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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
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Development of Aerial Application System Attachable to Unmanned Helicopter - Basic Spraying Characteristics for Aerial Application System -
Kang, Tae-Gyoung ; Lee, Chai-Sik ; Choi, Duck-Kyu ; Jun, Hyeon-Jong ; Koo, Young-Mo ; Kang, Tae-Hwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 4, 2010, Pages 215~223
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.4.215
In order to develop an precision aerial pesticide application system to be attached to an unmanned helicopter which can be applied to small lots of land, this study analyzed the flowing and spraying characteristics of the spray droplets by the main rotor downwash by setting the application conditions at the flight altitude of 3 m, the diameter of main rotor of 3.1 m, the boom length of around 2.8 m, and the spraying rate of 8 L/ha. The results of this study are summarized below. Through analysis of the covering area ratio of the spray droplets by main rotor downwash by nozzle type, boom with tilt angle and height, it was found that the covering area ratio of the twin flat-fan nozzle of around 25% was more uniform than other types of nozzle, also boom with
tilt angle and spraying height of 3 m was shown to be the appropriate conditions for aerial application of pesticides. It was found that the nozzle position to minimize the scattering loss of spray droplets due to vortex phenomenon at both ends of the main rotor was around 10 cm from the end of the main rotor. An application test for the aerial pesticide application system attached to the HUA-ACEI unmanned helicopter developed by the Rural Development Administration showed that the range of covering area ratio of the spray droplets was 10-25%, and the spraying width was approximately 7 m when over 10% of covering area ratio was considered for valid spraying.
Development of Electric Actuator Position Control System for Automatic Shuttle Shifting of Tractor
Choi, Chang-Hyun ; Woo, Mi-Na ; Lee, Dae-Hyun ; Kim, Yong-Joo ; Jeong, Jin-Hee ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 4, 2010, Pages 224~230
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.4.224
The purpose of this study was to develop position control system of an electric actuator for automatic shuttle shifting of a tractor. The electric actuator was installed at the link of the forward-reverse gearshift of the tractor transmission, and controlled in the ranges of forward, neutral, and reverse positions. The position control system of the electric actuator was developed based on PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) controller and transfer function of the electric actuator. The coefficients of the PID controller were determined by Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) method and optimized using simulation program. The prototype AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) test unit of the tractor was installed and used to evaluate the performance of the position control. The evaluation system for the control performance consisted of forward-reverse actuator, motor driver, and controller. The tests were conducted as the controlled positions of the actuator were changed from neutral position to forward, neutral, and reverse positions in sequence. The sequential tests were repeated 20 times. The operations of changing the gearshift were considered as the step response of the control system. Maximum overshoot, settling time, and steady-state error were analyzed. The results showed that performance of the position control system was reasonable and qualified. The maximum overshoots, the steady-state errors, and the settling times of the position control system were 10~20%, 1~5%, and 0.92~1.49 sec, respectively. The modifications of the electric actuator will be required to enhance the performance of position control during field operation.
Experimental Study on Steering Torque Characteristics of Tractor
Lee, Sang-Sik ; Mun, Jung-Whan ; Kang, Jin-Seok ; Lee, Choong-Ho ; Hong, Jong-Ho ; Park, Won-Yeop ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 4, 2010, Pages 231~238
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.4.231
The purpose of this paper was to investigate experimentally the steering torque characteristics of a tractor operated in various ground conditions. The experiments were conducted with the tractor reconstructed for steering torque test of the tractor at two different off-road conditions (ground-I and ground-II) and a on-road condition (ground-III), three different levels of tire inflation pressures (69 kPa, 138 kPa and 207 kPa), and four different levels of axle loads (4120 N, 4730 N, 5340 N and 5950 N). The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) The steering torque was increased with the increase in steering angle for all experimental levels of ground conditions, axle loads and inflation pressures of tire. 2) As the axle load increased, the steering torque of the tractor increased for all ground conditions, and the increasing rate of the steering torque with the increase of axle load was greater at on-road than at off-road. 3) As the tire inflation pressure decreased, the steering torque increased. Also the increasing tendency of the steering torque with decreasing the tire inflation pressure showed that the harder the ground was, the larger the effect was. But for the soft ground condition, ground-I, no specific trend with inflation pressures was found. 4) Steering angle-steering torque relationship with ground conditions showed that the increasing rate of the steering torque was greater at on-road than off-road for small steering angle under 10 degree, and was greater at off-road than on-road for large steering angles over 10 degree.
A Study on Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions for Biodiesel Blending Ratios and Fuel Injection Timing in an Indirect Injection Compression Ignition Engine
Choi, Seung-Hun ; Oh, Young-Taig ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 4, 2010, Pages 239~243
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.4.239
Biodiesel (BD) can be effectively used as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. However, BD may affect the performance and exhaust emissions in diesel engines because it has different physical and chemical properties from diesel fuel such as viscosity, compressibility and so on. To investigate the effect of injection timing on the characteristics of engine performance and exhaust emissions with BD in an indirect injection diesel engine, BD derived from soybean oil was applied in this study. The engine was operated at six different injection timings from TDC to BTDC
and five loads at various engine speeds. Below BD 30, there's similar trend compared with diesel fuel. But, the best injection timing was
retarded compare with diesel fuel using BD 30. When the fuel injection timing was retarded, better results were showed, which may confirm by advantages of BD.
The Washing Characteristics of Lycium chinense Miller with Different Washing Methods
Lee, Seung-Ki ; Han, Jae-Woong ; Jeon, Myung-Jin ; Park, Won-Jong ; Baek, Seung-Woo ; Kim, Wong ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 4, 2010, Pages 244~249
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.4.244
This study was conducted to define the optimal Lycium chinense miller washing method for developing the Lycium chinense cleaner and we analyzed the Lycium chinense miller washing characteristics for removing pesticides and microorganism according to washing methods; habitual washing method, air bubble washing method and nozzle spray washing method. The results were summarized as follows; 1. In case of measuring physical properties according to the varieties, maximum yield strength of Hokwang was 2.562 kgf, minimum yield strength of Hokwang was 0.269 kgf and average yield strength was about 1 kgf. 2. In case of measuring change of bacteria according to washing methods, the number of bacteria of non-washing method was more than the number of bacteria of habitual washing method or mechanical washing method and the number of nozzle spray washing method was least. 3. Ahjoksiseuteurobin of 0.218 ppm was detected in the untreated sample, 0.051 ppm was detected in the habitual washing method, 0.047 ppm was detected in the air bubble washing method and 0.034 ppm was detected in nozzle spray washing method. Every amount detected were less than 2 ppm that is reference value and the detected amount was least in case of nozzle spay cleaning method. Cypermethrin of 0.772 ppm was detected in the non-cleaned sample, 0.089ppm was detected in habitual washing method, 0.26 ppm was detected in the air bubble washing method and 0.292 ppm was detected in the nozzle spray washing method. Every detected amount of Cypermethrin were less than 5 ppm that is reference value and the detected amount was least in case of habitual washing method.
Analysis of the Drying Characteristics of Lycii Fructus with Drying Plates
Lee, Seung-Kee ; Park, Won-Jong ; Kim, Wong ; Kang, Myung-Hwa ; Jeon, Myung-Jin ; Paik, Seung-Woo ; Han, Jae-Woong ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 4, 2010, Pages 250~256
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.4.250
This study is conducted to analyze the drying characteristics of domestically produced Lycii Fructus for improving drying conditions which was dependant on the shape and materials of drying plate. The materials of the drying plates were steel, aluminum and ABS resin, and each plate was shaped semicircle, quadrangular pyramid, and triangle pyramid. Also, mesh plate, the most general type was included. In other words, 10 kinds of plates were made and tested. The test was conducted at
, for 24 hours and moisture content was measured every 4 hours. The quality of tested Lycii Fructus was measured by colorimeter after drying. The experimental results show that regardless of species of Lycii Fructus, the drying rate of the aluminium plate shaped quadrangular pyramid was fastest, 3.11%w.b./h. Except the mesh plate, the drying rate of most plates was about over 2.52%w.b./h. The quality of Lycii Fructus dried on the aluminium plate shaped quadrangular pyramid was the highest, and it was easiest to separate the dried Lycii Fructus from the aluminum plate shaped quadrangular pyramid.
Development of Hydrophilic Performance Measurement System for Anti-Condensation Using Computer Image
Ahn, Byung-Tae ; Cho, Sung-Ho ; Choi, Sun ; Kim, Eun-Kuk ; Park, Sang-Soo ; Hwang, Heon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 4, 2010, Pages 257~261
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.4.257
Surface energy is the principal factor of anti-condensation. High surface energy appears hydrophilic itself and low surface energy represents hydrophobic itself. The contact angle is widely being used for measurement of surface energy of materials, evaluation of coating performances, measurement of wettability, and so on. However, the existing contact angle measuring system is so expensive for purchasing and complicated, so it takes a lot of time and money to use. This study was conducted to develop the algorithm for evaluating hydrophilic performance through measuring the contact angle of water droplet automatically, and fabricate relatively simple measuring system using a low-cost monochrome camera and image processing. A constant amount of water was firstly allocated on a slide by a micropipette, and then the image of water droplet was captured by monochrome digital camera and sent to a computer. The image was binarized and then reduced noises by labeling. Finally, the contact angle of water droplet was computed by using three points (left, right, and top coordinates), simple linear mathematics, and trigonometric function. The experimental results demonstrated the accuracy and reproducibility of the developed system showing less deviations and deviation ratio.