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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Required Mowing Power and Bale Density of Miscanthus × Giganteus for Field Biomass Harvesting using Different Methods
Jun, Hyeon-Jong ; Choi, Il-Su ; Kang, Tae-Gyoung ; Choi, Yong ; Choi, Duck-Kyu ; Lee, Choung-Keun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 253~260
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.253
Purpose: This study investigated the harvesting properties of the giant miscanthus (Miscanthus
giganteus) to measure the required mowing power for different stem conditioning methods in order to shorten the drying time after mowing and the bale density so that the crop can be used as biomass in the winter season. Methods: The required mowing power and bale density were measured using a power measurement device, three different mower-conditioners, and a mid-sized round baler under different working speeds and conditioning methods. Results: For the various mower-conditioners, the average stem length from mowing was 0.86-0.91 m, and the available working speed was 1.6 m/s. The steel roller-type mower-conditioner showed better stem conditioning but could not mow over a working speed of 1.6 m/s. The required average power of the mower-conditioners varied from 23.8 kW for the steel roller-type rotary disk mower-conditioner with a working width of 2.4 m to 37.2 kW for the flail-type rotary disk mower-conditioner with a working width of 3.2 m at a working speed of 1.6 m/s. The bale densities were
. The highest bale density was measured for stems with no conditioning and a moisture content of 11.3% (d.b.) mowed by the rotary disk mower. The bale density was affected by the mowing method because of the low moisture content of the miscanthus stems. Conclusions: In terms of the working performance and conditioning statue, the steel roller-type mower-conditioner is a better choice at a working width of 2.4 m, while the flail finger-type mower-conditioner is better at a working width of 3.2 m. The type of mower-conditioner used for giant miscanthus harvesting should be determined by considering the harvest area, workable period, and working performance of a mower-conditioner and baler during the winter.
Satisfaction with the Quality of Agricultural Machinery and the Propensity for Replacement Purchases
Shin, Seung-Yeoub ; Kang, Chang Ho ; Yu, Seok Cheol ; Kim, Byounggap ; Kim, Yu-Yong ; Kim, Jin Oh ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 261~266
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.261
Purpose: This study was conducted to serve as a basis for strengthening policy support and R&D to improve the domestic and international competitiveness of domestic agricultural machinery. Levels of satisfaction among farmers and service engineers were analyzed regarding the current quality of agricultural machinery and the primary consumers` propensity for replacement purchases. Methods: A survey was carried out targeting farmers in over 150 townships and 300 villages in South Korea who collectively used 711 tractors, 286 rice transplanters, and 221 combine harvesters. Furthermore, agricultural machinery service engineers from 20 different after-services were surveyed regarding the quality of main components in domestic agricultural machinery versus those in imported agricultural machinery. Results: The farmers` overall quality satisfaction ratings for tractors, rice transplanters, and combine harvesters ranged from 57.1% to 62.6% in consideration of operating performance, failure rate, and durability. Compared with imports, satisfaction ratings for domestic agricultural machinery were 19.1%p to 38.1%p lower for quality. Regarding engines, transmissions, hydraulics, planters, reapers, threshers, and electrical components, only 5.3% to 25.0% of service engineers indicated that domestic agricultural machinery was higher in quality compared with imports. By contrast, 33.3% to 78.9% of those surveyed indicated that domestic components were lower in quality compared with imports. Intent to purchase replacement agricultural machinery at the end of their respective products` lifecycles was indicated that they planned to purchase imported tractors, rice transplanters, and combine harvesters comprised 25.2%, 46.9%, and 43.9%, respectively. This clearly shows that a very high percentage of farmers were satisfied, particularly for transplanters and combine harvesters. Conclusions: The level of desire for purchasing imported agricultural machinery was very high among those who expressed intent to purchase replacement machinery. Therefore, strong policy support and R&D for domestic agricultural machinery is critical for improving competitiveness on the domestic and foreign markets.
Web-based Agricultural Machinery Rental Business Management System
Shin, Seung-Yeoub ; Kang, Chang-Ho ; Yu, Seok-Cheol ; Kim, Byounggap ; Kim, Yu-Yong ; Kim, Jin-Oh ; Lee, Kyou-Seung ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 267~273
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.267
Purpose: This study was conducted to develop a web-based business management system to ensure the efficient operation and transparent management of government-subsidized agricultural machinery rental businesses. Methods: An MS_SQL2000 database management system (DBMS) solution was utilized in the system for high system compatibility and integrated management. This system was targeted to be compatible with Internet Explorer 6.0 or later and to ensure security and seamless web operations. The system administrator is able to manage a fleet of agricultural machinery, including various inventory codes, release and return, fleet registry, and business performance. Users (farmers) may search the database of rental machinery and reserve them. Results: With respect to rental reservations, the system administrator can manage the fleet by setting the rental status to Approved, Released, or Returned. Through the web, the administrator can also create a database that includes machinery specifications, features, and rental rates. In addition, business performance data can be analyzed using a diverse array of tools to streamline the rental business. Without having to go to the rental office, users can save time and money by searching for and renting agricultural machinery through the information available on the website, including availability, specifications, and rental fees. After deploying the system, the time required to analyze monthly performance and create reports was dramatically reduced from 20 days per person to one day per person. Conclusions: Since 2014, AMRB has been installed and is operating in agricultural machinery rental businesses in 31 cities and counties in South Korea. This study recommends continued expansion and dissemination of AMRB for the systematic and efficient management of agricultural machinery rental businesses.
Environmentally Friendly Hybrid Power System for Cultivators
Kim, Sang Cheol ; Hong, Young Ki ; Kim, Gook Hwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 274~282
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.274
Purpose: In this study, a hybrid power system was developed for agricultural machines with a 20-KW output capacity, and it was attached to a multi-purpose cultivator to improve the performance of the cultivator, which was evaluated using output tests. Methods: The hybrid system combined heterogeneous sources: an internal-combustion engine and an electric power motor. In addition, a power splitter was developed to simplify the power transmission structure. The cultivator using the hybrid system was designed to have increased fuel efficiency and output power and reduced exhaust gas emissions, while maintaining the functions of existing cultivators. Results: The fuel consumption for driving the cultivator in the hybrid engine vehicle (HEV) mode was 341 g/KWh, which was 36% less than the consumption in the engine (ENG) mode for the same load. The maximum power take off output of the hybrid power system was 12.7 KW, which was 38% more than the output of the internal-combustion engine. In the HEV mode, harmful exhaust gas emissions were reduced; i.e., CO emissions were reduced by 36~41% and NOx emissions were reduced by 27~51% compared to the corresponding emissions in the ENG mode. Conclusions: The hybrid power system improved the fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust gas emissions in agricultural machinery. Lower exhaust gas emissions of the hybrid system have considerable advantages in closed work environments such as crop production facilities; therefore, agricultural machinery with less exhaust gas emissions should be commercialized. However, the high manufacturing cost and complexity of the proposed system are challenges which need to be solved in the future.
Prediction of Labor Requirement and Cost of Pick-up Type Pulse Crop Harvester for Soybean and Red Bean Harvesting
Yoo, Soonam ; Chang, Heesoo ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 283~289
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.283
Purpose: This study was carried out to evaluate the labor requirement and the cost-reducing effects of the pick-up type pulse crop harvester compared with those of conventional harvesting for soybeans and red beans. Methods: The labor requirement and the cost to gather, thresh, and clean for conventional harvesting operations were surveyed; those for the pick-up type pulse crop harvester were estimated for soybeans and red beans. The annual capacity of the harvester and the break-even area of the two harvesting methods were also estimated. Results: For soybean harvesting, the labor requirement of 0.57 hour-persons/10 a for the pick-up type pulse crop harvester reflects a 91.9% reduction in the labor requirement of 7.00 hour-persons/10 a for conventional harvesting. Machinery costs of 51,300 won/10 a for the harvester were estimated for an annual harvesting area of 52.5 ha/year, representing a reduction of 33.3% from the 78,700 won/10 a cost of conventional harvesting. A break-even area of 28.4 ha was estimated for the two harvestings. For red bean harvesting, the labor requirement of 0.57 hour-persons/10 a for the harvester reflects a 92.6% reduction in the labor requirement of 7.66 hour-persons/10 a for conventional harvesting. For an annual harvesting area of 52.5 ha/year, annual capacity of 52.5 ha/year and machinery costs of 51,700 won/10 a were estimated for the harvester, reflecting a reduction of 44.7% in the cost of 93,500 won/10 a for conventional harvesting. A break-even area of 23.1 ha was estimated for the two harvestings. A governmental subsidy for purchasing the harvester could contribute to reducing the break-even area and harvesting costs. Conclusions: The pick-up type pulse crop harvester for soybean and red bean harvesting could reduce the labor requirement and costs of conventional harvesting, and a governmental subsidy for purchasing the harvester will improve the economics of the harvester for efficient mechanical harvesting.
Development of Welsh Onion Harvester for Tractor
Hong, Sungha ; Lee, Kyouseung ; Cho, Yongjin ; Park, Wonyeop ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 290~298
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.290
Purpose: To ascertain the increase of the farm income that predominantly relies on human resources by mechanizing Welsh onion harvesting, a tractor-mounted Welsh onion harvester was developed in this study. Method: An experiment for evaluating harvesting performance was performed for the developed Welsh onion harvester in an actual Welsh onion farm. The harvest performance was evaluated at the tractor running speeds of 5.0 cm/s, 11.4 cm/s and 15.8 cm/s, by comparing the operating efficiency, harvest rate, and damage rate of the Welsh onion harvester. Results: The performance of the harvester was rated as very good, with a 100% harvest rate, regardless of tractor running speed. Furthermore, it is shown that work efficiency of the harvester is expected to increase as the running speed increases. Nonetheless, the damage rate of the harvested Welsh onions at running speeds 5.0 cm/s, 11.4 cm/s, and 15.8 cm/s, increased correspondingly and proportionally to speeds from 4.55% to 6.53% and to 11.29%. The residual amount of soil on the harvested Welsh onions was about 0.24% of their weight showing excellent soil-removal performance of the harvester. Conclusion: The developed Welsh onion harvester is believed to improve the labor productivity and cultivation environment of Welsh onion farmhouses by the mechanization of the harvesting process that is currently associated with the largest amount of labor hours.
Separation Characteristic of Shatter Resistant Sesame After Threshing
Noh, Hyun Kwon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 299~303
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.299
Purpose: This study set out to develop a machine for separating shatter-resistant sesame after threshing. Methods: Three grades of sieve and different blower speeds were tested for a separation system that had been designed specifically for shatter-resistant sesame. Performance tests were run to evaluate the sieve and blower systems in terms of the sesame separation and loss ratios. Results: Tests of the first separation stage using the sieve system revealed the optimum sieve perforation size to be 5 mm. Tests of the second separation stage using the blower system identified the optimum blower speed as being 220 rpm. The optimum separation and loss ratios, of 96.5% and 3.5%, respectively, were obtained at a blower speed of 220 rpm. Conclusions: These results will be useful for the design, construction, and operation of threshing harvesters. For shatter-resistant sesame, an optimum blower speed of 220 rpm was identified.
Effects of Microwaves on the Germination of Weed Seeds
Sahin, Hasan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 304~309
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.304
Purpose: Weeds cause significant losses in agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effect of microwaves on the germination rates of cress and arugula seeds to determine whether microwaves could be developed as an effective alternative to conventional chemical-based herbicides. Methods: Seeds were planted at equal depths (8-10 mm) in a soil-turf mixture, and seeds were exposed to microwaves for 126 s, 70 s, and 50 s in a device constructed specifically for this study. A microwave tunnel was built using a variable speed conveyor belt and 4 magnetrons with a combined output power of 2.8 kW. Seeds that were not exposed to microwaves were germinated with regulated irrigation, temperature, and humidity controls in parallel with the treated seeds, and the germination rates were compared among the treatment groups. Results: We found that the exposure of cress and arugula seeds to microwaves for 126 s inhibited germination close to 100%. Cress seeds treated with microwaves for 50 s showed 95% germination compared to 65% germination of the untreated cress seeds. Conclusions: We predict that the thermal effect of microwave energy affects the germination ratio and germination rate of seeds.
Analysis of Airflow Pattern in Plant Factory with Different Inlet and Outlet Locations using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Lim, Tae-Gyu ; Kim, Yong Hyeon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 310~317
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.310
Purpose: This study was conducted to analyze the air flow characteristics in a plant factory with different inlet and outlet locations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Methods: In this study, the flow was assumed to be a steady-state, incompressible, and three-dimensional turbulent flow. A realizable k-
turbulent model was applied to show more reasonable results than the standard model. A CFD software was used to perform the numerical simulation. For validation of the simulation model, a prototype plant factory (
) was constructed with two inlets (
) and one outlet (
), located on the top side wall. For the simulation model, the average air current speed at the inlet was
. Five cases were simulated to predict the airflow pattern in the plant factory with different inlet and outlet locations. Results: The root mean square error of measured and simulated air current speeds was 13%. The error was attributed to the assumptions applied to mathematical modelling and to the magnitude of the air current speed measured at the inlet. However, the measured and predicted airflow distributions of the plant factory exhibited similar patterns. When the inlets were located at the center of the side wall, the average air current speed in the plant factory was increased but the spatial uniformity was lowered. In contrast, if the inlets were located on the ceiling, the average air current speed was lowered but the uniformity was improved. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that the airflow pattern in the plant factory with multilayer cultivation shelves was greatly affected by the locations of the inlet and the outlet.
Correlations between the Growth Period and Fresh Weight of Seed Sprouts and Pixel Counts of Leaf Area
Son, Daesik ; Park, Soo Hyun ; Chung, Soo ; Jeong, Eun Seong ; Park, Seongmin ; Yang, Myongkyoon ; Hwang, Hyun-Seung ; Cho, Seong In ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 318~323
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.318
Purpose: This study was carried out to predict the growth period and fresh weight of sprouts grown in a cultivator designed to grow sprouts under optimal conditions. Methods: The temperature, light intensity, and amount of irrigation were controlled, and images of seed sprouts were acquired to predict the days of growth and weight from pixel counts of leaf area. Broccoli, clover, and radish sprouts were selected, and each sprout was cultivated in a 90-mm-diameter Petri dish under the same cultivating conditions. An image of each sprout was taken every 24 hours from the 4th day, and the whole cultivating period was 6 days, including 3 days in the dark. Images were processed by histogram inspection, binary images, image erosion, image dilation, and the overlay image process. The RGB range and ratio of leaves were adjusted to calculate the pixel counts for leaf area. Results: The correlation coefficients between the pixel count of leaf area and the growth period of sprouts were 0.91, 0.98, and 0.97 for broccoli, clover, and radish, respectively. Further, the correlation coefficients between the pixel count of leaf area and fresh weight were 0.90 for broccoli, 0.87 for clover, and 0.95 for radish. Conclusions: On the basis of these results, we suggest that the simple image acquisition system and processing algorithm can feasibly estimate the growth period and fresh weight of seed sprouts.
Measurement of Fiber Board Poisson`s Ratio using High-Speed Digital Camera
Choi, Seung-Ryul ; Choi, Dong-Soo ; Oh, Sung-Sik ; Park, Suk-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Se ; Chun, Ho-Hyun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 324~329
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.324
Purpose: The finite element method (FEM) is advantageous because it can save time and cost by reducing the number of samples and experiments in the effort to identify design factors. In computational problem-solving it is necessary that the exact material properties are input for achieving a reliable analysis. However, in the case of fiber boards, it is difficult to measure their cross-directional material properties because of their small thickness. In previous research studies, the Poisson`s ratio was measured by analyzing ultrasonic wave velocities. Recently, the Poisson`s ratio was measured using a high-speed digital camera. In this study, we measured the transverse strain of a fiber board and calculated its Poisson`s ratio using a high-speed digital camera in order to apply these estimates to a FEM analysis of a fiber board, a corrugated board, and a corrugated box. Methods: Three different fiber board samples were used in a uniaxial tensile test. The longitudinal strain was measured using the Universal Testing Machine. The transverse strain was measured using an image processing method. To calculate the transverse strain, we acquired images of the fiber board before the test onset and before the fracture occurred. Acquired images were processed using the image processing program MATLAB. After the images were converted from color to binary, we calculated the width of the fiber board. Results: The calculated Poisson`s ratio ranged between 0.2968-0.4425 (Machine direction, MD) and 0.1619-0.1751 (Cross machine direction, CD). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that measurement of the transverse properties of a fiber board is possible using image processing methods. Correspondingly, these processing methods could be used to measure material properties that are difficult to measure using conventional measuring methodologies that employ strain gauge extensometers.
System Design and Performance Analysis of a Quick Freezer using Supercooling
Kim, Jinse ; Chun, Ho Hyun ; Park, Seokho ; Choi, Dongsoo ; Choi, Seung Ryul ; Oh, Sungsik ; Yoo, Seon Mi ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 330~335
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.330
Purpose: This study was conducted for enhancing the performance of a conventional quick freezer by introducing the supercooling state, using a low-temperature coolant. Methods: In the present investigation, the supercooling process was executed prior to quick freezing for reducing the time by which the temperature passes the zone of maximum ice crystal formation. Every food has different nucleation points and hence, we used silicone oil as the coolant for supercooling for easy modification of temperature. Additionally, for quick freezing, we used liquid nitrogen spray. Results: Using the heat exchanger-type precooler with silicone oil, the temperature of the chamber was easily changed for enabling supercooling. Particularly, the results of the freezing test with garlic indicated that this system improved the hardness of garlic after it was thawed, compared to the conventional freezing method. Conclusions: Before quick freezing, if the food item is subjected to the supercooling state, the time from nucleation to the temperature reaching the frozen state (
, which is the maximum ice crystal formation zone) will be shorter than that incurred using quick freezing alone. The combination of the heat exchanger-type supercooler and liquid nitrogen sprayer is expected to serve as a promising technology for improving the physicochemical qualities of frozen foods.
Changes in Water Content Affect the Post-Milling Quality of Paddy Rice Stored at Low Temperature
Kim, Young-Keun ; Hong, Seong-Gi ; Lee, Sun-Ho ; Park, Jong-Ryul ; Choe, Jung-Seob ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 336~344
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.336
Purpose: In this study, the effect of milling on paddy rice stored at low temperature, the changes in grain temperature of bulk storage bags exposed at room temperature, the post-milling water content of paddy rice, the whiteness of rice, and the rate of pest incidence were investigated and data were analyzed. Methods: Changes in temperature inside the bulk storage bags kept at low temperature and grain temperature after exposure to room temperature were measured. Experiments were conducted for identifying the reasons of post-milling quality changes in paddy rice stored at low temperature. Results: It was determined that a short-term increase of water content in paddy rice was directly related to surface condensation, and that rice should be milled at least 72 h after removal from low-temperature storage, in order to completely eliminate surface condensation of paddy rice kept in bulk storage bags. It was observed that post-milling quality of rice changed, but water content was maintained at high levels for more than 18 d in rice that was milled when condensation occurred, regardless of paper or vinyl packaging. Rice whiteness rapidly decreased in rice that was milled when condensation occurred, regardless of packaging, while rice that was milled 72 h or more after removal from low temperature storage did not show any significant changes in whiteness. No pest incidence was observed up to 12 d after removal from low temperature storage, regardless of packaging. Starting at 18 d, after removal from low temperature storage, rice that was milled when condensation occurred, was affected by pests, while 24 d after removal from low temperature storage, all portions of rice were affected by pests. Conclusions: Our results suggest that changes in post-milling quality of rice could be significantly reduced by exposing paddy rice to room temperature for at least 72 h before milling, in order to allow the increase of grain temperature and prevent surface condensation.
Detection of Iron Nanoparticles using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry and Inverse Laplace Transform
Kim, Seong Min ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 345~351
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.345
Purpose: Rapid detection of bacteria is very important in agricultural and food industries to prevent many foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to develop a portable nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based system to detect foodborne pathogens (E. coli). This study was focused on developing a method to detect low concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles using NMR techniques. Methods: NMR relaxometry was performed to examine the NMR properties of iron nanoparticle mixtures with different concentrations by using a 1 T permanent magnet magnetic resonance imaging system. Exponential curve fitting (ECF) and inverse Laplace transform (ILT) methods were used to estimate the NMR relaxation time constants,
, of guar gum solutions with different iron nanoparticle concentrations (0,
). Results: The ECF and ILT methods did not show much difference in these values. Analysis of the NMR relaxation data showed that the ILT method is comparable to the classical ECF method and is more sensitive to the presence of iron nanoparticles. This study also showed that the spin-spin relaxation time constants acquired by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence are more useful for determining the concentration of iron nanoparticle solutions comparwith the spin-lattice relaxation time constants acquired by an inversion recovery pulse sequence. Conclusions: We conclude that NMR relaxometry that utilizes CPMG pulse sequence and ILT analysis is more suitable for detecting foodborne pathogens bound to magnetic nanoparticles in agricultural and food products than using inversion recovery pulse sequence and ECF analysis.
In Situ Estimation of the Constituents of Green Soybean (Edamame) Pod using Near-Infrared Transmission Spectroscopy
Suzuki, Michiru ; Katahira, Mitsuhiko ; Natsuga, Motoyasu ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 352~356
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.352
Purpose: We estimated the dietary qualities of green soybean (edamame) by using a specialized NIR transmission spectrometer to determine the constitutive properties of the soybean, such as the sucrose content and ninhydrine reaction quantity (NRQ; defined by the ninhydrine reaction, which has a high positive correlation with the total free amino acids), with the purpose of establishing a quality assurance system. Methods: We used a newly developed spectrometer probe that enables in situ estimation of the constituents of the soybean. Results: The calibration results obtained using a wavelength range of 760-960 nm were characterized by
A Review of Technologies for Detection and Measurement of Adulterants in Cereals and Cereal Products
Ambrose, Ashabahebwa ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 357~365
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.357
Purpose: The continued increase in the world population has triggered an increased demand for food. Cereal grains, flour, and their products constitute the staple diet for most of the world`s population. This high demand for food, particularly for cereal-based products, has been exploited for commercial gain through adulteration of food materials. We provide a thorough review of the current developments and limitations of modern, nondestructive analytical techniques used for detection of adulterants in cereals and their products and compare them with conventional methods. Results: Adulterated food poses a serious health risks to humans, animals, and the ecosystem in general. Over the last few decades, the adulteration industry has developed fraudulent practices that often outsmart conventional methods of detection and quality control. Therefore, technological advancements to aid in detection and measurement of adulterants in food products and to ensure food quality and safety are critically important to consumers worldwide. Conclusion: There is a continuous demand for development of nondestructive technology to improve the accuracy and efficiency of detection, measurement, and qualification of adulterants in cereals and other food materials.
Evaluating Feeding of Organic Waste and Stirring Interval to Optimize Anaerobic Digestion
Kim, Gi-Woong ; Kim, Sang-Hun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 366~376
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.366
Purpose: In the process of anaerobic digestion, stirring of the digester and feeding of organic waste into the digester have been considered important factors for digestive efficiency. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate conditions for both stirring interval of the digester and organic feeding frequency in order to improve anaerobic digestion performance. Methods: A 5-L anaerobic digester was used to conduct continuous batch tests to process swine manure and food waste. Four different stirring intervals of the digester were used: 5 min/h, 10 min/2 h, 15 min/3 h, and 20 min/4 h. Results: The application of swine manure to the digester every 5 min/h resulted in the highest production of biogas as well as the highest removal rates of volatile solids (VS) and total chemical oxygen demand. Stirring the digester with a mixture of swine manure and food waste at intervals of 5min/h and 10min/2 h produced the highest biogas yields of 515.3 mL/gVS and 521.1 mL/gVS, respectively. To test different supply frequencies, organic waste was added to the digester in either a 12-hor 24-h cycle. The 24-h cycle produced 1.5-fold greater biogas production than that during the 12-h cycle. Conclusions: Thus, from the above results, to optimize anaerobic digestion performance, the ideal stirring condition must be 5min/h for swine manure feeding and 10min/2h for co-digestion of food waste and swine manure in a 24-h cycle.
Spatial Variability of Soil Properties using Nested Variograms at Multiple Scales
Chung, Sun-Ok ; Sudduth, Kenneth A. ; Drummond, Scott T. ; Kitchen, Newell R. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 377~388
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.377
Purpose: Determining the spatial structure of data is important in understanding within-field variability for site-specific crop management. An understanding of the spatial structures present in the data may help illuminate interrelationships that are important in subsequent explanatory analyses, especially when site variables are correlated or are a combined response to multiple causative factors. Methods: In this study, correlation, principal component analysis, and single and nested variogram models were applied to soil electrical conductivity and chemical property data of two fields in central Missouri, USA. Results: Some variables that were highly correlated, or were strongly expressed in the same principal component, exhibited similar spatial ranges when fitted with a single variogram model. However, single variogram results were dependent on the active lag distance used, with short distances (30 m) required to fit short-range variability. Longer active lag distances only revealed long-range spatial components. Nested models generally yielded a better fit than single models for sensor-based conductivity data, where multiple scales of spatial structure were apparent. Gaussian-spherical nested models fit well to the data at both short (30 m) and long (300 m) active lag distances, generally capturing both short-range and long-range spatial components. As soil conductivity relates strongly to profile texture, we hypothesize that the short-range components may relate to the scale of erosion processes, while the long-range components are indicative of the scale of landscape morphology. Conclusion: In this study, we investigated the effect of changing active lag distance on the calculation of the range parameter. Future work investigating scale effects on other variogram parameters, including nugget and sill variances, may lead to better model selection and interpretation. Once this is achieved, separation of nested spatial components by factorial kriging may help to better define the correlations existing between spatial datasets.
Development of Driving Simulator for Safety Training of Agricultural Tractor Operators
Kim, Yu-Yong ; Kim, Byounggap ; Shin, Seung-Yeoub ; Kim, Jinoh ; Yum, Sunghyun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 389~399
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.389
Purpose: This study was aimed at developing a tractor-driving simulator for the safety training of agricultural tractor operators. Methods: The developed simulator consists of five principal components: mock operator control devices, a data acquisition and processing device, a motion platform, a visual system that displays a computer model of the tractor, a motion platform, and a virtual environment. The control devices of a real tractor cabin were successfully converted into mock operator control devices in which sensors were used for relevant measurements. A 3D computer model of the tractor was also implemented using 3ds Max, tractor dynamics, and the physics of Unity 3D. The visual system consisted of two graphic cards and four monitors for the simultaneous display of the four different sides of a 3D object to the operator. The motion platform was designed with two rotational degrees of freedom to reduce cost, and inverse kinematics was used to calculate the required motor positions and to rotate the platform. The generated virtual environment consisted of roads, traffic signals, buildings, rice paddies, and fields. Results: The effectiveness of the simulator was evaluated by a performance test survey administered to 128 agricultural machinery instructors, 116 of whom considered the simulator as having potential for improving safety training. Conclusions: From the study results, it is concluded that the developed simulator can be effectively used for the safety training of agricultural tractor operators.
Fertirrigation for Vegetables Grown in Greenhouses
Putti, Fernando Ferrari ; Cremasco, Camila Pires ; Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida Gabriel ; Reis, Andre Rodrigues Do ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 39, issue 4, 2014, Pages 400~404
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2014.39.4.400
Purpose: Concerns over the quantity of available freshwater for agriculture have triggered the development of technologies intended to increase efficiency of water use, especially with regard to irrigation. A new technique called fertirrigation has been developed to use the same irrigation equipment for fertilization. Methods: Since the above-mentioned technique requires care during installation and use on farms, current analysis focuses on some of its characteristics. Results: High uniformity irrigation systems provide the best distribution of fertilizers, especially when used in combination with drip irrigation or micro-aspersion. The factors purity, compatibility, acidification, salinity, and solubility should be taken into account. Conclusions: Fertirrigation provides a significant increase in productivity as it allows for highly controlled nutrient application during the entire growing season. However, it may cause serious problems if misused or overused.