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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Experimental Evaluation of Percussion Performance for Rock-Drill Drifter
Seo, Jaho ; Park, Jin-Sun ; Kim, Heungsub ; Noh, Dae Kyung ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.1.001
Purpose: The objective of this study was to understand the operating mechanism of the rock-drill drifter, to explain how to setup an experimental test system and measure the strain of the drifter's rod, and to evaluate the drifter's performance with respect to the impact energy and blow frequency. Methods: The structure of the rock-drill drifter and its operating principle regarding the impact process were analyzed. Static calibration was carried out to calculate the correction factor using a drifter rod as the first step of the experimental test. The impact energy and blow frequency were then calculated based on strain measurements of the drifter's rod. Results: Experimental results showed that the tested drifter elicited a blow frequency of 3330 BPM (Blows Per Minute) and generated impact energy of 170 J/blow. This indicates that the drifter elicits a higher percussion speed and results in a lower impact energy compared to the hydraulic breaker at the same input power. Conclusions: The study proposed methodologies that deal with the experimental setup and the evaluation of the performance of the rock-drill drifter. These methodologies can be extensively used for validating and improving the percussion performance of the drilling equipment.
Study on Performance Improvement of a Head-Feeding Rice Combine for Foxtail Millet Harvesting
Jun, Hyeon Jong ; Choi, Il Su ; Kang, Tae Gyoung ; Choi, Yong ; Choi, Duck Kyu ; Lee, Choung Keun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 1, 2015, Pages 10~18
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.1.010
Purpose: The study was conducted to investigate the proper working conditions like the mesh size of the concave and the chaffer angle of the oscillating sieve, and the fan speed of the head-feeding rice combine for foxtail millet harvesting. Methods: The study aimed to determine the harvesting conditions for the rice combine harvester at a 0.5 m/s working speed and at
sieve chaffer angles. The harvesting loss of the foxtail millet based on the speed of the fan and the oscillating speed of the sieve was measured at three levels of fan speed and oscillating sieve speed. Results: The threshing rates of different foxtail millet varieties were 64.1~83.5% at a mesh size of 7 mm of the concave. In experimental foxtail millet harvesting, the optimal operating condition of the rice combine harvester included a
sieve chaffer angle and a 4.8 Hz oscillating sieve (cleaning shoe) frequency. The grain loss was found to be lower at a
than at a
sieve chaffer angle. In field harvesting using the combine harvester, the lowest harvesting grain loss rate of the foxtail millet varieties ranged between 0.2~0.5% at a 7 mm mesh concave,
chaffer angle, 4.8 Hz sieve frequency, and a 20 m/s fan speed at an engine speed of 2,000 revolutions per minute (RPM). Conclusions: Findings showed that foxtail millet could be harvested using the combine harvester.
Visibility Evaluation for Agricultural Tractor Operators According to ISO 5006 and 5721-1 Standards
Kabir, Md. Shaha Nur ; Song, Mingzhang ; Chung, Sun-Ok ; Kim, Yong-Joo ; Kim, Su-Chul ; Ha, Jong-Kyou ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 1, 2015, Pages 19~27
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.1.019
Purpose: A system to measure the visibility of agricultural tractor operators was designed and evaluated according to ISO standards, and a blind area diagram around the tested tractor was created based on the manual method recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Methods: A visibility measurement system was designed and evaluated based on the ISO 5006 and ISO 5721-1 standards. Two bulbs used to simulate the operator's eyes were mounted on a bar with a supporting frame. A wooden frame was used to determine the seat index point position. The 12-m visibility test circle was divided into six sectors of vision, and the test tractor was placed at the center of the circle. Artificial light was supplied in the darkened environment, and shadow or masking effects were measured manually around the 12-m circle. Results: When the bulbs were placed at the operator's eye level, front visibility was good; no masking was found in the "A" vision sector, but larger masking widths were found in the "B" and "C" vision sectors. Since the masking width exceeded 700 mm, additional tests, such as movement of the light sources to both sides of the operator's eye level, were performed. Less than six masking effects were found in the semi-circle of vision to the front, and more than one masking was found in the "B" and "C" visual fields. The minimum distance between the centers of two masking effects exceeded 2500 mm when measured as a chord on the semi-circle of vision. A blind area diagram was created to define the exact nature of the blind spots and mirror visibility. Conclusions: Visibility evaluation is an effective way to enable proper and safe operation for agricultural tractor operators. Inclusion of this visibility evaluation test in the general testing process might aid tractor manufacturers.
Acquisition of Grass Harvesting Characteristics Information and Improvement of the Accuracy of Topographical Surveys for the GIS by Sensor Fusion (I) - Analysis of Grass Harvesting Characteristics by Sensor Fusion -
Choi, Jong-Min ; Kim, Woong ; Kang, Tae-Hwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 1, 2015, Pages 28~34
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.1.028
Purpose: This study aimed to install an RTK-GPS (Real Time Kinematic-Global Positioning System) and IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) on a tractor used in a farm to measure positions, pasture topography, posture angles, and vibration accelerations, translate the information into maps using the GIS, analyze the characteristics of grass harvesting work, and establish new technologies and construction standards for pasture infrastructure improvement based on the analyzed data. Method: Tractor's roll, pitch, and yaw angles and vibration accelerations along the three axes during grass harvesting were measured and a GIS map prepared from the data. A VRS/RTK-GPS (MS750, Trimble, USA) tractor position measuring system and an IMU (JCS-7401A, JAE, JAPAN) tractor vibration acceleration measuring systems were mounted on top of a tractor and below the operator's seat to obtain acceleration in the direction of progression, transverse acceleration, and vertical acceleration at 10Hz. In addition, information on regions with bad workability was obtained from an operator performing grass harvesting and compared with information on changes in tractor posture angles and vibration acceleration. Results: Roll and pitch angles based on the y-axis, the direction of forward movements of tractor coordinate systems, changed by at least
respectively, leading to changes in working postures in the central and northern parts of the pasture that were designated as regions with bad workability during grass harvesting. These changes were larger than those in other regions. The synthesized vectors of the vibration accelerations along the y-axis, the x-axis (transverse direction), and the z-axis (vertical direction) were higher in the central and northwestern parts of the pasture at 3.0-4.5 m/s2 compared with other regions. Conclusions: The GIS map developed using information on posture angles and vibration accelerations by position in the pasture is considered sufficiently utilizable as data for selection of construction locations for pasture infrastructure improvement.
Virtual Prototyping of Automated System for Adjustable Row Spacing of Hydroponic Gullies in Multilayer Plant Factory
Ashtiani-Araghi, Alireza ; Lee, Chungu ; Cho, Seong-In ; Rhee, Joong-Yong ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 1, 2015, Pages 35~46
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.1.035
Purpose: To present a flexible and accurate autonomous solution for creating any desired row spacing value between the hydroponic gullies in multilayer growing units, and evaluate the capabilities and performance of the relevant automated system through the use of virtual prototyping technique. Methods: To build the virtual prototype of the system, CAD models of its different parts, including an autonomous vehicle and the mechanical mechanisms embedded in the multilayer growing unit, were developed and imported into the RecurDyn simulation software. In order to implement the automated row spacing operation, three spacing modes with different loading cycles and working steps were defined, and the operation of the system was simulated to obtain the target row spacing values specified for each of these modes. Results: Motion profiles related to the horizontal displacement of: 1) the lower and upper sliding bars installed in the cultivation layers, and 2) the hydroponic gullies, during the simulation of the system operation, were generated and analyzed. No deviation from the specified target spacing values was observed at the end of simulations for all spacing modes. Conclusions: The results of the motion analysis obtained by simulating the system operation confirm the effectiveness of the control scheme proposed for automated row spacing of gullies. It was also found that proper sequencing of the loading cycles and the precision of the working strokes of the upper bars are the critical factors for establishing a certain row spacing value. Based on the simulation results, precise control of the back and forth motions of the upper bars is highly necessary for sound operation of the real system.
Development of Models for the Prediction of Domestic Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Powder Capsaicinoid Content using Visible and Near-infrared Spectroscopy
Lim, Jongguk ; Mo, Changyeun ; Kim, Giyoung ; Kim, Moon S. ; Lee, Hoyoung ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 1, 2015, Pages 47~60
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.1.047
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to non-destructively and quickly predict the capsaicinoid content of domestic red pepper powders from various areas of Korea using a pungency measurement system in combination with visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopic techniques. Methods: The reflectance spectra of 149 red pepper powder samples from 14 areas of Korea were obtained in the wavelength range of 450-950 nm and partial least squares regression (PLSR) models for the prediction of capsaicinoid content were developed using area models. Results: The determination coefficient of validation (RV2), standard error of prediction (SEP), and residual prediction deviation (RPD) for the capsaicinoid content prediction model for the Namyoungyang area were 0.985,
, and 7.94, respectively. Conclusions: These results show the possibility of VNIR spectroscopy combined with PLSR models in the non-destructive and facile prediction of capsaicinoid content of red pepper powders from Korea.
Drying Characteristics of Radishes using Far Infrared Ray Dryer
Park, Bum-Soon ; Kang, Tae-Hwan ; Lee, Jeong-Hyeon ; Choi, Jong-Min ; Han, Chung-Su ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 1, 2015, Pages 61~66
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.1.061
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish conditions to dry a radish by examining the drying and quality characteristics depending on the air temperature and velocity of a far infrared conveyor dryer. Methods: A sample of weighing 6 kg was dried until the moisture content reached
(w.b.). Four temperatures (50, 60, 70, and
) and three air velocity levels (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 m/s) were employed as the drying factors. Results: The drying rate increased with the increase in the temperature and air velocity but decreased with time. However, the drying rate was influenced by temperature rather than velocity. At a temperature
with a air velocity of 0.4 m/s, it took 350 min for the radish to dry which was the longest drying time;
with a air velocity of 0.8m/s, it took 180 min for the radish to dry, which was the shortest drying time.
(the color difference value) increased with the increase in temperature and air velocity. The browning and rehydration ratio increased as the temperature rose. Energy consumption decreased with the increased temperature and air velocity. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, the best drying conditions for the radish were determined to be a temperature of
with an air velocity of 0.8 m/s.
Spectroscopic Techniques for Nondestructive Detection of Fungi and Mycotoxins in Agricultural Materials: A Review
Min, Hyunjung ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 1, 2015, Pages 67~77
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.1.067
Purpose: Fungal secondary metabolite (mycotoxin) contamination in foods can pose a serious threat to humans and animals. Spectroscopic techniques have proven to be potential alternative tools for early detection of mycotoxins. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current developments in nondestructive food safety testing techniques, particularly regarding fungal contamination testing in grains, focusing on the application of spectroscopic techniques to this problem. Methods: This review focuses on the use of spectroscopic techniques for the detection of fungi and mycotoxins in agricultural products as reported in the literature. It provides an overview of the characteristics of the main spectroscopic methods and reviews their applications in grain analysis. Results: It was found that spectroscopy has advantages over conventional methods used for fungal contamination detection, particularly when combined with chemometrics. These advantages include the rapidness and nondestructive nature of this approach. Conclusions: While spectroscopy offers many benefits for the detection of mycotoxins in agricultural products, a number of limitations exist, which must be overcome prior to widespread adoption of these techniques.
Review of Ca Metabolic Studies and a Model for Optimizing Gastrointestinal Ca Absorption and Peak Bone Mass in Adolescents
Park, Jong-Tae ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ; Lee, Wang-Hee ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 1, 2015, Pages 78~88
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.1.078
Purpose: The objective of this study is to review researches regarding factors that potentially affect adolescent calcium (Ca) metabolism, and to suggest a potential modeling approach for optimizing gastrointestinal Ca absorption and peak bone mass. Background: Optimal gastrointestinal Ca absorption is a key to maximizing peak bone mass in adolescents. Urine Ca excretion in adolescents rises only after bone accretion is saturated, indicating that higher intestinal Ca absorption and bone retention is necessary to ensure maximum bone accretion. Hence, maximizing peak bone mass is possible by controlling the factors influencing gastrointestinal Ca absorption and bone accretion. However, a mechanism that explains the unique adolescent Ca metabolism has not yet been elucidated. Review: Dietary factors that enhance gastrointestinal Ca absorption may increase the available Ca pool usable for bone accretion, and a specific hormone may direct optimal Ca utilization to maximize peak bone mass. IGF-1 is an endocrine hormone whose levels peak during adolescence and increase fractional Ca absorption and bone Ca accretion. Prebiotics, generally obtained from dietary sources, have been reported to exert a beneficial effect on Ca absorption via microbiota activity. We selected and reviewed three candidates that could be used to propose a comprehensive Ca metabolic model for optimal Ca absorption and peak bone mass in adolescents. Modeling: Modeling has been used to investigate Ca metabolism and its regulators. Herein, we reviewed previous Ca modeling studies. Based on this review, we proposed a method for developing a comprehensive model that includes regulatory effectors of IGF-1 and prebiotics.
Image Processing Methods for Measurement of Lettuce Fresh Weight
Jung, Dae-Hyun ; Park, Soo Hyun ; Han, Xiong Zhe ; Kim, Hak-Jin ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 1, 2015, Pages 89~93
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.1.089
Purpose: Machine vision-based image processing methods can be useful for estimating the fresh weight of plants. This study analyzes the ability of two different image processing methods, i.e., morphological and pixel-value analysis methods, to measure the fresh weight of lettuce grown in a closed hydroponic system. Methods: Polynomial calibration models are developed to relate the number of pixels in images of leaf areas determined by the image processing methods to actual fresh weights of lettuce measured with a digital scale. The study analyzes the ability of the machine vision- based calibration models to predict the fresh weights of lettuce. Results: The coefficients of determination (> 0.93) and standard error of prediction (SEP) values (< 5 g) generated by the two developed models imply that the image processing methods could accurately estimate the fresh weight of each lettuce plant during its growing stage. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the growing status of a lettuce plant can be estimated using leaf images and regression equations. This shows that a machine vision system installed on a plant growing bed can potentially be used to determine optimal harvest timings for efficient plant growth management.