sensor measurements.
Wet Fine Grinding of Rice Husk Ash using a Stirred Ball Mill
Park, S.J. ; Kim, M.H. ; Choi, Y.K. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 1, 2006, Pages 33~38
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.1.033
This work was conducted to find the operating characteristics of an efficient wet grinding system designed to obtain fine rice husk ash powder. Once the rice husk was combusted and the thermal energy was recovered from the furnace, the ash was fed and pulverized in the grinding system resulting a fine powder to be used as a supplementary adding material to the portland cement. Grinding time (15, 30, 45 min), impeller speed (250, 500, 750 rpm), and mixed ratio (6.7, 8.4, 11.l, 20.9) were three operating factors examined for the performance of a wet-type stirred ball mill grinding system. For the operating conditions employed, mean diameter of fine ash powder, specific energy input, and grinding energy efficiency were in the range of
, respectively. With the wet-type stirred ball mill grinding system used in this study, the grinding energy efficiency decreased with the increase in total grinding time, impeller speed, and mixed ratio. The difference in specific surface area of powder linearly increased with logarithm in total number of impeller revolution and the grinding energy efficiency linearly decreased. Grinding time of 45 min, impeller speed of 500 rpm, and mixed ratio of 6.7 were chosen as the best operating condition. At this condition, mean particle diameter of the fine ash, grinding energy efficiency, grinding throughput, and specific energy input were
, and 2.03kWh/kg, respectively. Wet fine grinding which generates no fly dust causing pollution and makes continuous operation easy, is appeared to be a promising solution to the automatization of rice husk ash grinding process.
Operating Performance of Solenoid Valve and Nozzle Sets for Target Selectable Sprayers
Suh, S.R. ; Kim, H.O. ; Kim, Y.T. ; Choi, Y.S. ; Yoo, S.N. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 1, 2006, Pages 39~45
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.1.039
Fundamental informations on performance of sets of solenoid valve and nozzle were necessary to develop a target selectable spraying system. The experiments were performed for the sets of solenoid valves and flat spraying nozzles at 3 levels of the operating pressures, and the obtained results are as follows; Rise time of the system pressure to reach up to 90% of the operating pressure after the valve turned was affected by nozzle size and operating pressure. Maximum overshoot of the system pressure was about 170% not affected by the sets of valve and nozzle and operating pressure. The system pressure after its settle down within 5% of the set pressure showed good uniformity in any condition of the experiment as less as 2.3% of its coefficient of variation. Time requirement to lower the system pressure down to 50% after the valve power turned off was affected by valve and nozzle set and operating pressure.
Recovery of Phosphorus in Animal Wastewater by Struvite Forming
Oh, I.H. ; Lee, J.H. ; Choi, B.H. ; Myung, N.S. ; Burns, R.T. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 1, 2006, Pages 46~51
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.1.046
This study was carried out to recover phosphorus in animal wastewater using a magnesium source.
, as a magnesium source, was shown a SP (soluble phosphorus) recovery rate of 98% in both the aeration and the NaOH tests to adjust pH around 8.5. In case of MgO, the recovery rate of SP were 88% with the aeration and 58% with the NaOH. In case of ammonia nitrogen recovery,
was shown the recovery rate of 17% with aeration and 18% with NaOH. MgO was shown the ammonia recovery rate of 18% with aeration and 11% with NaOH. At low temperature of
with the animal wastewater from piglet stall, the recovery rate of SP was shown 95% with NaOH and 92% with aeration using
. The recovery rate of ammonia nitrogen was shown 9% with NaOH and 12% with aeration, respectively. It was observed that the pH can be raised by aeration. The reaction was completed within 5 minutes and the struvite cristal structure was formed and could be observed with an electronic microscope.
Development of Hybrid Manipulator for Melon Harvesting Works
Kim, Y.Y. ; Cho, S.I. ; Hwang, H. ; Hwang, K.Y. ; Park, T.J. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 1, 2006, Pages 52~58
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.1.052
Various robots were developed for harvesting fruits and vegetables. However, each robot was designed for a specific task such as harvesting apples or vegetables. This has been a big hurdle in application of robots to agriculture. A new type of hybrid manipulator with both parallel and serial joints was developed and designed to apply to various kinds of field operations. The hybrid manipulator had 2 extra degree of freedom in serial joints which made it flexible in switching one to the other type of hybrid manipulator, for example, PUMA to SCARA. And it was designed to harvest heavy fruits such as musky melons or water melons even behind leaves or branches of tree. This hybrid manipulator showed less than
position error. It was concluded that the hybrid manipulator was an effective and feasible tool to perform various works and to increase working performance.
Development of an Algorithm to Detect Weeds in Paddy Field Using Multi-spectral Digital Image
Suh S.R. ; Kim Y.T. ; Yoo S.N. ; Choi Y.S. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 1, 2006, Pages 59~64
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.1.059
Application of herbicide for rice cropping is inevitable but notorious for its side effect of environmental pollution. Precision fanning will be one of important tools for the least input and sustainable fanning and could be achieved by implementation of the variable rating technology. If a device to detect weeds in rice field is available, herbicide could be applied only to the places where it is needed by the manner of the variable rating technology. The study was carried out to develop an algorithm of image processing to detect weeds in rice field using a machine vision system of multi-spectral digital images. A series of multi-spectral rice field picture of 560, 680 and 800 nm of center wavelengths were acquired from the 27th day to the 39th day after transplanting in the ineffective tillering stage of a rice growing period. A discrimination model to distinguish pixels of weeds from those of rice plant and weed image was developed. The model was proved as having accuracies of 83.6% and 58.9% for identifying the rice plant and the weed, respectively. The model was used in the algorithm to differentiate weed images from mingled images of rice plant and weed in a frame of rice field picture. The developed algorithm was tested with the acquired rice field pictures and resulted that 82.7%, 11.9% and 5.4% of weeds in the pictures were noted as the correctly detected, the undetected and the misclassified as rice, respectively, and 81.9% and 18.0% of rice plants in the pictures were marked as the correctly detected and the misclassified as weed, respectively.