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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
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Comparison of Tillage and Loads Characteristics of Three Types of Rotavators: Rotary-type, Crank-type, and Plow-type
Kim, Myoung-Ho ; Nam, Ju-Seok ; Kim, Dae-Cheol ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 38, issue 2, 2013, Pages 73~80
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2013.38.2.073
Purpose: This study was conducted to compare tillage and loads characteristics of three types of rotavators in farmland working condition of Korea. Methods: Tillage operations using three types of rotavators, i.e. rotary-type, crank-type and plow-type, were carried out in a dry field of Korea. The same prime mover tractor was used for driving three types of rotavators, and under several operational conditions, tillage characteristics such as actual working speed, rotavating depth, rotavating width, actual field capacity, flow of tilled soil, soil inversion ratio, and pulverizing ratio were measured. In addition, loads characteristics like torque and required power of Power Take-Off (PTO) shaft were calculated. Results: The average rotavating depth was smaller than the nominal value for all rotavators, and the difference was the greatest in the plow-type rotavator. Nevertheless, the plow-type rotavator showed the largest rotavating depth. The rotavating width was the same as the nominal value of all rotavators. The flow of tilled soil at the same operational conditions was the greatest in the plow-type rotavator and was the smallest in the rotary-type rotavator. In the most commonly used gear conditions of L2 and L3, the average soil pulverizing ratio was the greatest in the rotary-type rotavator, and followed by crank-type and plow-type rotavators in order. In the gear L2 and L3, the plow-type rotavator also had the lowest average soil inversion ratio while the rotary-type and crank-type rotavators had the same soil inversion ratio each other. The average torque and power of PTO shaft in the gear L2 and L3 were the highest in the plow-type rotavator. The load spectra of PTO shaft applying rain flow counting method and Smith-Waston-Topper equation to the measured torque showed that the modified torque amplitude was the greatest in the crank-type rotavator. This may come from the large torque fluctuation of crank-type rotavator during tillage operations. Conclusions: The three types of rotavators had different tillage and loads characteristics. The plow-type rotavator had the deepest rotavating depth, the smallest soil inversion ratio, the largest soil pulverizing ratio and required PTO power. Also, the crank-type rotavator showed a large torque fluctuation because of their unique operational mechanism. This study will help the farmers choose a suitable type of rotavator for effective tillage operations.
Study on the Effect of Air Circulator on Temperature Distribution in an Oyster Mushroom Farm
Jeong, Won Geun ; Lim, Hack Kyu ; Kim, Tae Han ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 38, issue 2, 2013, Pages 81~86
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2013.38.2.081
Purpose: Recently, domestic and abroad consumption of mushroom has been increasing. Especially, oyster mushroom has been the most consumed product, sharing one third of the mushroom market. The air temperature differences between relative positions of the mushroom farms were needs to be minimal. However, in reality, the air temperature differences ranged from 2 to
. Because of this, the mushrooms are non-uniform growth as well as decrease in both quality and quantity. Although air circulators have been employed by oyster mushroom farms to minimize air temperature differences, no experiments have been performed to illustrate the effect of the air circulators. Methods: This experiment is designed to analyze the effect of the air circulation by constructing a prototype air circulator and measuring the air temperature when the circulator was position at different heights (50 cm, 150 cm, 200 cm) from the floor in the center. Result: The horizontal plane air temperature of the first growing bed when the air circulator was installed 50cm above the floor in the center, once not using the air circulators and the other time using the air circulators, yielded the air temperature differences of
and deviations of 2.82 and 0.60, respectively. The third growing bed's air temperature differences were
and deviations 3.28, 0.64, each respectively. These outcomes proved that the use of air circulators minimized the air temperature difference and deviation. The use of air circulators helped minimize the air temperature differences and the derivations in oyster mushroom farm. Conclusion: The use of air circulators helped balance the air temperature distribution in oyster mushroom farm.
Understanding Phytosanitary Irradiation Treatment of Pineapple Using Monte Carlo Simulation
Kim, Jongsoon ; Kwon, Soon-Hong ; Chung, Sung-Won ; Kwon, Soon-Goo ; Park, Jong-Min ; Choi, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 38, issue 2, 2013, Pages 87~94
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2013.38.2.087
Purpose: Pineapple is now the third most important tropical fruit in world production after banana and citrus. Phytosanitary irradiation is recognized as a promising alternative treatment to chemical fumigation. However, most of the phytosanitary irradiation studies have dealt with physiochemical properties and its efficacy. Accurate dose calculation is crucial for ensuring proper process control in phytosanitary irradiation. The objective of this study was to optimize phytosanitary irradiation treatment of pineapple in various radiation sources using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: 3-D geometry and component densities of the pineapple, extracted from CT scan data, were entered into a radiation transport Monte Carlo code (MCNP5) to obtain simulated dose distribution. Radiation energy used for simulation were 2 MeV (low-energy) and 10 MeV (high-energy) for electron beams, 1.25 MeV for gamma-rays, and 5 MeV for X-rays. Results: For low-energy electron beam simulation, electrons penetrated up to 0.75 cm from the pineapple skin, which is good for controlling insect eggs laid just below the fruit surface. For high-energy electron beam simulation, electrons penetrated up to 4.5 cm and the irradiation area occupied 60.2% of the whole area at single-side irradiation and 90.6% at double-side irradiation. For a single-side only gamma- and X-ray source simulation, the entire pineapple was irradiated and dose uniformity ratios (Dmax/Dmin) were 2.23 and 2.19, respectively. Even though both sources had all greater penetrating capability, the X-ray treatment is safer and the gamma-ray treatment is more widely used due to their availability. Conclusions: These results are invaluable for optimizing phytosanitary irradiation treatment planning of pineapple.
Analysis of Broken Rice Separation Efficiency of a Laboratory Indented Cylinder Separator
Kim, Myoung Ho ; Park, Seung Je ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 38, issue 2, 2013, Pages 95~102
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2013.38.2.095
Purpose: Using a laboratory indented cylinder separator, broken rice separation experiments were conducted and the characteristics of the separation process were studied to provide information for developing a prototype indented cylinder broken rice separator. Methods: Rice (Ilmi variety) milled in a local RPC was used for the experiment. Rice kernels were classified into four groups according to their length l; whole kernels (I > 3.75 mm), semi-whole kernels (2.5 < I < 3.75 mm), broken kernels (1.75 < I < 2.5 mm), and foreign matters (I < 1.75 mm). A laboratory grain cleaner, Labofix '90 (Schmidt AG, Germany) was used for the experiments. Experiments were designed as a
factorial arrangement in randomized blocks with three replications. Cylinder rotational speeds (17, 34, 51, 68 rpm) and trough angles (15, 37.5, 60,
) were the two factors and feed rates (25, 50 kg/h), indent shapes (Us,
type), and indent sizes (2.5, 3.75 mm) were treated as the blocks. Two 125 g samples and one 125 g sample were taken at the cylinder outlet and from the trough, respectively. The whole, semi-whole, and broken kernel weight ratio of the samples and feed was determined by a rice sizing device. From these weight ratios, purities, degrees of extraction and coefficient of separation efficiency were calculated. Results: Trough angle, cylinder speed, and their interaction on the coefficient of separation efficiency were statistically significant. Cylinder speed of 17, 34, and 51 rpm made the most effective separation when the trough angle was
, respectively. Maximum values of coefficient of separation efficiency were in the range of 60 to 70% except when the indent size was 2.5 mm and were recorded for the combinations of low cylinder speed (17 rpm) with medium trough angle (
). Indent shape did not appear to make any noticeable difference in separation efficiency. Conclusions: Due to the interaction effect, the trough angle needs to be increased appropriately when an increase in cylinder speed is made if a rapid drop of effectiveness of separation should be avoided. In commercial applications,
type indents are preferred because of their better manufacturability and easier maintenance. For successful separation of broken kernels, the indent size should be set slightly bigger than the actual sizes of broken kernels: an indent size of 3.0 mm for separating broken kernels shorter than 2.5 mm.
Review on Rice Flour Manufacturing and Utilization
Kim, Myoung Ho ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 38, issue 2, 2013, Pages 103~112
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2013.38.2.103
Background: The Korean government launched a project in 2008, where the amount of rice used as raw ingredient in rice-based foods in 2012 was planned to increase up to 10% (470,000 ton) of the total rice production through developing various new rice-based processed foods and their commercial manufacturing technology. Among the four major rice-based processed foods, rice cakes and noodles need rice flour as their main raw ingredient. Technology in rice flour utilization and manufacturing is far behind than the technology pertinent to wheat flour in many subject areas. Purpose: This review aims to provide information on rice flour utilization and manufacturing with some fundamental subjects in the area of size reduction. Results: A variety of food items including bread, noodle, cake, cookie, muffin, pre-mix, beverage, vinegar, surimi, and artificial meat have found rice flour as their raw ingredient. Rice bread made out of 100% rice flour has been developed and is now sold in retail stores. Various noodle products made from rice flour are also on the market. Issues on product definition and labeling regulation about rice flour content of the products were explored. Generalized grinding equations available in the literature were seldom used in practice; instead, it has been a general practice to develop empirical equations from test milling data. Introductory remarks on three popular particle size measurement methods (sieving, Coulter counter, light diffraction) were explained. Mathematical expressions frequently used to describe particle size distribution and to correlate cumulative quantity of particles with particle size were represented. Milling methods used in producing rice flour were described along with their advantages and disadvantages. Because of their profound effect on functional properties of the rice flour, four rice flour milling equipments used at both laboratory experiments and commercial manufacturing plants were discussed.
Effects of Micro-Electrical Stimulation on Regulation of Behavior of Electro-Active Stem Cells
Im, Ae-Lee ; Kim, Jangho ; Lim, KiTaek ; Seonwoo, Hoon ; Cho, Woojae ; Choung, Pill-Hoon ; Chung, Jong Hoon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 38, issue 2, 2013, Pages 113~120
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2013.38.2.113
Purpose: Stem cells provide new opportunities in the regenerative medicine for human or animal tissue regeneration. In this study, we report an efficient method for the modulating behaviors of electro-active stem cells by micro-electric current stimulation (mES) without using chemical agents, such as serum or induction chemicals. Methods: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were cultured on the tissue culture dish in the mES system. To find a suitable mES condition to promote the DPSC functions, the response surface analysis was used. Results: We found that a working micro-current of 38
showed higher DPSC proliferation compared with other working conditions. The mES altered the expressions of intracellular and extracellular proteins compared to those in unstimulated cells. The mES with 38
significantly increased osteogenesis of DPSCs compared with ones without mES. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that mES may induce DPSC proliferation and differentiation, resulting in applying to DPSCs-based human or animal tissue regeneration.
Development of Rapid Diagnostic Technology for Pig Disease (2) - Rapid detection of PPE in the pig feces -
Kim, Hyuck-Joo ; Hong, Jong-Tae ; Yu, Byeong-Kee ; Kim, Giyoung ; Kim, Suk ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 38, issue 2, 2013, Pages 121~128
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2013.38.2.121
Purpose: Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE), caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis, is a widely distributed disease throughout the world causing substantial economic loss. In order to diagnose PPE rapidly, the rapid kit was developed and tested. Methods: In this study, a rapid kit was developed to screen the PPE rapidly at the pig farm. Also, occult blood test with fecal occult blood (FOB) kit was done for detecting the blood in pig feces which might be the evident of hemorrhagic PPE. For developing the kit, we tested fecal samples of PPE infected pigs diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Results: With the developed rapid kit, Lawsonia intracellularis was detected in high density emulsion of ileum. On the other hand, the test result of detecting Lawsonia in feces showed too high non-specific response. In addition, nevertheless the FOB test result showed that blood evident could be founded in pig feces, the diagnosing result was not fit to PCR test result, which shows blood in pig feces could be from not only hemorrhagic PPE but also many reasons. Conclusions: To deal with the PPE effectively, it will be better for farmers to screen the PPE in earlier stage with easy and rapid diagnosing tool on farm. This study found out that the rapid kit could detect the Lawsonia intracellularis and hemoglobin in pig feces. However, the non-specific response to negative samples of PPE was too high to use at a pig farm. Further research is needed for lowering the non-specific response with the rapid kit.
A Theoretical Modeling for Suggesting Unique Mechanism of Adolescent Calcium Metabolism
Lee, Wang-Hee ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ; Okos, Martin R. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 38, issue 2, 2013, Pages 129~137
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2013.38.2.129
Purpose: Modeling has been used for elucidating the mechanism of complex biosystems. In spite of importance and uniqueness of adolescent calcium (Ca) metabolism characterized by a threshold Ca intake, its regulatory mechanism has not been covered and even not proposed. Hence, this study aims at model-based proposing potential mechanisms regulating adolescent Ca metabolism. Methods: Two different hypothetic mechanisms were proposed. The main mechanism is conceived based on Ca-protein binding which induces renal Ca filtration, while additional mechanism assumed that active renal Ca re-absorption regulated Ca metabolism in adolescents. Mathematical models were developed to represent the proposed mechanism and simulated them whether they could produce adolescent Ca profiles in serum and urine. Results: Simulation showed that both mechanisms resulted in the unique behavior of Ca metabolism in adolescents. Based on the simulation insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is suggested as a potential regulator because it is related to both growth, a remarkable characteristic of adolescence, and Ca metabolism including absorption and bone accretion. Then, descriptive modeling is employed to conceptualize the hypothesized mechanisms governing adolescent Ca metabolism. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that modeling is a powerful tool for elucidating an unknown mechanism by simulating potential regulatory mechanisms in adolescent Ca metabolism. It is expected that various analytic applications would be plausible in the study of biosystems, particularly with combination of experimental and modeling approaches.
Kinematic and Dynamic Analyses of Human Arm Motion
Kim, Junghee ; Cho, Sungho ; Lee, Choongho ; Han, Jaewoong ; Hwang, Heon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 38, issue 2, 2013, Pages 138~148
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2013.38.2.138
Purpose: Determining an appropriate path is a top priority in order for a robot to maneuver in a dynamically efficient way especially in a pick-and-place task. In a non-standardized work environment, current robot arm executes its motion based on the kinematic displacements of joint variables, though resulting motion is not dynamically optimal. In this research we suggest analyzing and applying motion patterns of the human arm as an alternative to perform near optimum motion trajectory for arbitrary pick-and-place tasks. Methods: Since the motion of a human arm is very complicated and diverse, it was simplified into two links: one from the shoulder to the elbow, and the other from the elbow to the hand. Motion patterns were then divided into horizontal and vertical components and further analyzed using kinematic and dynamic methods. The kinematic analysis was performed based on the D-H parameters and the dynamic analysis was carried out to calculate various parameters such as velocity, acceleration, torque, and energy using the Newton-Euler equation of motion and Lagrange's equation. In an attempt to assess the efficacy of the analyzed human motion pattern it was compared to the virtual motion pattern created by the joint interpolation method. Results: To demonstrate the efficacy of the human arm motion mechanical and dynamical analyses were performed, followed by the comparison with the virtual robot motion path that was created by the joint interpolation method. Consequently, the human arm was observed to be in motion while the elbow was bent. In return this contributed to the increase of the manipulability and decrease of gravity and torque being exerted on the elbow. In addition, the energy required for the motion decreased. Such phenomenon was more apparent under vertical motion than horizontal motion patterns, and in shorter paths than in longer ones. Thus, one can minimize the abrasion of joints by lowering the stress applied to the bones, muscles, and joints. From the perspectives of energy and durability, the robot arm will be able to utilize its motor most effectively by adopting the motion pattern of human arm. Conclusions: By applying the motion pattern of human arm to the robot arm motion, increase in efficiency and durability is expected, which will eventually produce robots capable of moving in an energy-efficient manner.
Multi-Level Thresholding based on Non-Parametric Approaches for Fast Segmentation
Cho, Sung Ho ; Duy, Hoang Thai ; Han, Jae Woong ; Hwang, Heon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 38, issue 2, 2013, Pages 149~162
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2013.38.2.149
Purpose: In image segmentation via thresholding, Otsu and Kapur methods have been widely used because of their effectiveness and robustness. However, computational complexity of these methods grows exponentially as the number of thresholds increases due to the exhaustive search characteristics. Methods: Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithms (GAs) can accelerate the computation. Both methods, however, also have some drawbacks including slow convergence and ease of being trapped in a local optimum instead of a global optimum. To overcome these difficulties, we proposed two new multi-level thresholding methods based on Bacteria Foraging PSO (BFPSO) and real-coded GA algorithms for fast segmentation. Results: The results from BFPSO and real-coded GA methods were compared with each other and also compared with the results obtained from the Otsu and Kapur methods. Conclusions: The proposed methods were computationally efficient and showed the excellent accuracy and stability. Results of the proposed methods were demonstrated using four real images.
Development of a System Observing Worker's Physiological Responses and 3-Dimensional Biomechanical Loads in the Task of Twisting While Lifting
Son, Hyun Mok ; Seonwoo, Hoon ; Kim, Jangho ; Lim, KiTaek ; Chung, Jong Hoon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 38, issue 2, 2013, Pages 163~170
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2013.38.2.163
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide analysis of physiological, biomechanical responses occurring from the operation to lifting or twist lifting task appears frequently in agricultural work. Methods: This study investigated the changes of physiological factors such as heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and biomechanical factors such as physical activity and kinetic analysis in the task of twisting at the waist while lifting. Results: Heart rates changed significantly with the workload. The result indicated that the workload of 2 kg was light intensity work, and the workload of 12 kg was hard intensity work. Physical activity increased as the workload increased both on wrist and waist. Besides, stress index of the worker increased with the workload. Dynamic load to herniated discs was analyzed using inertial sensor, and the angular acceleration and torque increased with the workload. The proposed measurement system can measure the recipient's physiological and physical signals in real-time and analyzed 3-dimensionally according to the variety of work load. Conclusions: The system we propose will be a new method to measure agricultural workers' multi-dimensional signals and analyze various farming tasks.