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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Development of a Mechanical Harvesting System for Red Pepper(I) - Surveys on Conventional Pepper Cultivation and Mechanization of Pepper Harvesting -
Choi, Young ; Jun, Hyun-Jong ; Lee, Chung-Keun ; Lee, Chae-Sik ; Yoo, Soo-Nam ; Suh, Sang-Ryoung ; Choi, Young-Soo ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 367~372
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.367
Consumption of pepper, a major spice vegetable used for seasoning Kimchi, continues to increase, but cultivation is in decline due to shortage of rural labor in Korea. The 39.2% of total labor requirement for conventional pepper cultivation was available for harvesting work. Therefore conventional manual harvesting should be turned to mechanical harvesting for labor-saving, cost-reducing and easy work. Surveys on conventional pepper cultivation patterns, labor requirements for various pepper cultivation works, and farmers' opinions on the mechanization of pepper harvesting were conducted to obtain basic informations. The labor requirement for pepper harvesting was 954 h/ha out of a total labor requirement of 2,436 h/ha for pepper cultivation. Harvesting was the hardest work, and hiring workmen for harvesting was also difficult. Farmers preferred to develop a small-scale pepper harvester using agricultural tractor or cultivar. Most farmer agreed to change cultivation pattern for mechanization of pepper harvesting, but hesitated to adopt new one-time-harvesting pepper varieties.
Development of a Belt Pick-up One-row Soybean Cutter
Jun, Hyeon-Jong ; Kang, Tae-Gyoung ; Lee, Choung-Keun ; Choi, Yong ; Lee, Chai-Sik ; Hong, Jong-Tae ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 373~379
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.373
This study was carried out to develop a belt pick-up type one-row soybean cutter, using physical properties and production conditions of soybeans. The prototype soybean cutter consisted of 4 parts: cutting part, conveying part, collecting part, and travelling part. The prototype soybean cutter was designed to cut soybeans planted with a row spacing of 600 mm, and at a height of 30 mm from the bed bottom using a disk saw. Through various trials with different peripheral velocities of the disk saw and forward speed of the cutter, determined ranges of the peripheral velocity of the disk saw cutting soybeans stems were greater than 18.3 m/s. Spacing between pick-up belts (clearance) was in a range of 60~90 mm so that soybeans could be picked at heights greater than 25 cm, and the size and shape of the pick-up belt were determined the conventional manual harvesting method. The optimal ratio between the forward speed of cutter and the peripheral speed of pick-up belts were from 1 to 1.2 by theoretical analysis. the pick-up belts had a
of tilted angle and
of twisted angle to pick up soybeans safely from the plant input to the lower end of the belts and convey soybeans to the upper end of belts nearby a container. The soybeans at the rear container were dropped down on the soybean row with an interval. The effective field capacity of the prototype soybean cutter was 0.136 ha/h, reducing the working hour by 92% when compared with the manual cutting.
Development of Threshing Cylinder for Reduction of Soybean Seed Damage
Cho, Yong-Jin ; Lee, Kyou-Seung ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 380~386
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.380
This study was carried out to develop soybean thresher which is able to reduce the soybean threshing damage in comparison to the conventional thresher. A threshing cylinder with different diameter of 480 and 384 mm at each end and with one quarter disc pegs of 60 mm radius was developed and attached to the prototype thresher. A conventional thresher which has a threshing cylinder with
type threshing pegs and same diameter of 480 mm at each end was used for comparative test. A series of comparative performance test was conducted using sun-yu and chung-ja soybean. For sun-yu bean, which is white and usually used for soybean paste and soy sauce, the ratio of damaged beans of prototype ranged 2-3% for 330-360 rpm which is recommended cylinder speed by manufacturer. The ratio of damaged beans of conventional thresher was 3-4% for the same range of cylinder speed. chung-ja beans with black color usually shows high damaged ratio compared with white beans, thus cylinder speed of 250-300 rpm is recommended by manufacturer to reduce the damaged ratio. For this range of cylinder speed, the damaged ratio of prototype was 1.3-1.4% and it was 2.7-6.1% for the conventional thresher. Thus prototype is able to reduce the damaged ratio 1.5-5.0% compared with conventional thresher. Prototype shows 0.4% of unthreshed soybean ratio for sun-yu bean in the optimum range of cylinder speed and it was 0.87% for the conventional thresher. For chung-ja bean, the ratio of unthreshed soybean was almost same for both prototype and conventional thresher with the value of 4.0%. The reason of high unthreshed soybean ratio for chung-ja bean compared sun-yu bean is due to the high seed moisture content of 29.11% which is much higher than that of the recommended.
Development of a Digital Cone Index Measuring Device
Lee, Kyou-Seung ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Cho, Yong-Jin ; Chung, Sun-Ok ; Park, Won-Yeop ; Noh, Kwang-Mo ; Chang, Young-Chang ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 387~392
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.387
This study was performed to design and to construct a digital soil cone index(CI) measuring device replacing conventional analog type devices. The device developed in the study consisted of a load cell, a rotary encoder and a motor with a decelerator as its main parts. The cone speed was controlled lower than 3.0 m/s which keeps the standard suggested by the ASABE S313.3 specification. The experiment was conducted in a soil bin system as well as in various fields. The CI data measured by the developed device were compared with those by an existing measurement device(SC900, Spectrum, USA). Based on the experiments at various field conditions, the CI measuring characteristic of the device was quite similar to that of the conventional device within a acceptable
range of more than 0.5(mean=0.76). It was concluded that the digital cone index measuring device was an effective and comprehensive sensor for measuring soil strength.
Analysis of Flow Characteristics of Forced Ventilated Pre-drying Facility for Mandarin
Kwon, Jin-Kyung ; Yun, Hong-Sun ; Jeong, Hoon ; Lee, Hyun-Dong ; Lee, Sung-Hyoun ; Moon, Jong-Pil ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 393~400
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.393
Uniform and rapid pre-drying of mandarin is important to improve the storage quality. The aim of this study was to suggest the basic design of forced ventilated pre-drying facility for mandarin by thermal flow analysis using computational fluid dynamics software (FLUENT 6.2). Developed CFD simulation model was verified by comparison with experimental data. Airflows and temperature distributions in the five conceptional designs including existing ordinary temperature storage rooms were analyzed and appropriate basic design was determined. Analysis of the effect of arrangement of windows and exhaust fans on thermal flow in facility was carried out for more detailed design. The results of this investigation showed that the predicted airflow velocity by CFD simulation showed a good agreement with the measured value and optimum design condition for simulated forced ventilated pre-drying facility of mandarin has two exhaust fans and two windows on both sidewalls and cover on loaded mandarin.
Circulating Concurrent-flow Drying Simulation of Rapeseed
Han, Jae-Woong ; Keum, Dong-Hyuk ; Kim, Woong ; Duc, Le Anh ; Cho, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Hoon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 401~407
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.401
In this study, computer simulations were conducted to assess the use of a circulating concurrent-flow dryer for rapeseed drying and to determined the effect of this drying method on the germination ratio of rapeseed after the drying process was complete. The simultaneous heat and mass transfer between air and rapeseed in a concurrent-flow dryer was examined by simulation. The drying simulation was based on several parameters with sequent time series. Equations concerning air psychrometrics, physical properties, thermal properties, equilibrium moisture content, thin layer drying of rapeseed, etc. were all combined to solve the simulation models. Based on energy and mass transfer in the concurrent-flow drying model, a simulation program for the circulating concurrent-flow rapeseed dryer was built along with a detailed description of the mathematical solution to the model. A pilot scale circulating concurrent-flow dryer(200 kg/batch) was used to verify the fitness of the simulation program. A comparison between the experimental data and the model predicted results was presented and discussed. The drying parameters and germination ratio were analyzed and the accuracy of the simulation program was evaluated. The simulation program proved to be reliable and was shown to be a convenient tool for predicting rapeseed drying and germination ratio of rapeseed in a concurrent-flow dryer.
Analysis of Rheological Properties of Rye Flour
Lee, Gwi-Hyun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 408~412
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.408
Rheological properties of cereals such as rye are great important for the design of die for extrusion and the development of models for extrusion process. Therefore, this study was carried out to analyze the rheological properties according to moisture content of rye flour and extrusion temperature. Rheological properties of rye flour were investigated by using a capillary rheometer for moisture content of three levels (30, 35, 40%) and extrusion temperature of three levels (120, 130,
). Determination coefficients for the relationship between apparent shear stress (
) and apparent shear velocity (
) were relatively high in the range of 0.973 ~ 0.997 under each extrusion condition. The values of consistency index (K) was decreased with increasing moisture content and extrusion temperature. However, the value of flow behavior index (n) presented the highest value at moisture content of 35%, but it was not affected by extrusion temperature.
Analysis of Spectral Light Intensity of High Pressure Sodium and Metal Halide Lamps for Plant Growth
Lee, Hye-In ; Kim, Yong-Hyeon ; Kim, Dong-Eok ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 413~419
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.413
Plant growth was greatly affected by the spectral distribution and light intensity of artificial lighting sources. In this study, the spectral characteristics of high power sodium (HPS) lamps and metal halide (MH) lamps produced by three different manufacturers were measured. Even though the spectral distribution of HPS lamps with lamp wattage of 250 W and 400 W was very similar, but the spectral light intensity by the manufacturers was different. Difference in the spectral light intensity of MH lamps by the manufacturers was increased with the increasing lamps wattage. Light intensity at the region of blue (B), green (G), red (R) and far-red (FR) light of HPS and MH lamps was also analyzed. HPS lamps showed the light intensity in order of R, FR, B and G light. The ratio of G, B, R and FR to photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of HPS lamps with the lamp wattage of 250 W was 3.0-3.2%, 5.5-5.9%, 17.3-19.2% and 6.5-7.8%, respectively. For MH lamps, it showed the light intensity in order of R, FR, B, and G. The ratio of B, G, R, and FR to PPF of MH lamps with 250 W was 14.0-15.5%, 22.6-27.5%, 7.5-9.5% and 2.7-4.2%, respectively. HPS and MH lamps with 400 W had a relatively smaller ratio of R and FR to PPF than those with 250 W. HPS lamps showed that the ratio of light intensity of B and FR to R was 0.15-0.28 and 0.36-0.4, respectively. For MH lamps, the ratio of light intensity of B and FR to R was 1.26-2.72 and 0.27-0.56, respectively. From these results, it was concluded that the portion of blue light of MH lamps was higher than those of HPS lamps.
Development of a Hydroponic Recycle System using the Visible Light-reactive Titanium Dioxide Photocatalyst for Sterilization of Nutrient Solution(I) - Determination of factors -
Chung, Sung-Won ; Ha, Yu-Shin ; Lee, Jong-Won ; Park, Jong-Min ; Kwon, Soon-Hong ; Lee, Ki-Myung ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 420~425
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.420
We produced a basic system of sterilization of nutrient solution based on the characteristics of coated filter with the visible light-reactive titanium oxide photocatalyst according to the findings of the first stage. We developed a model system with a proper number and arrangement of filter elements, the visible light-reactive titanium oxide photocatalyst according to findings from the basic performance test. Main results of this study were as followers; The ceramic filters showed the best performance of sterilization of nutrient solution. The visible light-reactive titanium oxide photocatalyst sterilized more effectively the nutrient solution under the sunlight than UV light. The sterilization performance by passing repeatedly through a few filter was more efficient than that by treating simultaneously with a large number of filters. The filter with 15ppi in pore size, 20 mm in thickness, and 3 layers in titanium oxide coating was desirable in the intensity and sterilization performance.
Ergonomic and Performance Analyses of a Pull-type Prayer for Floriculture in Greenhouse
Lee, Seung-Ki ; Kim, Woong ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 426~433
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.426
This study was conducted to develop a pull-type sprayer which performs the safe spraying with improved ergonomic postures while pesticide spraying of roses in floricultural facilities. The performance of the ergonomically designed sprayer was analyzed with a comparison of a conventional spray method. The pull-type sprayer, consisting of power pump, hose and nozzle parts was designed to manually pull and spray to upward and horizontal directions. From the analysis of postures with the RULA method, the labor load to arm and wrist using the pull-type sprayer was less than that with conventional power sprayer, so that the intensity of labor reduces. Working capacity with pull-type sprayer was two-fold greater than the conventional power sprayer. After performing pesticide spraying with the pull-type sprayer, the operating cost was reduced to \585,000/yr, which is 79% less than that of cost (\2,197,500/yr) for using conventional power sprayer.
Necessary Conditions for Optimal Ventilation of Small Negative Pressure Ventilating Piglet House with Corridor and Attic for Preheating
Lee, Seung-Joo ; Chang, Dong-Il ; Hwang, Seon-Ho ; Gutierrez, Winson M. ; Chang, Hong-Hee ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 434~442
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.434
This study was carried out to determine necessary conditions for optimal ventilation of small windowless piglet house (4.0 (W)
2.6(H) m) with corridor and attic for preheating using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation. The experimental weaning piglet house was consisted of a corridor, an attic, 4 rooms (3.0 (W)
2.75(L) m), 3 fences (0.7(H) m), 5 air inlets and 2 exhaust fans (0.4 (D) m) and simulated using CFD code, FLUENT. The simulation results for the experimental weaning piglet house showed that each room was uniformly ventilated under all the experimental conditions and air velocities at 0.1 m above floor are less than 0.15 m/s for 0.75 m/s and 1.0 m/s of air inlet velocity but 0.61 m/s for 1.25 m/s. The simulation results are similar to the measured results. Considering the air flow pattern, ventilating efficiency, air velocity at 0.1 m above floor and cold stress of weaning piglets and so on, the optimum velocity of air inlet might be 1.0 m/s.
Machine Vision Instrument to Measure Spray Droplet Sizes
Jeon, Hong-Young ; Tian, Lei ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 443~449
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.443
A machine vision-based instrument to measure a droplet size spectrum of a spray nozzle was developed and tested to evaluate its accuracy on measuring spray droplet sizes and classifying nozzle sizes. The instrument consisted of a machine vision, light emitting diode (LED) illumination and a desktop computer. The illumination and machine vision were controlled by the computer through a C++ program. The program controlled the machine vision to capture droplet images under controlled illumination, and processed the droplet images to characterize the droplet size distribution of a spray nozzle. An image processing algorithm was developed to improve the accuracy of the system by eliminating random noise and out-of-focus droplets in droplet images while measuring droplet sizes. The instrument measured sizes of the three different balls (254.0, 497.8 and
) and the measurement ranges were
for 254.0-, 497.84- and
balls, respectively. Error of the measured droplet mean was less than 3.0 %. Droplet statistics,
, of a reference nozzle set were measured, and droplet size spectra of five spray nozzles covering from very fine to extremely coarse were measured to classify spray nozzle sizes. Ninety percent of the classification results of the instrument agreed with manufacturer's classification. A comparison study was carried out between developed and commercial instruments, and measurement results of the developed instrument were within 20 % of commercial instrument results.
Study on Prediction of Internal Quality of Cherry Tomato using Vis/NIR Spectroscopy
Kim, Dae-Yong ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ; Mo, Chang-Yeun ; Kim, Young-Sik ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 450~457
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.450
Although cherry tomato is one of major vegetables consumed in fresh vegetable market, the quality grading method is mostly dependant on size measurement using drum shape sorting machines. Using Visible/Near-infrared spectroscopy, apparatus to be able to acquire transmittance spectrum data was made and used to estimate firmness, sugar content, and acidity of cherry tomatoes grown at hydroponic and soil culture. Partial least square (PLS) models were performed to predict firmness, sugar content, and acidity for the acquired transmittance spectra. To enhance accuracy of the PLS models, several preprocessing methods were carried out, such as normalization, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variate (SNV), and derivatives, etc. The coefficient of determination (
) and standard error of prediction (SEP) for the prediction of firmness, sugar, and acidity of cherry tomatoes from green to red ripening stages were 0.859 and 1.899 kgf, with a preprocessing of normalization, 0.790 and
with a preprocessing of the 1st derivative of Savitzky Golay, and 0.518 and 0.229% with a preprocessing normalization, respectively.
Detection of Pathogenic Salmonella with a Composite Quantum Dot
Kim, Gi-Young ; Yang, Gil-Mo ; Kim, Yung-Hwun ; Moh, Chang-Yeon ; Park, Saet-Byeol ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 35, issue 6, 2010, Pages 458~463
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2010.35.6.458
It is required to develop rapid methods to identify pathogenic Salmonella in food products for protecting and maintaining safety of the public health from Salmonellosis. The objective of the present study was to explore feasibility of the nanotechnology to detect pathogenic Salmonella rapidly in various samples. Sensitivity of the a composite quantum dot to detect Salmonella typhimurium in samples were evaluated. For selective detection of Salmonella, anti-Salmonella polycolonal antibody was utilized to capture and stain Salmonella. Quantum dots were attached onto Salmonella in the samples and produced fluorescent light. Fluorescence response of the composite quantum dot was measured with a commercial fluorescence meter. The fluorescence signal starts to increase with the samples in which higher concentration of the cells were contained. The sensitivity of the sensor was
Salmonella spiked in PBS.