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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Operation Status for Agricultural Tractors Over 75 kW
Han, Deuk-Hee ; Kang, Sung-Il ; Yoo, Soo-Nan ; Suh, Sang-Ryong ; Choi, Young-Soo ; Kang, Young-Seon ; Park, Seung-Je ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 397~406
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.397
In this study, surveys on operation status of the 73 tractors with rated power of over 75 kW from six provinces in Korea were performed to obtain basic data required for development and efficient use of the high-power and high-performance tractors. And types of tractors and implements, operation crops, types of operations, annual operation areas, annual operation days, annual operation hours, operation speeds and widths, and problems and improvements in use were investigated. Most (91.7%) of the tractor surveyed were operated for forage and silage crops such as rice straw, whole barley, rye grass, reed canary grass, sudan grass, and the remains were operated for upland crops such as ginseng, sweet potato, potato, chinese cabbage, radish. Main operations of the tractors were cutting, baling, and wrapping for forage crops, plow tillage, rotary tillage, and manure spreading. About half (47.9%) of the tractors were used exclusively for forage crop harvesting such as forage crop cutting, forage baling, and bale wrapping, 24.5% of the tractors were used exclusively for plow or rotary tillage, and 27.4% of the tractors were used for both forage crop harvesting, and plow or rotary tillage. For the tractors with power ranges of 75~83, 89~94, 98~101, 113, 124 kW, average annual operation areas per tractor for plow tillage, rotary tillage, forage crop harvesting (cutting, baling, wrapping), and manure spreading operations were analyzed as 112.6. 144.8, 158.9. 390.0. 215.6 ha, respectively. and total average annual operation area per tractor was 171.3 ha. Average annual operation days per tractor for those operations were analyzed as 24.1, 28.9, 38.3, 55.4, 33.4, respectively, and total average annual operation days per tractor was 33.6. Average annual operation hours per tractor for them were analyzed as 260.0, 321.6, 408.1, 664.8, 413.8, respectively, and total average annual operation hours per tractor for the all tractors was 377.1. Ranges of operation widths of plow tillage, rotary tillage, forage crop cutting, forage baling, bale wrapping, and manure spreading operations were shown as 1.5~2.6, 2.3~3.0, 1.8~3.2, 1.8~2.0, 1.8~2.3, 3.1~6.6 m, respectively. Ranges of operation speed of plow tillage, rotary tillage, forage crop cutting, forage baling, bale wrapping, and manure spreading were shown as 6~9, 4~11, 9~16, 8~15, 8~17, 12~16 km/h, respectively.
Design of Roll-over Protection Structure for an Orchard Sprayer
Kang, Tae-Gyoung ; Lee, Chai-Sik ; Jun, Hyeon-Jong ; Choi, Duck-Kyu ; Park, Suk-Ho ; Kim, Hyeok-Ju ; Kang, Tae-Hwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 407~415
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.407
Damage to agricultural production caused by insects and diseases affects farming yields. The orchard sprayer is mainly used in the country to protect the fruit in a large area, with less effort and at minimum cost. The excellent performance of the air blast spray increases the fruit protection. Chemical application in orchards has been accomplished by the orchard sprayers with air assist nozzles and a axial fan in Korea. However, the orchard sprayers without ROPS resulted in severe injury or death when operators drive the sprayers improperly on hilly orchard or farming road. This study was to develop a ROPS for the orchard sprayers improving farmer`s safety. In this study, the accident case was used in analysing the design and building TOP structure of the orchard sprayer. The maximum impact, body torsion frame structures including the driver`s protection are also analysed for adherence to safety regulations. The ROPS safety regulations according to the strength test results were established.
Evaluation of the Luminous Intensity Distribution of Stop Lamp for Agricultural Tractors
Kim, Hyung-Kweon ; Kim, Yu-Yong ; Shin, Seoung-Yeoup ; Kim, Byoung-Gap ; Lee, Ho-Sang ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 416~421
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.416
This study was initiated to prevent rear-end collision which causes the most frequent human damage by agricultural tractors. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the luminous performance of a stop lamp for an agricultural tractor which could reduce rear-end collision. The performance test of luminous intensity distribution was conducted for a total of 12 tractor models classified by size (above 44 kW for large, 30~43 kW for medium, and below 29 kW for small) and production area (domestic, foreign manufacture) in accordance with Regulation No.7 of UNECE Vehicle Regulations-1958 Agreement considering
20 standard deviation. Three out of 5 large, 3 out of 4 medium, and all small tractors were resulted as inadequate for the test criterion. This study found that the luminous performance results were better as the size of agricultural tractors became bigger. One out of 4 foreign and 2 out of 8 domestic manufacturers were suitable for the test criterion, and overall no difference from the luminosity test results was observed between domestic and foreign manufacturers. In addition, the measuring points, HV, 5L, 5R, 5U and 5D with the minimal luminosity revealed flaws (80% of the proportion of faulty products). Therefore, it is urgent to improve the quality for measuring points (HV, 5U, 5L, 5R, 5D) of stop lamps to apply Regulation No. 7.
Performance Characteristics of Hydro-mechanical Transmission and Design Parameters for Type Selection
Sim, Dong-Guk ; Kim, Kyeong-Uk ; Han, Jung-Soo ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 422~433
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.422
Market demand for hydro-mechanical transmission (HMT) for agricultural tractors has increased recently. To select a type of HMT satisfying design conditions, performance characteristics of 12 HMT types must be understood. This study was conducted to provide tractor engineers with a guideline to select the most appropriate HMT type for their design requirements. Characteristics on speed reduction ratio, power transmission efficiency, power regeneration, lock-up angular velocity, output torque ratio and torque ratio of planetary gear train axis of the 12 HMT types were investigated and presented as either formula or graphical forms. A guideline to select proper HMT type was also presented using 2 parameter: lock-up angular velocity (
) and torque ratio of the planetary gear train axis. In addition, effect of gear ratio of the planetary gear train on the power transmission efficiency was investigated and a guideline to select the best gear ratio was also presented.
Development of a Semi-automatic Seeder with Vacuum Nozzles of Quadratic Arrangement for Small-sized Seeds
Kim, Dong-Eok ; Lee, Gong-In ; Kang, Dong-Hyeon ; Kim, You-Ho ; Lee, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Hyeon-Hwan ; Kim, Jong-Ku ; Kim, Yong-Hyeon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 434~443
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.434
A large scale seeding system was stable in terms of techniques but a convenient seeding system of small size was unsettled. This study was performed to develop a semi-automatic seeder for small and medium sized scale farm. To investigate optimum needle diameter and vacuum pressure was used vacuum suction needle seeder. Although the needle diameter according to the kinds of seed was different, the needle diameter for salvia and lettuce seed was suitable for 0.34 mm needle nozzle and 0.4 mm taper nozzle. The prototype consisted a seeding frame attached with needle nozzle, seed hopper, vibrating device, seeding part, vacuum ejector, seed tube etc.. As the result with the experiments, the seeding rate of the seeder was 92% and more at 0.34 mm diameter needle nozzle and 0.4 mm taper nozzle. Eccentric weight for seed hopper vibration was suitable that weight is 11 g and eccentric distance is 0.5 mm. Vibration acceleration of upward direction was 0.363 m/
. Working capacity of the seeder was possible 160 trays per hour. It was possible for sowing small seeds but it was required to make compact and simple model.
Analysis of Natural Ventilation Characteristics of Venlo-type Greenhouse with Continuous Roof Vents
Kwon, Jin-Kyeong ; Lee, Sung-Hyun ; Seong, Jae-Hoon ; Moon, Jong-Pil ; Lee, Soo-Jang ; Choi, Byeong-Min ; Kim, Kyeong-Ja ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 444~452
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.444
In this study the characteristics of natural ventilation of Venlo-type greenhouse with continuous roof vents were analyzed using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Developed CFD simulation model was verified by comparison with experimental data. Simulation errors were 1.9-46.0% for air velocity and 1.7-11.2% for air temperature at each measurement point. CFD simulations were conducted to estimate the effect of roof vents opening direction, opening angle, outside wind velocity and wind directions on ventilation rate and climate condition in greenhouse. The results of this study showed that ventilation rate of the present greenhouse was increased linearly in proportion to the increase of roof vent opening angle and outside wind velocity over 2.0 m/s. According to the analysis on the effects of different roof vent opening direction, simultaneous opening of wind and leeward vents showed the highest ventilation rate and lowest mean temperature in greenhouse.
Development of the Red Pepper Auto-tedding Machine for the Production of Taeyangcho in Greenhouse
Ha, Yu-Shin ; Kim, Ki-Dong ; Nam, Sang-Heon ; Son, Chul-Min ; Koo, Geon-Hyo ; Lee, Ki-Myung ; Hwang, Bu-Won ; Kim, Jin-Hyun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 453~460
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.453
This study was carried out to test a red pepper tedding factors which is needed for design and development of an auto-tedding machine and a performance. According to this test, the results can be summarized as follows: The results of the tedding factors test according to shape of rotary blade, which is the 0.4 to 0.5 mm brush type, was found to be the most appropriate. As a result of tedding ratio which includes brush diameters, driving velocities and rotation velocities, there was generally no significance difference, but the red pepper tedding efficiency was found to be 39.7%. The moisture drying rate of red pepper was found to be 0.9 %w.b./h in prototype auto-tedding machine and 0.4 %w.b./h in traditional practice. The drying time was found to be 3 days in prototype auto-tedding machine and the traditional practice was 6 days. The average variable coefficient of the red pepper moisture content was found to be 16.8% in prototype auto-tedding machine in comparing with the traditional practice of 35.0%. This test showed a difference around two times, and this difference was evaluated to be the reason for irregular drying and different drying times.
The Study for Optimal Layout of the Eleutherococcus Senticosus Sap Production Line Analyzed by Simulation Model
Kim, Young-Jin ; Park, Hyun-Joon ; Mun, Joung-Hwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 461~466
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.461
The purpose of this study is basically for the use of simulations to enhance productivity. In this paper, the optimal number of allocation in a small and medium industry which produces eleutherococcus senticosus sap, is performed using simulations. The simulation model was developed under considerations of production layout, process & operation, process time, total work time, work in process (WIP), utilization, failure rate, and operation efficient as inputs, and was validated with careful comparisons between real behaviors and outputs of the production line. Therefore, we can evaluate effects and changes in productivity when some strategies and/or crucial factors are changed. Although too many workers and machines could decrease productivity, the eleutherococcus senticosus sap production line in this paper has been maintained many machines. To solve this problem, we determined the optimal number of workers and machines that could not cause any interrupt in productions using simulations. This simulation model considers diverse input variables which could influence productivity, and it is very useful not only for the production line of Eleutherococcus Senticosus Sap, but also for other production lines with various purposes, especially, in the small and medium industries.
Flight Dynamic Identification of a Model Helicopter using CIFER
(I) - Flight test for the acquisition of transmitter input data -
Park, Hee-Jin ; Koo, Young-Mo ; Bae, Yeoung-Hwan ; Oh, Min-Suk ; Yang, Chul-Oh ; Song, Myung-Hyun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 467~475
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.467
Aerial spraying technology using a small unmanned helicopter is an efficient and practical tool to achieve stable agricultural production to improve the working condition. An attitude controller for the agricultural helicopter would be helpful to aerial application operator. In order to construct the flight controller, a state space model of the helicopter should be identified using a dynamic analysis program, such as CIFER
. To obtain the state space a model of the helicopter, frequency-sweep flight tests were performed and time history data were acquired using a custom-built stick position transmitter. Four elements of stick commands were accessed for the collective pitch (heave), aileron (roll), elevator (pitch), rudder (yaw) maneuvers. The test results showed that rudder stick position signal was highly linear with rudder input channel signal of the receiver; however, collective pitch stick position signal was exponentially manipulated for the convenience of control stick handling. The acquired stick position and flight dynamic data during sweep tests would be analyzed in the followed study.
Flight Dynamic Identification of a Model Helicopter using CIFER
(II) - Frequency Response Analysis -
Bae, Yeoung-Hwan ; Koo, Young-Mo ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 476~483
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.476
The aerial application using an unmanned helicopter has been already utilized and an attitude controller would be developed to enhance the operational convenience and safety of the operator. For a preliminary study of designing flight controller, a state space model for an RC helicopter would be identified. Frequency sweep flight tests were performed and time history data were acquired in the previous study. In this study, frequency response of the flight test data of a small unmanned helicopter was analyzed by using the CIFER software. The time history flight data consisted of three replications each for collective pitch, aileron, elevator and rudder sweep inputs. A total of 36 frequency responses were obtained for the four control stick inputs and nine outputs including linear velocities and accelerations and angular velocities in 3-axis. The results showed coherence values higher than 0.6 for every primary control inputs and corresponding on-axis outputs for the frequency range from 0.07 to 4 Hz. Also the analysis of conditioned frequency response showed its effectiveness in evaluating cross coupling effects. Based on the results, the dynamic characteristics of the model helicopter can further be analyzed in terms of transfer functions and the undamped natural frequency and damping ratio of each critical mode.
Study on Bruise Detection of `Fuji` apple using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imagery
Cho, Byoung-Kwan ; Baek, In-Suck ; Lee, Nam-Geun ; Mo, Chang-Yeun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 484~490
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.484
Defects exist underneath the fruit skin are not easily discernable by using conventional color imaging technique in the visible wavelength ranges. Development of sensitive detection methods for the defects is necessary to ensure accurate quality sorting of fruits. Hyperspectral imaging techniques, which combine the features of image and spectroscopy to acquire spatial and spectral information simultaneously, have demonstrated good potentials for identifying and detecting anomalies on biological substances. In this study, a high spatial resolution hyperspectral reflectance technique was presented as a tool for detecting bruises on apple. The two-band ratio (494 nm / 952 nm) and simple threshold methods were applied to investigate the feasibility of discriminating the bruises from sound tissue of apple. The pixel wise accuracy of the discrimination was 74%. The resultant images processed with selected wavebands and morphologic algorithm distinctively showed the early stages of bruises on apple which were not discernable by naked eyes as well as a conventional color camera. Results demonstrated good potential of the hyperspectral reflectance imaging for detection of bruises on apple.
Study on Priority Selection of Export Strategic Core Technologies for IT Fusion Next Generation Agricultural Machines
Chang, Dong-Il ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ; Lee, Hoon-Soo ; Chung, Sun-Ok ; Park, Seung-Jae ; Kim, Chul-Soo ; Lee, Young-Hee ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 36, issue 6, 2011, Pages 491~499
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2011.36.6.491
The objective of this study was to develop the export strategic core technologies for IT fusion next generation agricultural machines by the analysis of comprehensive and cooperative systems of industries, universities, and institutes. In order to achieve the objective of this study, an expert panel was formed and operated. The first survey was conducted by the Delphi method. For this the export strategic core technologies were surveyed and analyzed using the questionnaire. Based on the results of the first survey, the second survey was conducted. The questionnaire used for the second survey was designed by results of the first survey. The results of the second survey was analyzed by AHP method. The third survey was conducted based on the second one, and the final results were analyzed and the export strategic core technologies were developed through the expert meeting. The study results showed six export strategic core technologies as the followings : 1) environment-friendly engine technology for high performance 2) high performance/high efficiency power transmission system technology 3) development of measurement system technology for safety of agricultural products 4) field application of sensor networks 5) large size combine development technology for high performance 6) quality evaluation technology for agricultural products.