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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Investigation of Centrifugal Rice Seeder for Unmanned Helicopter
Kang, Tae Gyoung ; Kim, Seung Hee ; Jun, Hyun Jong ; Choi, Duk Kyu ; Lee, Chae Sik ; Choi, Yong ; Baek, Nam Hyun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 335~341
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.335
Purpose: While an unmanned helicopter has been extensively used for spraying chemicals on agricultural crops, its low utilization (two months per year from July to August) has recently become an issue. This study aimed to increase the utilization of the unmanned helicopter. The centrifugal rice seeder, a mounting device for rice seeding for unmanned helicopter was developed and assessed its performance. Methods: The concept of the centrifugal spraying device was to obtain design criteria for centrifugal distribution. Four types of blade shapes namely straight, curved, straight wing and curved wing were developed and used. The rotational speed of the blades was tested at 1,000, 1,200 and 1,400 rpm. Results: The blade shapes, rotational blade speed and angle of trajectory were theoretically analyzed and results were validated with a series of laboratory experiments. Conclusions: The curved wing blades provided the distribution uniformity (DU) at 1,200rpm of rotational speed and 60 degree of seed drop point. The spray uniformity of 4.2% was also achieved.
Evaluation of Spray Flight Attitude for Agricultural Roll-balanced Helicopter using Kalman Filter
Park, Hee Jin ; Koo, Young Mo ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 342~351
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.342
Purpose: Aerial spraying with an agricultural unmanned helicopter became a new paradigm in the agricultural practice. Laterally tilting behavior of a conventional agricultural helicopter, resulting in the biased down-wash and uneven spray deposit is a physically intrinsic phenomenon while hovering and cruise flights. Authors studied and developed a roll-balanced agricultural helicopter with a raised pylon tail rotor system. In this study, the attitude of the roll-balanced helicopter was determined using the Kalman filter algorithm, and the quality of roll balancing of a bare-airframe helicopter was evaluated. Methods: Instantaneous attitudes were estimated using the advantage of gyroscope, followed by the long term correction and prediction using accelerometer data for the advantage of convergence. The attitudes of the fuselage were calculated by applying the Kalman filter algorithm. The spraying maneuver of the helicopter was performed at a field of 50 m long, and the attitude data were acquired and evaluated. Results: The determination of attitude using the inertial measurement unit(IMU) and Kalman filter was reliable and practical. The intrinsic attitude of the developed helicopter was stable and roll-balanced. The deviation of roll angle was
with an average of
, referring to roll-balanced. Conclusions: Handling quality of the roll attitude determined to be steadily balanced. The balancing behavior of the developed helicopter would result in an even spray pattern during aerial application.
Development of an Inexpensive Black Box with Transmission of SOS and Theft Signal for an Agricultural Tractor
Kim, YuYong ; Shin, Seung-Yeoub ; Kim, Byounggap ; Kim, Hyung Kweon ; Cho, Yongho ; Kim, Jinoh ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 352~358
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.352
Purpose: The inexpensive black box system was developed to acquire and save driving information, to give the slope information, and to transmit SOS and theft signal. Method: The device consists of a main micro controller to acquire and save data, a GPS sensor module, a CDMA module, a touch LCD module, a RF (Radio Frequency) ID module, a SD (Secure Digital) card module, an emergency electric power source, a theftproof circuit, and a sensing device. The sensing device consists of a 8 bit micro controller, a accelerometer to detect impulse, two slope sensors to detect roll and pitch angle and a circuit to detect operation of 6 lighting devices. Results: Test results are as follows: 1) a tractor can be start up only with an electronic key (password or RFID card), 2) theft signal was transmitted when a tractor moved without an electronic key, 3) SOS was transmitted at conditions that rollover or crash happened. 4) 5 more than per 1s data are recorded at 5 minute intervals as new file name in SD card. Conclusions: This system can be used to save travelling record, reduce accident, prevent theft and rescue life in the accidents.
Development of Vibration Absorption Device for the Transportation-Trailer System (IV) - Connecting Hitch, Leaf Spring and Shock Absorber Suspension -
Hong, Jong Ho ; Wu, Yong Gen ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 359~364
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.359
Purpose: This study was conducted to analyze the vibration absorption effect for the agricultural product transportation-trailer equipped with vibration absorbable connecting hitch, leaf spring suspension, and shock absorber simultaneously (HLS), comparing with the trailer equipped with vibration absorbable connecting hitch only(H), trailer equipped with connecting hitch and leaf spring suspension (HL), and existing trailer with no vibration absorption device (E). Methods: Vertical accelerations were measured at driver seat and front, middle, rear parts of trailer bottom with no load for 4 types of transportation-trailer, and analyzed using FFT analyzer. Results: The magnitude of average vibration accelerations occurred up to 20 Hz, at this low frequencies the severe damage for agricultural products could be represented, was lower (maximum 6 times) for HLS trailer compared with H trailer. And vibration absorption effect for HLS trailer was also higher up to 40-80 Hz and 80-100 Hz, but the difference was less. At driver seat, the vibration absorption effect was high severely for HL and HLS trailer, and the magnitude of vibration acceleration was showed less difference in comparing at trailer bottom. Conclusions: From the test results, it could be recommended that the agricultural products transportation trailer should be equipped with vibration absorption device of HLS.
Study on the Treatment Performance of SCB-M with Swine Manure
Park, Jong Tae ; Kim, Sang Hun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 365~372
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.365
Purpose: Performance of slurry composting and biofiltration with methane production (SCB-M) using swine manure and sawdust was evaluated. The suitable specific liquid input (SLI) was determined at lab-scale SCB. Method: In lab-scale SCB, the SLI test was performed at liquid input rate of 0.04, 0.09,
with constant sawdust volume. In pilot-scale SCB-M, the swine manure was fed to methane digester at organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.25-0.5 g VS/L/d. The effluent from methane digester was filtered using SCB. Results: The SLI at
showed good performance in terms of retention time. In pilot-scale SCB, the removal of
-N and total nitrogen (T-N) was found to be around 59% and 28%, respectively. Similarly, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal was found be 56% and 43%, respectively. Conclusions: For SCB-M process, the SLI of
is recommended. The performance of swine manure treatment was improved more by using SCB-M system than using methane digester only.
Development of an electronic sow liquid feeding system using RFID (1) - Development and performance test of the prototype -
Kim, Hyuck Joo ; Hong, Jong Tae ; Yu, Byeong Kee ; Kim, Sang Cheol ; Choi, Kyu Hong ; Chang, Hong Hee ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 373~384
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.373
Purpose: In EU, the animal welfare regulations are strengthening. Also, in Korea, for strengthening of animal protection laws, animal welfare farm certification scheme is being prepared to enforce. To get the certification of animal welfare farm, especially for sows, individual specific feeding in sow group is necessary in accordance with the animal welfare regulation. Also, liquid feeding is reported to be more effective for farrowing as well as dry sow. Therefore, in this study, a electronic liquid sow feeder using RFID which could be fed to farrowing sow simultaneously is developed. Methods : We manufactured a prototype of appropriate elements which were evaluated in the preliminary test for selecting RFID tag, supply pump, mixing type, etc. With the prototype, the performance test for liquid feeding gilt was done in group raising training barn. Results : The performance test result shows the C.V.(coefficient of variation) of liquid mixing and feeding is 0.77~1.97% and 2.4~5.3%, respectively, which means the system could feed sows uniformly. The feeding time of pneumatically activated ball valve is 2 seconds per 0.9 kg of liquid feed. The eating time for gilt were 65 seconds in average. Conclusions : The prototype could feed sow uniformly, and deliver the liquid feed 9 times for a sow continuously. Also, total eating time for a sow was 18 minutes in one visit to the prototype of feeding station.
Microwave Drying of Sawdust for Pellet Production: Kinetic Study under Batch Mode
Bhattarai, Sujala ; Oh, Jae-Heun ; Choi, Yun Sung ; Oh, Kwang Cheol ; Euh, Seung Hee ; Kim, Dae Hyun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 385~397
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.385
Purpose: Drying characteristics of sawdust was studied under batch mode using lab scale microwave dryer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of material load and microwave output power on drying characteristics of sawdust. Methods: Material load and microwave output power were varied from 23 to 186 g and 530 to 370 W respectively. Different kinetic models were tested to fit the drying rates of sawdust. Similarly, the activation energy was calculated by employing the Arrhenius equation. Results: The drying efficiency increased considerably, whereas the specific energy consumption significantly decreased with increase in material load and microwave output power. The cumulative energy efficiency increased by 9%, and the specific energy consumption decreased by 8% when the material load was increased from 23 to 186 g. The effective diffusivity increased with decrease in material load and increase in microwave output power. The previously published model gave the best fit for data points with
and RMSE values of 0.999 and 0.01, respectively. Conclusions: The data obtained from this study could be used as a basis for modeling of large scale industrial microwave dryers for the pellet production.
Estimation of the Flavor of Green Soybean during Storage from Single Pod Measurements using Dedicated Near-Infrared Transmission Spectrometer
Maebashi, Maki ; Natsuga, Motoyasu ; Egashira, Hiroaki ; Ura, Nobuo ; Katahira, Mitsuhiko ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 398~403
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.398
Purpose: Green soybeans (edamame) are now an economically important and popular food product in Japan. In order to shorten breeding time and to decide an optimal harvest time, we have been developing a dedicated NIRT spectrometer since 2004 for the determination of constituent content such as sucrose and free amino acids, which are two major contributors to the eating quality, in a single pod green soybean. Methods: The obtained models showed that the developed NIRT instrument had reasonable accuracy for the determination of these two components. Then we carried out the investigation into the change in two components during a few days storage using these models with changing time, variety/cultivar, packaging and temperature. Results: The result showed that the most affecting factor on decreasing both sucrose content and free amino acids was variety/cultivar. The time, packaging and temperature also affected significantly in most cases.
Germination Prediction of Cucumber (cucumis sativus) Seed using Raman Spectroscopy
Mo, Changyeun ; Kang, Sukwon ; Lee, Kangjin ; Kim, Giyoung ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ; Lim, Jong-Guk ; Lee, Ho-Sun ; Park, Jongryul ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 404~410
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.404
Purpose: The objective of this research was to select high quality cucumber (cucumis sativus) seed by classifying into viable or non-viable one using Raman spectroscopy. Method: Both transmission and back-scattering Raman spectra of viable and non-viable seeds in the range from
were collected with a laser illumination. Results: The Raman spectra of cucumber seed showed Raman peaks with features of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to predict viable seeds was developed with measured transmission and backscattering spectra with Raman spectroscopy and germination test results. Various types of spectra pretreatment were investigated to develop the classification models. The results of developed PLS-DA models using the transmission spectra with mean normalization or range normalization, and back-scattering spectra with mean normalization treatment or baseline correction showed 100% discrimination accuracy. Conclusions: These results showed that Raman spectroscopy technologies can be used to select the high quality cucumber seeds.
Nondestructive Classification of Viable and Non-viable Radish (Raphanus sativus L) Seeds using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging
Ahn, Chi Kook ; Mo, Chang Yeun ; Kang, Jum-Soon ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 411~419
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.411
Purpose: Nondestructive evaluation of seed viability is a highly demanded technique in the seed industry. In this study, hyperspectral imaging system was used for discrimination of viable and non-viable radish seeds. Method: The spectral data with the range from 400 to 1000 nm measured by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system were used. A calibration and a test models were developed by partial least square discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) for classification of viable and non-viable radish seeds. Either each data set of visible (400~750 nm) and NIR (750~1000 nm) spectra and the spectra of the combined spectral ranges were used for developing models. Results: The discrimination accuracy of calibration was 84% for visible range and 76.3% for NIR range. The discrimination accuracy of test was 84.2% for visible range and 75.8% for NIR range. The discrimination accuracies of calibration and test with full range were 92.2% and 92.5%, respectively. The resultant images based on the optimal PLS-DA model showed high performance for the discrimination of the nonviable seeds from the viable seeds with the accuracy of 95%. Conclusions: The results showed that hyperspectral reflectance imaging has good potential for discriminating nonviable radish seeds from massive amounts of viable seeds.
Development of rapid diagnosis technology for porcine proliferative enteropathy (1) - Preparation of the samples and antibody for rapid detecting the lawsonia in pig feces -
Kim, Hyuck Joo ; Hong, Jong Tae ; Yu, Byeong Kee ; Kim, Gi Young ; Lee, Jin Ju ; Kim, Suk ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 420~428
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.420
Purpose: Porcine proliferative enteropathy(PPE), caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis, is a widely distributed disease throughout the world causing substantial economic loss. The bacterial pathogen invades the intestinal epithelial cells which causes hyperplasia of the infected cells and leads to the process of disease pathogenesis. For diagnosing PPE in a pig farm in earlier stage, a rapid diagnosing test equipment is needed for farmers. To test the equipment appropriately, we prepare the samples and antibodies for rapid detecting the Lawsonia intracellularis in pig feces. Methods : To prepare the PPE infected samples, we sampled PPE suspected pig feces in a pig farm. To manufacture a anti-Lawsonia intracellularis antibody for capturing the Lawsonia intracellularis, the rabbit-anti LsaA synthetic peptide polyclonal antibody was inoculated to rabbits. To select the couple of antibodies which is most well sandwiched with the bacteria, ELISA test was done with PPE infected ileum samples. Finally, to verify the PPE infected feces which would be used to test the rapid kit, PCR test was done on the sampled PPE suspected feces Results : The rabbit-anti LsaA synthetic peptide polyclonal antibody is developed, and is verified to capture the bacterial well through the fluorescence antibody test. Also, we found that the monoclonal antibody and the polyclonal antibody could be used as couples for sandwiching the bacteria. Finally, through the PCR test for samples of pig feces, we could prepare the 150 PPE positive samples and 50 PPE negative samples. Conclusions : The manufactured polyclonal antibody and the imported monoclonal antibody could be used to capture the bacteria using the sandwich techniques. Also, the prepared PPE infected negative and positive samples could be used to test the performance of the rapid kit to capture the bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis.
Viscosity Characteristics of Waste Cooking Oil with Ultrasonic Energy Irradiation
Kim, Tae Han ; Han, Jung Keun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 429~433
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.429
Purpose: While rapeseed oil, soy bean oil, palm oil and waste cooking oil are being used for biodiesel, the viscosity of them should be lowered for fuel. The most widely used method of decreasing the viscosity of vegetable oil is to convert the vegetable oil into fatty acid methyl ester but is too expensive. This experiment uses ultrasonic energy, instead of converting the vegetable oil into fatty acid methyl ester, to lower the viscosity of the waste cooking oil. Methods: For irradiation treatment, the sample in a beaker was irradiated with ultrasonic energy and the viscosity and temperature were measured with a viscometer. For heating treatment, the sample in a beaker was heated and the viscosity and temperature were measured with a viscometer. Kinematic viscosity was calculated by dividing absolute viscosity with density. Results: The kinematic viscosity of waste cooking oil and cooking oil are up to ten times as high as that of light oil at room temperature. However, the difference of two types of oil decreased by four times as the temperature increased over
. When the viscosity by the treatment of ultrasonic energy irradiation was compared to one by the heating treatment to the waste cooking oil, the viscosity by the treatment of ultrasonic energy irradiation was lower by maximum of 22% and minimum of 12%, than one by the heating treatment. Conclusions: Ultrasonic energy irradiation lowered the viscosity more than the heating treatment did, and ultrasonic energy irradiation has an enormous effect on fuel reforming.
Efficiency Plan for Agricultural Machinery Rental System of Local Government
Shin, Seung-Yeoub ; Kim, Byounggap ; Kim, Yu Yong ; Kim, Hyeong-Kwon ; Lee, Kyou-Seung ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 37, issue 6, 2012, Pages 434~438
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2012.37.6.434
Purpose: This study was performed in order to improve problems and to seek the efficient operating plan by surveying and analyzing the actual status of operating the agricultural machinery rental business supported by the government. Method: The data was collected through two times of survey targeting lease business operators and the leasing business reports published for the past 3 years ('08~'10) 120 cities and counties. Results: As a result of surveying 120 cities and counties nationwide of operating the agricultural machinery rental business, 96% of agricultural machinery rental businesses were indicated to be operated in the form of short-term rent for about 1~3 days centering on small-sized agricultural machinery and attachment for upland crop. As for the unit number of possessing rental agricultural machinery and the purchase cost, it was indicated to be greatly reduced the agricultural machinery for rice farming and to be expanded into upland crop whose mechanization is insufficient. The annual rental days ('10) are 9.5 days/unit, thereby being a little insufficient. Rental fee for 1 day is 0.2~0.8% of the initial purchase cost of agricultural machine, thereby being greatly lower compared to 2.0% (annually 10-day rent) of the proper rents, resulting in being demanded improvement. Conclusions: To be continuously driven the rental business of agricultural machinery with having the ability to propagate, it is judged to be likely to necessarily collect optimum rental fee in consideration of rental days as well as increasing the use days per unit by buying the agricultural machinery, which is secured the rental demand, and by possessing the reasonable unit number.