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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of Exhaust Emission by the Application of Biodiesel Fuel and Oxygenates as an Alternative Fuel in an Agricultural Diesel Engine
Choi, S.H. ; Oh, Y.T. ; So, J.D. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 6, 2006, Pages 457~462
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.6.457
Our environment is faced with serious problems related to the air pollution from automobiles in these days. In particular, the exhaust emissions from diesel engine are recognized main cause which influenced environment strong. In this study, the potential possibility of biodiesel fuel and oxygenates additives (dimethoxy methane) was investigated as an alternative fuel for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. The smoke emission of blending fuel (biodiesel fuel 90vol-% + DMM 10vol-%) was reduced in comparison with diesel fuel, that is, it was reduced approximately 70% at 2500 rpm, full load. But, power, torque and brake specific energy consumption didn't have no large differences. But, NOx emissions from biodiesel fuel and DMM blended fuel were increased compared with commercial diesel fuel.
Sensing Nitrate and Potassium Ions in Soil Extracts Using Ion-Selective Electrodes
Kim, H.J. ; Sudduth Kenneth A. ; Hummel John W. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 6, 2006, Pages 463~473
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.6.463
Automated sensing of soil macronutrients would allow more efficient mapping of soil nutrient spatial variability for variable-rate nutrient management. The capabilities of ion-selective electrodes for sensing macronutrients in soil extracts can be affected by the presence of other ions in the soil itself as well as by high concentrations of ions in soil extractants. Adoption of automated, on-the-go sensing of soil nutrients would be enhanced if a single extracting solution could be used for the concurrent extraction of multiple soil macronutrients. This paper reports on the ability of the Kelowna extractant to extract macronutrients (N, P, and K) from US Corn Belt soils and whether previously developed PVC-based nitrate and potassium ion-selective electrodes could determine the nitrate and potassium concentrations in soil extracts obtained using the Kelowna extractant. The extraction efficiencies of nitrate-N and phosphorus obtained with the Kelowna solution for seven US Corn Belt soils were comparable to those obtained with IM KCI and Mehlich III solutions when measured with automated ion and ICP analyzers, respectively. However, the potassium levels extracted with the Kelowna extractant were, on average, 42% less than those obtained with the Mehlich III solution. Nevertheless, it was expected that Kelowna could extract proportional amounts of potassium ion due to a strong linear relationship (
= 0.96). Use of the PVC-based nitrate and potassium ion-selective electrodes proved to be feasible in measuring nitrate-N and potassium ions in Kelowna - soil extracts with almost 1 : 1 relationships and high coefficients of determination (
> 0.9) between the levels of nitrate-N and potassium obtained with the ion-selective electrodes and standard analytical instruments.
Development of a Variable Rate Granule Applicator for Environment-Friendly Precision Agriculture (II) - Development of Pneumatic Fertilizer Blow Head and Its Application Uniformity -
Kim, Y.J. ; Kim, H.J. ; Seo, M. ; Rhee, J.Y. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 6, 2006, Pages 474~481
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.6.474
In this paper, a new type blow head was developed and pneumatic application system was evaluated. The blow head had one operating factor, inserting length of collecting plate, that was directly related to discharge rate and application pattern. To determine Proper blow head arrangement and application height, a blow head set was tested. Three-way ANOVA was conducted to investigate relationships between CV value, the discharge rate and inserting length of collecting plate. The discharge rate and inserting length of collecting plate were statistically significant at p=0.01, affecting uniformity of application pattern. The best CV value among the application tests was 23.3% when the application rate and application height was 23.5 g/sec and 80 cm respectively. The worst CV value was 63.3% in 111.4 g/sec. Therefore, it is necessary to increase number of blow head in a section of the boom in improve application uniformity.
Development of a Variable Rate Granule Applicator for Environment-Friendly Precision Agriculture (III) - Analysis of Pneumatic Conveying System and Improvement of Fertilizer Application Uniformity -
Kim, Y.J. ; Kim, H.J. ; Jang, T.S. ; Rhee, J.Y. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 6, 2006, Pages 482~488
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.6.482
Application of precision farming technology to rice cultivation could be an effective measure for rice quality improvement and environment-friendly agriculture. This study was conducted to develope a variable rate pneumatic granule applicator. Previous study reported that application uniformity of the prototype machine (C.V. = 23.3%) was not satisfactory. To improve the uniformity, increase of blow-head number from 12 to 16 was suggested. Analysis of the pneumatic conveying system showed that increase of number of blow-head was possible. Three-way variance analysis of the modified applicator showed that inserting length should be changed according to granule metering rate. The range of metering rate from 27.3 to 417.9 g/s were divided into 4 levels and 4 sets of inserting lengths were determined to ensure CV values less than 15%. The revised applicator showed satisfactory C.V. values of 9.4 to 14.6% in the metering rate. Granule conveying pattern was observed using a high speed camera and judged as the homogeneous flow pattern.
Autonomous-guided orchard sprayer using overhead guidance rail
Shin, B.S. ; Kim, S.H. ; Park, J.U. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 6, 2006, Pages 489~499
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.6.489
Since the application of chemicals in confined spaces under the canopy of an orchard is hazardous work, it is needed to develop an autonomous guidance system for an orchard sprayer. The autonomous guidance system developed in this research could steer the vehicle by tracking an overhead guidance rail, which was installed on an existing frame structure. The autonomous guidance system consisted of an 80196 kc microprocessor, an inclinometer, two interface circuits of actuators for steering and ground speed control, and a fuzzy control algorithm. In addition, overhead guidance rails for both straight and curved paths were devised, and a trolley was designed to move smoothly along the overhead guidance rails. Evaluation tests showed that the experimental vehicle could travel along the desired path at a ground speed of 30
50 cm/s with a RMS error of 5 cm and maximum deviation of less than 12 cm. Even when the vehicle started with an initial offset or a deflected heading angle, it could move quickly to track the desired path after traveling 2
3 m. The vehicle could also complete turns with a curvature of 1 m. However, at a ground speed of 50 cm/s, the vehicle tended to over-steer, resulting in a zigzag motion along the straight path, and tended to turn outward from the projected line of the guidance rail.
Development of a Collecting System for Jujube Harvester
Lee, S.W. ; Kim, D.H. ; Lee, C.K. ; Seo, S.W. ; Huh, Y.K. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 6, 2006, Pages 500~505
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.6.500
Jujube is one of korean most favorite fruits. Harvesting operations of the jujube farming, however, completely depend on hand labor. Especially, collecting operation requires about three times of hand labor compared with separate operation by impacting or shaking of twigs in the hand-harvesting system of jujube fruits. Consequently, jujube farmers sincerely demand the mechanization of the collecting operation of jujube fruits in the harvesting operation. A new collecting system was designed and constructed five parts-collecting pad, guide ring system, sorting system, frame with driving system, and handle with operation levers, which performed collecting operation of jujube fruits without missing fruits in five part functions, however, an extra future more deliberate study would need how to handle conveniently the collecting pad of the prototype in the narrow space of row of the jujube farm.
Effects of Ultrasound Stimuli on Acceleration of Brown Rice Germination
Lee, J. ; Lim, K.T. ; Hong, J.H. ; Lee, Y.B. ; Rhee, C.O. ; Chung, J.H. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 6, 2006, Pages 506~513
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.6.506
The effects of ultrasound stimuli on the germination and sprout growth of brown rice were investigated. Ultrasound was applied to brown rice at the frequencies of 28, 40, and 60 kHz before germination test and it was germinated in three methods (Type I, II and III). Type I was to soak brown rice into water for 60 hours. Type II was to expose brown rice to air for 48 hours after soaking them into water for 12 hours. Type III was a repetitive method of water-soaking and air exposure for 12 hours respectively. The most effective method for the germination was Type III without ultrasound. However, Type I was a best method after ultrasound treatment. As power of ultrasound increased, sprouts grew faster after brown rice were treated in 40%, 70%, and 100% power (0.137, 0.241, and 0.344
) at 40 kHz. The good treatments for fast sprout growth of brown rice at each frequency were the 28 kHz-10min group, the 40 kHz-5min group, and the 60 kHz-20min group of Type I. The best effective treatment was the 40 kHz-5min group at 0.344
and at that condition the time required for sprout growth of 2.5 m was 51.9 hours. The ultrasound stimuli was very effective in the beginning of the rice germination, and the germination ratio was more than 95% in all ultrasound treatments.
Development of Automatic Sorting System for Green pepper Using Machine Vision
Cho, N.H. ; Chang, D.I. ; Lee, S.H. ; Hwang, H. ; Lee, Y.H. ; Park, J.R. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 6, 2006, Pages 514~523
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.6.514
Production of green pepper has been increased due to customer's preference and a projected ten-year boom in the industry in Korea. This study was carried out to develop an automatic grading and sorting system for green pepper using machine vision. The system consisted of a feeding mechanism, segregation section, an image inspection chamber, image processing section, system control section, grading section, and discharging section. Green peppers were separated and transported using a bowl feeder with a vibrator and a belt conveyor, respectively. Images were taken using color CCD cameras and a color frame grabber. An on-line grading algorithm was developed using Visual C/C++. The green peppers could be graded into four classes by activating air nozzles located at the discharging section. Length and curvature of each green pepper were measured while removing a stem of it. The first derivative of thickness profile was used to remove a stem area of segmented image of the pepper. While pepper is moving at 0.45 m/s, the accuracy of grading sorting for large, medium and small pepper are 86.0%, 81.3% and 90.6% respectively. Sorting performance was 121 kg/hour, and about five times better than manual sorting. The developed system was also economically feasible to grade and sort green peppers showing the cost about 40% lower than that of manual operations.
Modeling of Milling Degree for Milled Rice using NMG Dying and Image Processing
Yoon, D.H. ; Kim, O.W. ; Kim, H. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 6, 2006, Pages 524~528
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.6.524
This study was performed to develop experimental model for milling degree and whiteness from analysis the CBB (colored bran balance) index using NMG dying and image processing. The endosperm layer increased and the pericarp, aleurone layer and CBB index decreased as the milling degree and whiteness increased. So, CBB index was closely linked to milling degree and whiteness. A empirical CBB index model was developed according to the milling degree and whiteness. The model were found to fit adequately to all test data with a coefficient of determination of 0.99, and therefore the CBB model proved to be quite applicable.
Thermal Energy Characteristics for Greenhouse Heating System with Far-Infrared Heater
Ro, J.G. ; Kim, H.J. ; Li, H. ; Han, C.S. ; Cho, S.C. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 6, 2006, Pages 529~534
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.6.529
The greenhouse heating system with far-infrared heater was built to analyze various thermal characteristics, such as greenhouse air temperature, soil temperature, energy flow, energy consumption in far-infrared heater, and other factors, which could be used in comparison with other greenhouse heating system in this study. The results showed that the inside air temperature of the far-infrared greenhouse heating system was
higher than that of hot air heating system. Heat loss of daytime was found to be larger than that of night time as much as 44.8% for the heating system with far-infrared heater. In the heating system with far-Infrared heater, when the lowest ambient temperature was -8
, the air temperature of greenhouse was 12
, thus the far-infrared heating system was shown to be feasible for heating system. Energy consumption of far-infrared heating system was shown to be less than that of hot air heating system.
Enzyme Immunoassay for Rapid Detection of the Fungicide Iprovalicarb Residues
Cho, H.K. ; Kyung, K.S. ; Lee, E.Y. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 31, issue 6, 2006, Pages 535~540
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2006.31.6.535
For a biosensor development, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of the fungicide iprovalicarb was developed by minimizing the processing time. The time for whole incubation process was reduced from 135 minutes to 15 minutes. The concentration of antibody was varied to improve sensitivity. The total processing time was reduced from 2.5 hours to 20 minutes, the final sensitivity (
value) of 7.93 ng/mL and the lowest detection limit of 0.045 ng/mL were obtained. This ELISA was applied to potatoes and onions, and the recoveries were in the range of 98.85
101.20% and 87.97
102.70%, respectively. Accordingly, this method can be used as basis for a biosensor for rapid monitoring of iprovalicarb residues in crops.