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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Rating of Agricultural Tractors by Fuel Efficiency
Kim, Soo-Chul ; Kim, Kyeong-Uk ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 2, 2010, Pages 69~76
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.2.069
This study was conducted to develop an index of fuel consumption to rate agricultural tractors by their fuel efficiencies. The fuel consumption index consisted of two components: basic and operational indexes. The basic index is to consider an average amount of fuel consumed by engine when it transmits 20 and 100% of the rated power. The operational index is to consider the fuel consumed by tractor for typical field operations: plowing, rotavating, and the remains. The equations and procedures to obtain these indexes were proposed. The method and fuel consumption rate to classify tractors into 5 grades were also proposed. The best 15% of the tractor models were rated as the first grade, 20% as the second grade, 30% as the third grade, 20% as the fourth grade, and 15% as the fifth grade in order of fuel efficiency. Using the fuel consumption index, the classification was conducted on 143 tractor models tested at the National Institute of Agricultural Engineering from 2000 to 2007. The proposed 5-grade system of classification using the fuel consumption index could be used to rate the fuel efficiency of 20-100 kW tractor models produced over past 10 years in Korea.
Development of Eco Driving System for Agricultural Tractor
Park, Seok-Ho ; Kim, Young-Jung ; Im, Dong-Hyeok ; Kim, Chung-Kill ; Jung, Sang-Cheol ; Kim, Hyeok-Ju ; Jang, Yang ; Kim, Sung-Su ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 2, 2010, Pages 77~84
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.2.077
In this study, we tried to predict tractor power output, fuel consumption rate and work performance indirectly in order to develop an eco driving system. Firstly, we developed equations which could predict tractor power output and fuel consumption rate using characteristic curves of tractor power output. Secondly, with actual engine rpm determined by initial engine rpm and work load, tractor power output and fuel consumption rate were forecasted. Thirdly, with speed signals of GPS sensor system, it was possible to foresee tractor work performance and fuel consumption rate. Lastly, precision of the eco driving system was evaluated through tractor PTO test, and effects of the eco driving system were investigated in the plowing and rotary tilling operations. Engine rpm, power output, fuel consumption rate, work performance and fuel consumption rate per plot area were displayed in the eco driving system. Predicted tractor power outputs in the full load curve were well coincided with the actual power output of prototype, but small differences, 1 to 6 ㎾, were found in the part load curve. Error of the fuel consumption rate was 0.5 L/h, 4.5%, the greatest, and 1 to 3 L/h at the part load curve. It was shown that 69% and 53% of fuel consumption rates could be reduced in plowing and rotary tilling operations, respectively, when the eco driving system was installed in tractor.
Development of a Turning Radius Measurement System using DGPS for Agricultural Tractors
Kim, Yu-Yong ; Lim, Jong-Guk ; Shin, Seoung-Yeop ; Kim, Hyeok-Ju ; Kim, Byoung-Gap ; Kim, Hyeong-Kwon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 2, 2010, Pages 85~90
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.2.085
This study was carried out to develop turning radius measuring method and device of using a DGPS speed sensor for agricultural tractors. The measurement system consisted of a DGPS speed sensor, a data acquisition device, a touch panel, a photo sensor, a radio modem and a notebook computer. Three methods were developed: average of turning speed-time method, integral of turning speed-time method, and speed-heading angular velocity method. Best method was average of turning speed-time method which could be used with a maximum error 2.7 cm.
Modeling of a Small Group Scale TMR Plant for Beef Cattle and Dairy Farm in Korea(II) - Performance Test and Cost Analysis of the Model Plant -
Ha, Yu-Shin ; Hong, Dong-Hyuck ; Park, Kyung-Kyoo ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 2, 2010, Pages 91~99
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.2.091
A Model of small scale total mixed rations(TMR) plant which can be utilized round bales was developed, tested and analyzed in this study. This study consist of two parts. One is development of a small scale TMR plant model which was already reported at the previous paper. This is the second part of the study. For the study, a series of tests of the model plant were performed and its costs was analyzed. Also, the break-even point of the model plant by comparing with market price of commercial TMR feed was determined. Results of the research are summarized as follows ; As the results of mixing test, the average coefficient of variation(CV) value for mixing of the feed was 13.0 % at the gate of the mixer. The production cost was estimated as 8,298 won/head for dairy cattle farm and 2,495 won/head for beef cattle farm, when producing 8 batch a day. Also, it is recommended to utilize the model plant when farm size is over 79 heads for dairy cattle farm and 113 heads for beef cattle farm. As an overall conclusion, the model plant designed for farm size TMR feed mill will be very useful model for both beef cattle and dairy farms in Korea. Also it is expected that the capital investment for the model plant can be recovered with 8 months compare with purchasing commercial TMR feed if the model plant feeds 1,000 beef cattle approximately.
Effects of Electric Current Stimuli and High-Voltage Electric Field Treatments on Brown Rice Germination
Lim, Ki-Taek ; Kim, Jang-Ho ; SeonWoo, Hoon ; Hong, Ji-Hyang ; Chung, Jong-Hoon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 2, 2010, Pages 100~107
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.2.100
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of electric current stimuli and high-voltage electric field treatments on brown rice germination. The brown rice stimulated by electrical current stimuli, functional electrical stimuli of a pulse type, and high-voltage electric field treatments were observed (Type I, II and III). Treatment Type I was a method of semi-soaking brown rice with electric current stimuli of 0.13 V/cm, 0.19 V/cm, and 0.25 V/cm into Petri-dishes for 72 hours. Type II was a method of semi-soaking brown rice with functional electrical stimuli of a pulse type(DC 1 V, 1 Hz, 5%, and duty cycles of 5%, 20%, and 35%) into Petri-dishes for 72 hours. Type III was a method of water-soaking with high-voltage electric field treatments for 60 hours. High-voltage electric field treatments at 15 kV/cm were also conducted for 2.5 min, 7.5 min, and 10 min, respectively. The germination rate and the sprout growth of brown rice germinated by electric current stimuli with 0.13 V/cm, 0.19 V/cm, and 0.25 V/cm were increased by about 10-15% compared with those of the control group. The germination rate and the sprout growth of brown rice germinated by functional electrical stimuli of pulse type(DC 1 V, 1 Hz, 5% duty cycle) were increased by about 10∼15% compared to those of the control group. Also, the best effective treatment among high-voltage electric field treatments was the 10 min group at 15 kV/cm. The germination rate and the sprout growth of brown rice germinated by this treatment of 10 min at 15 kV/cm were increased by about 10∼20% compared to those of the control group. The treatments of electric current stimuli and high-voltage electric field accelerated the germination rate and sprout growth of brown rice by about 10∼15% compared to those of the control group.
Underground Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Underground Heating System for Soil Sterilization in Greenhouse
Park, Kyung-Kyoo ; Ha, Yu-Shin ; Hong, Dong-Hyuck ; Jang, Seung-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Hyun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 2, 2010, Pages 108~115
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.2.108
This study was conducted to estimate the optimum temperature and required time for soil sterilization when heated water was circulated through underground heating pipes in the greenhouse which solar heat was influenced to the temperature of soil during the summer day. Two different types of heating pipes were used for the experiment. One was a polyethylene pipe(XL) and the other was a corrugated ring shaped stainless steel pipe(STS). The results of the studies were summarized as follows; By measuring the thermal characteristics of the XL and STS, it was examined that the average temperature differences of the inlet and outlet were
, the average flowrates were 15.3 L/min and 5.6 L/min, and the average radiation powers were 9.1 kW and 4.1 kW, respectively. As results of the regression analysis of underground temperatures, when average soil temperature was
, an average water temperature was
, and XL was used, it was estimated that the possible heat transfer distance, the required time for heat transfer and heat flux to reach the underground temperature of
were 300 mm, 230 hours, and
Detection of Pathogenic Salmonella Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor
Cho, Han-Keun ; Kim, Gi-Young ; Kim, Woon-Ho ; Sung, Min-Sun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 2, 2010, Pages 116~123
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.2.116
Rapid detection of foodborne pathogens has been a major challenge for the food industry. Salmonella contamination is well known in all foods including pasteurised milk. The possibility of specific detection of Salmonella Enteritidis by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was explored using a commercially available portable SPR sensor. Self assembly technique was adopted to immobilize anti-Salmonella antibodies on the gold sensing surface of the SPR sensor. The concentration of polyclonal antibody for use in the SPR biosensor was chosen to 1.0 mg/mL. Experiments were conducted at near real-time with results obtained for one SPR biosensor assay within 1 hour. The limit of detection for Salmonella Enteritidis was determined to be
CFU/mL in both PBS buffer and milk samples. The assay sensitivity was not significantly affected by milk matrix. Our results showed that it would be possible for employing the SPR biosensor to detect Salmonella Enteritidis in near real-time.
UV/blue Light-induced Fluorescence for Assessing Apple Quality
Noh, Hyun-Kwon ; Lu, Renfu ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 2, 2010, Pages 124~131
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.2.124
Chlorophyll fluorescence has been researched for assessing fruit post-harvest quality and condition. The objective of this preliminary research was to investigate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring apple fruit quality. Ultraviolet (UV) and blue light was used as an excitation source for inducing fluorescence in apples. Fluorescence spectra were measured from 'Golden Delicious' (GD) and 'Red Delicious' (RD) apples using a visible/near-infrared spectrometer after one, three, and five minutes of continuous UV/blue light illumination. Standard destructive tests were performed to measure fruit firmness, skin and flesh color, soluble solids and acid content from the apples. Calibration models for each of the three illumination time periods were developed to predict fruit quality indexes. The results showed that fluorescence emission decreased steadily during the first three minutes of UV/blue light illumination and was stable within five minutes. The differences were minimal in the model prediction results based on fluorescence data at one, three or five minutes of illumination. Overall, better predictions were obtained for apple skin chroma and hue and flesh hue with values for the correlation coefficient of validation between 0.80 and 0.90 for both GD and RD. Relatively poor predictions were obtained for fruit firmness, soluble solids content, titrational acid, and flesh chroma. This research has demonstrated that fluorescence spectroscopy is potentially useful for assessing selected quality attributes of apple fruit and further research is needed to improve fluorescence measurements so that better predictions of fruit quality can be achieved.
Map-based Variable Rate Application of Nitrogen Using a Multi-Spectral Image Sensor
Noh, Hyun-Kwon ; Zhang, Qin ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 2, 2010, Pages 132~137
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.2.132
Site-specific N application for corn is one of the precision crop management. To implement the site-specific N application, various nitrogen stress sensing methods, including aerial image, tissue analysis, soil sampling analysis, and SPAD meter readings, have been used. Use of side-dressing, an efficient nitrogen application method than a uniform application in either late fall or early spring, relies mainly on the capability of nitrogen deficiency detection. This paper presents map-based variable rate nitrogen application based using a multi-spectral corn nitrogen deficiency(CND) sensor. This sensor assess the nitrogen stress by means of the estimated SPAD reading calculated from the corn leave reflectance. The estimated SPAD value from the CND sensor system and location information form DGPS of each field block was combined into the field map using a ArcView program. Then this map was converted into a raster file for a map-based variable rate application software. The relative SPAD (RSPAD = SPAD over reference SPAD) was investigated 2 weeks after the treatments. The results showed that the map-based variable rate application system was feasible.
On-line Inspection Algorithm of Brown Rice Using Image Processing
Kim, Tae-Min ; Noh, Sang-Ha ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 2, 2010, Pages 138~145
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.2.138
An on-line algorithm that discriminates brown rice kernels on their echelon feeder using color image processing is presented for quality inspection. A rapid color image segmentation algorithm based on Bayesian clustering method was developed by means of the look-up table which was made from the significant clusters selected by experts. A robust estimation method was presented to improve the stability of color clusters. Discriminant analysis of color distributions was employed to distinguish nine types of brown rice kernels. Discrimination accuracies of the on-line discrimination algorithm were ranged from 72% to 85% for the sound, cracked, green-transparent and green-opaque, greater than 93% for colored, red, and unhulled, about 92% for white-opaque and 67% for chalky, respectively.