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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
An Analysis of Factors Relating to Agricultural Machinery Farm-Work Accidents Using Logistic Regression
Kim, Byounggap ; Yum, Sunghyun ; Kim, Yu-Yong ; Yun, Namkyu ; Shin, Seung-Yeoub ; You, Seokcheol ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 3, 2014, Pages 151~157
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.3.151
Purpose: In order to develop strategies to prevent farm-work accidents relating to agricultural machinery, influential factors were examined in this paper. The effects of these factors were quantified using logistic regression. Methods: Based on the results of a survey on farm-work accidents conducted by the National Academy of Agricultural Science, 21 tentative independent variables were selected. To apply these variables to regression, the presence of multicollinearity was examined by comparing correlation coefficients, checking the statistical significance of the coefficients in a simple linear regression model, and calculating the variance inflation factor. A logistic regression model and determination method of its goodness of fit was defined. Results: Among 21 independent variables, 13 variables were not collinear each other. The results of a logistic regression analysis using these variables showed that the model was significant and acceptable, with deviance of 714.053. Parameter estimation results showed that four variables (age, power tiller ownership, cognizance of the government's safety policy, and consciousness of safety) were significant. The logistic regression model predicted that the former two increased accident odds by 1.027 and 8.506 times, respectively, while the latter two decreased the odds by 0.243 and 0.545 times, respectively. Conclusions: Prevention strategies against factors causing an accident, such as the age of farmers and the use of a power tiller, are necessary. In addition, more efficient trainings to elevate the farmer's consciousness about safety must be provided.
Comparison of Test Standards for the Performance and Safety of Agricultural Tractors: A Review
Kabir, Md. Shaha Nur ; Chung, Sun-Ok ; Kim, Yong-Joo ; Shin, Sung-Hyun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 3, 2014, Pages 158~165
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.3.158
Purpose: The objective of this paper was to compare test standards regarding the performance and safety of agricultural tractors to identify the differences in test conditions, measurement tolerances, and test procedures. Based on the comparison, some recommendations were proposed for possible revisions or improvements to current tractor test standards. Methods: The test standards and codes of major standards development organizations (SDOs), such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), EC type approval, and the board of actions of the Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratories (NTTL), were selected and analyzed. Comparison of the test standards: The ISO provides references for fuel and lubricants for tractor tests, and the OECD provides additional measurements for calculating fuel consumption characteristics during the power take-off (PTO) tests. The ISO, EC type approval, and the ASABE provide PTO protective device and the safety requirements. During drawbar power tests, seven transmission ratios are selected for fully automatic transmissions, according to the OECD. In case of hydraulic lift tests, ISO 789-2 and OECD Code 2 advise the use of a static lift force, while SAE J283 advises the use of additional dynamic lift capacity tests for a better representation of in-field operations. The OECD, the ISO, and EC type approval determine the seat index point (SIP), whereas the ASABE determines the seat reference point (SRP) for roll-over protective structure (ROPS) tests. Diversified measurement tolerances were among the braking performance test standards. The European Union (EU) has developed daily limits for vibration exposures with adaptations from ISO 2631-1. Electromagnetic compatibility evaluations are emerging of high-efficiency tractors due to the long-term conformance to electromagnetic emissions and interferences. Comparisons of tractor test standards discussed in this paper are expected to provide useful information for tractor manufacturers and standards development personnel to improve the performance and safety test standards of tractors.
Multispectral Wavelength Selection to Detect 'Fuji' Apple Surface Defects with Pixel-sampling Analysis
Park, Soo Hyun ; Lee, Hoyoung ; Noh, Sang Ha ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 3, 2014, Pages 166~173
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.3.166
Purpose: In this study, we focused on the image processing method to determine the external quality of Fuji apples by identifying surface defects such as scabs and bruises. Method: A CCD camera was used to capture filter images with 24 different wavelengths ranging between 530 nm and 1050 nm. Image subtraction and division operations were performed to distinguish the defect area from the normal areas including calyx, stem, and glaring on the apple surface image. All threshold values of the image were examined to reveal the defect area of pretreated filter images. Results: The developed operation methods were [image (720 nm) - image (900 nm)]/image (700 nm) for bruise detection and [image (740 nm) - image (900 nm)]/image (590 nm) for scab detection, which revealed 81% and 90% recognition ratios, respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed several optimal wavelengths and image processing methods to detect Fuji apple surface defects such as bruises and scabs.
Automatic Extraction of Lean Tissue for Pork Grading
Cho, Sung-Ho ; Huan, Le Ngoc ; Choi, Sun ; Kim, Tae-Jung ; Shin, Wu-Hyun ; Hwang, Heon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 3, 2014, Pages 174~183
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.3.174
Purpose: A robust, efficient auto-grading computer vision system for meat carcasses is in high demand by researchers all over the world. In this paper, we discuss our study, in which we developed a system to speed up line processing and provide reliable results for pork grading, comparing the results of our algorithms with visual human subjectivity measurements. Methods: We differentiated fat and lean using an entropic correlation algorithm. We also developed a self-designed robust segmentation algorithm that successfully segmented several porkcut samples; this algorithm can help to eliminate the current issues associated with autothresholding. Results: In this study, we carefully considered the key step of autoextracting lean tissue. We introduced a self-proposed scheme and implemented it in over 200 pork-cut samples. The accuracy and computation time were acceptable, showing excellent potential for use in online commercial systems. Conclusions: This paper summarizes the main results reported in recent application studies, which include modifying and smoothing the lean area of pork-cut sections of commercial fresh pork by human experts for an auto-grading process. The developed algorithms were implemented in a prototype mobile processing unit, which can be implemented at the pork processing site.
Non-destructive and Rapid Prediction of Moisture Content in Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Powder Using Near-infrared Spectroscopy and a Partial Least Squares Regression Model
Lim, Jongguk ; Mo, Changyeun ; Kim, Giyoung ; Kang, Sukwon ; Lee, Kangjin ; Kim, Moon S. ; Moon, Jihea ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 3, 2014, Pages 184~193
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.3.184
Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the non-destructive and rapid prediction of the moisture content in red pepper powder using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Methods: Three red pepper powder products were separated into three groups based on their particle sizes using a standard sieve. Each product was prepared, and the expected moisture content range was divided into six or seven levels from 3 to 21% wb with 3% wb intervals. The NIR reflectance spectra acquired in the wavelength range from 1,100 to 2,300 nm were used for the development of prediction models of the moisture content in red pepper powder. Results: The values of
, SEP, and RPD for the best PLSR model to predict the moisture content in red pepper powders of varying particle sizes below 1.4 mm were 0.990,
wb, and 10.00, respectively. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy and a PLSR model could be useful techniques for measuring rapidly and non-destructively the moisture content in red pepper powder.
Development of Long-Term Storage Technology for Chinese Cabbage - Physiological Characteristics of Postharvest Freshness in a Cooler with a Monitoring and Control Interface
Lim, Ki Taek ; Kim, Jangho ; Chung, Jong Hoon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 3, 2014, Pages 194~204
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.3.194
Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop long-term storage technology for Chinese cabbage in order to extend the period of availability of freshly harvested products. The scope of the paper deals with the use of a cooler with a remote monitoring and control interface in conjunction with use of packaging film. Methods: A cooler with a real time monitoring system was designed as a low-temperature storage facility to control temperature and relative humidity (RH). The effects of storage in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic boxes, 3% chitosan dipping solution, polypropylene film (PEF) with perforations, and mesh packaging bags on physiological responses were investigated. The optimal storage temperature and humidity for 120 days were below
and 90%, respectively. Physiological and biochemical features of cabbage quality were also analyzed: weight loss, texture, and sugar salinity, chlorophyll, reducing sugar, and vitamin C contents. Results: The cooler with a remote monitoring and control interface could be operated by an HMI program. A
temperature and 90% humidity could be remotely controlled within the cooler for 120 days. Postharvest freshness of Chinese cabbages could be maintained up to 120 days depending on the packaging method and operation of the remote monitoring system. In particular, wrapping the cabbages in PEF with perforations resulted in a less than a 5% deterioration in quality. This study provides evidence for efficient performance of plastic films in minimizing post-harvest deterioration and maintaining overall quality of cabbages stored under precise low-temperature conditions with remote monitoring and a control interface. Conclusions: Packaging with a modified plastic film and storage in a precisely controlled cooler with a remote monitoring and control interface could slow down the physiological factors that cause adverse quality changes and thereby increase the shelf life of Chinese cabbage.
Monte Carlo Simulation of Phytosanitary Irradiation Treatment for Mangosteen Using MRI-based Geometry
Oh, Se-Yeol ; Kim, Jongsoon ; Kwon, Soon-Hong ; Chung, Sung-Won ; Kwon, Soon-Goo ; Park, Jong-Min ; Choi, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 3, 2014, Pages 205~214
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.3.205
Purpose: Phytosanitary irradiation treatment can effectively control regulated pests while maintaining produce quality. The objective of this study was to establish the best irradiation treatment for mangosteen, a popular tropical fruit, using a Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: Magnetic resonance image (MRI) data were used to generate a 3-D geometry to simulate dose distributions in a mangosteen using a radiation transport code (MCNP5). Microsoft Excel with visual basic application (VBA) was used to divide the image data into seed, flesh, and rind. Radiation energies used for the simulation were 10 MeV (high-energy) and 1.35 MeV (low-energy) for the electron beam, 5 MeV for X-rays, and 1.25 MeV for gamma rays from Co-60. Results: At 5 MeV X-rays and 1.25 MeV gamma rays, all areas (seeds, flesh, and rind) were irradiated ranging from 0.3 ~ 0.7 kGy. The average doses decreased as the number of fruit increased. For a 10 MeV electron beam, the dose distribution was biased: the dose for the rind where the electrons entered was
kGy and the other side was
kGy. Use of an electron kinetic energy absorber improved the dose distribution in mangosteens. For the 1.35 MeV electron beam, the dose was shown only in the rind on the irradiated side; no significant dose was found in the flesh or seeds. One rotation of the fruit while in front of the beam improved the dose distribution around the entire rind. Conclusion: These results are invaluable for determining the ideal irradiation conditions for phytosanitary irradiation treatment of tropical fruit.
A Review of the Applications of Spectroscopy for the Detection of Microbial Contaminations and Defects in Agro Foods
Kandpal, Lalit Mohan ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 3, 2014, Pages 215~226
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.3.215
Recently, spectroscopy has emerged as a potential tool for quality evaluation of numerous food and agricultural products because it provides information regarding both spectral distribution and image features of the sample (i.e., hyperspectral imaging). Spectroscopic techniques reveal hidden information regarding the sample and do so in a non-destructive manner. This review describes the various approaches of spectroscopic modalities, especially hyperspectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopies (i.e., Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy) combined with chemometrics for the non-destructive assessment of contaminations and defects in agro-food products.
Development and Evaluation of Natural Hydroxyapatite Ceramics Produced by the Heat Treatment of Pig Bones
Lim, Ki-Taek ; Kim, Jin-Woo ; Kim, Jangho ; Chung, Jong Hoon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 3, 2014, Pages 227~234
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.3.227
Purpose: The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate natural hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics produced from the heat treatment of pig bones. Methods: The properties of natural HA ceramics produced from pig bones were assessed in two parts. Firstly, the raw materials were characterized. A temperature of
was chosen as the calcination temperature. Fine bone powders (BPs) were produced via calcinations and a milling process. Sintered BPs were then characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and a 2-year in vitro degradability test. Secondly, an indirect cytotoxicity test was conducted on human osteoblast-like cells, MG63, treated with the BPs. Results: The average particle size of the BPs was
. FE-SEM showed a non-uniform distribution of the particle size. The phase obtained from XRD analysis confirmed the structure of HA. Elemental analysis using XRF detected phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) with the Ca/P ratio of 1.6. Functional groups examined by FTIR detected phosphate (
), hydroxyl (
), and carbonate (
). The EDX, XRF, and FTIR analysis of BPs indicated the absence of organic compounds, which were completely removed after annealing at
. The BPs were mostly stable in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for 2 years. An indirect cytotoxicity test on natural HA ceramics showed no threat to the cells. Conclusions: In conclusion, the sintering temperature of
affected the microstructure, phase, and biological characteristics of natural HA ceramics consisting of calcium phosphate. The Ca-P-based natural ceramics are bioactive materials with good biocompatibility; our results indicate that the prepared HA ceramics have great potential for agricultural and biological applications.
Preparation and Characterization of Natural Material Extracted from Germinated Brown Rice
Lim, Ki-Taek ; Choi, Jeong Moon ; Lim, Won-Chul ; Kim, Jangho ; Cho, Hong-Yon ; Chung, Jong Hoon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 3, 2014, Pages 235~243
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.3.235
Purpose: The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate a natural material extracted from germinated brown rice (GBR). Herein, we evaluated whether the natural material could positively activate the biological effects seen during bone formation, including enhancement of metabolic activity, osteogenesis, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the growth factors in human osteoblast-like cells. Methods: The natural material was created by a hot water extraction process after being soaked for 2~3 days in tap water and dried at
. The material was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The biological behaviors of the material were also investigated; we performed tests to assess cell cytotoxicity, metabolic activity, osteogenic markers related to bone formation, and VEGF. Results: The EDX, XRD, and FTIR results for the natural material indicated the presence of organic compounds. The natural material caused positive increases in cell metabolic activity and mineralized bone formation without cytotoxicity. The protein levels in the extract for the
groups were significantly different from that for the control. Conclusions: The GBR-based natural material was easy to prepare and had characteristics of a potential biomaterial. The biocompatibility of this natural material was evaluated using in vitro techniques; our findings indicate that this novel material is promising for agricultural and biological applications.
Design, Fabrication, and Application of a Microfluidic Device for Investigating Physical Stress-Induced Behavior in Yeast and Microalgae
Oh, Soojung ; Kim, Jangho ; Ryu, Hyun Ryul ; Lim, Ki-Taek ; Chung, Jong Hoon ; Jeon, Noo Li ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 3, 2014, Pages 244~252
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.3.244
Purpose: The development of an efficient in vitro cell culture device to process various cells would represent a major milestone in biological science and engineering. However, the current conventional macro-scale in vitro cell culture platforms are limited in their capacity for detailed analysis and determination of cellular behavior in complex environments. This paper describes a microfluidic-based culture device that allows accurate control of parameters of physical cues such as pressure. Methods: A microfluidic device, as a model microbioreactor, was designed and fabricated to culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under various conditions of physical pressure stimulus. This device was compatible with live-cell imaging and allowed quantitative analysis of physical cue-induced behavior in yeast and microalgae. Results: A simple microfluidic-based in vitro cell culture device containing a cell culture channel and an air channel was developed to investigate physical pressure stress-induced behavior in yeasts and microalgae. The shapes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii could be controlled under compressive stress. The lipid production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was significantly enhanced by compressive stress in the microfluidic device when compared to cells cultured without compressive stress. Conclusions: This microfluidic-based in vitro cell culture device can be used as a tool for quantitative analysis of cellular behavior under complex physical and chemical conditions.