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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
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Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Delayed Operation Characteristics of Power Shuttle According to Hydraulic Oil Temperature in the Hydraulic Circuit of Agricultural Tractor
Park, Yoon-Na ; Kim, Dae-Cheol ; Park, Seung-Je ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 2, 2015, Pages 95~101
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.2.095
Purpose: During the start-up period, the response time of a hydraulic system increases in the winter because of the increased oil viscosity caused by the cold weather. The problems of delayed tractor starting and excessive wear of the clutch disk occur for these reasons. Therefore, this study develops an analysis model using the commercial hydraulic analysis program AMESim to examine the characteristics of delays in power shuttle starting at different oil temperatures. Methods: In the experiment, a tractor was stationary on a flat surface with the engine running at a constant speed of 1,080 rpm. The forward lever was then pressed to activate the power shuttle at three different oil temperatures, and the pressure changes were measured. The pressure on the forward clutch control valve was measured by a pressure gauge installed on the hydraulic line supplied to the transmission from the main valve. An analysis model was also developed and verified with actual tests. Results: The trend of the simulated pressures of the power shuttle is similar to that of the measured pressures, and a constant modulation period was observed in both the simulation and test results. However, the difference found between the simulation and test results was the initial pressure required to overcome the initial force of the clutch spring. Conclusions: This study also examines the characteristics of the delayed startup of the power shuttle at different oil temperatures through simulations.
Redesign and Evaluation of a Chickpea Harvester
Golpira, H. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 2, 2015, Pages 102~109
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.2.102
Purpose: Slow manual harvesting of rain-fed chickpeas cultivated in fallow fields in developing countries have encouraged the design of a mechanical harvester. Methods: A tractor-pulled harvester was built, in which a modified stripper header detached pods from an anchored plant and a chain conveyor transferred material. The stripper harvester was redesigned to use: 1) the maneuverability of tractor-mounted frames, 2) the adaptability of floating headers, and 3) the flexibility of pneumatic conveyors. Results: A mobile vacuum conveyor, which was an innovator open system, was designed for the dilute phase transferring mode for both grain and material other than grain. A centrifugal fan transferred harvested material to a cyclone separator that settled harvested material in a grain tank 1 m high. The machine at the spot work rate of
harvested chickpea pods equal to the output of 16.6 farm laborers. Conclusion: The low cost and reasonable projected purchase price are the advantages of the concept. Additionally, the shattering loss reduction confirms the feasibility of the prototype chickpea harvester for commercialization.
Development of Threshing Machine for Shatter-Resistant Sesame
Lee, Kyou Seung ; Noh, Hyun Kwon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 2, 2015, Pages 110~114
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.2.110
Purpose: A threshing machine for shatter-resistant sesame was designed and developed in this study. Methods: Two types of sesame (shatter-resistant and conventional) were tested using the developed sesame threshing system. Three types of serrated bars were designed and evaluated through performance tests, in terms of the ratio of unthreshed sesame. Results: In the case of conventional sesame, the ratio of unthreshed sesame did not show any difference with bar type or cylinder rotation speed. For shatter-resistant sesame, however, the ratio of unthreshed sesame decreased with increased cylinder rotating speed for all three types of bar. Conclusions: These results are useful for the construction and utilization of an efficient threshing harvester. The type-L bar showed the best result in the energy equation.
Location of Sampling Points in Optical Reflectance Measurements of Chinese Cabbage and Kale Leaves
Ngo, Viet-Duc ; Kang, Sin-Woo ; Ryu, Dong-Ki ; Chung, Sun-Ok ; Park, Sang-Un ; Kim, Sun-Ju ; Park, Jong-Tae ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 2, 2015, Pages 115~123
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.2.115
Purpose: A sampling scheme may significantly affect the accuracy of a sensor. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sampling point locations on optical reflectance measurements of Chinese cabbage and kale plant leaves. Methods: Variability and similarity of multiple measurements for different parts of the leaves were compared. Results: The results indicate that the variability between the average and individual reflectance spectra was smaller for the blade part than for the vein part. Furthermore, the reflectance for the blade part over the upper leaf area was greater and more stable than those for the other parts for both the cabbage and kale leaf samples. Conclusions: The results provide guidelines for optical reflectance measurements of Chinese cabbage and kale plants. The effects of the number of sampling points, the number of leaves, and the relationships between optical reflectance and leaf components remain to be investigated in the future.
Review of Rice Quality under Various Growth and Storage Conditions and its Evaluation using Spectroscopic Technology
Joshi, Ritu ; Mo, Changyeun ; Lee, Wang-Hee ; Lee, Seung Hyun ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 2, 2015, Pages 124~136
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.2.124
Purpose: Grain quality is a general concept that covers many characteristics, ranging from physical to biochemical and physiochemical properties. Rice aging during storage is currently a challenge in the rice industry, and is a complicated process involving changes in all of the above properties. Spectroscopic techniques can be used to obtain information on the quality of rice samples in a non-destructive manner. Methods: The objective of this review was to highlight the factors that contribute to rice quality and aging, and to describe various spectroscopic modalities, particularly vibrational and hyperspectral imaging, for the assessment of rice quality. Results: Starch and protein are the main components of the rice endosperm, and are therefore key factors contributing to eating and cooking quality. While the overall starch, protein, and lipid content in the rice grain remains essentially unchanged during storage, structural changes do occur. These changes affect pasting and gel properties, and ultimately the flavor of cooked rice. In addition, grain quality is significantly affected by growing and environmental conditions, such as water availability, temperature, fertilizer application, and salinity stress. These properties can be evaluated using spectroscopic techniques, and rice samples can be discriminated by using multivariate statistical analysis methods. Conclusion: Hyperspectral imaging and vibrational spectroscopy techniques have good potential for determining rice quality properties in a non-invasive manner, i.e., not requiring the introduction of instruments into the rice grain.
Development and Performance of a Jatropha Seed Shelling Machine Based on Seed Moisture Content
Aremu, A.K. ; Adeniyi, A.O. ; Fadele, O.K. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 2, 2015, Pages 137~144
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.2.137
Purpose: The high energy requirement of extraction of oil from jatropha seed and reduction of loss in oil content between whole seed and kernel of jatropha necessitate seed shelling. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the performance of a jatropha seed shelling machine based on seed moisture content. Methods: A shelling machine was designed and constructed for jatropha seed. The components are frame, hopper, shelling chamber, concave, and blower with discharge units. The performance evaluation of the machine was carried out by determining parameters such as percentage of whole kernel recovered, percentage of broken kernel recovered, percentage of partially shelled seed, percentage of unshelled seed, machine capacity, machine efficiency, and shelling efficiency. All of the parameters were evaluated at five different moisture levels: 8.00%, 9.37%, 10.77%, 12.21%, and 13.68% w.b.). Results: The shelling efficiency of the machine increased with increase in seed moisture content; the percentage of whole kernel recovered and percentage of partially shelled seed decreased with increase in moisture content; and percentage of broken kernel, machine efficiency, and percentage of unshelled seed followed a sinusoidal trend with moisture content variation. Conclusion: The best operating condition for the shelling machine was at a moisture content of 8.00% w.b., at which the maximum percentage of whole kernel recovered was 23.23% at a shelling efficiency of 73.95%.
Using Hyperspectral Fluorescence Spectra of Deli Commodities to Select Wavelengths for Surveying Deli Food Contact Surfaces
Lefcourt, Alan M. ; Beck, Elizabeth A. ; Lo, Y. Martin ; Kim, Moon S. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 2, 2015, Pages 145~152
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.2.145
Purpose: The inability to adequately judge the efficacy of cleaning and sanitation procedures in deli departments is a recognized food safety concern. In a prior study, our research group demonstrated that visual inspection of cleaned produce processing surfaces could be enhanced through the use of a portable fluorescence imaging device that detected residual produce residues. Methods: To explore the feasibility of using fluorescence imaging to similarly detect residual deli residues, spectra of American, Cheddar, Provolone, and Swiss cheeses and of processed chicken, ham, roast beef, and turkey were acquired using a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system. Circular punches of these commodities were placed onto stainless steel and high density polyethylene coupons for imaging. The coupon materials were selected to represent common surfaces found in deli departments. Results: Analysis of hyperspectral fluorescence images showed that cheeses exhibited peaks in the blue-green region and at around 675 nm. Meats exhibited peaks in the blue-green region with one of four ham and one of four chicken brands exhibiting peaks at around 675 nm, presumably due to use of plant-derived additives. When commodities were intermittently imaged over two weeks, locations of spectral peaks were preserved while intensity of peaks at shorter wavelengths increased with time. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that fluorescence imaging techniques have the potential to enhance surface hygiene inspection in deli departments and, given the immediate availability of imaging results, to help optimize routine cleaning procedures.
Differentiation of Beef and Fish Meals in Animal Feeds Using Chemometric Analytic Models
Yang, Chun-Chieh ; Garrido-Novell, Cristobal ; Perez-Marin, Dolores ; Guerrero-Ginel, Jose E. ; Garrido-Varo, Ana ; Cho, Hyunjeong ; Kim, Moon S. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 2, 2015, Pages 153~158
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.2.153
Purpose: The research presented in this paper applied the chemometric analysis to the near-infrared spectral data from line-scanned hyperspectral images of beef and fish meals in animal feeds. The chemometric statistical models were developed to distinguish beef meals from fish ones. Methods: The meal samples of 40 fish meals and 15 beef meals were line-scanned to obtain hyperspectral images. The spectral data were retrieved from each of 3600 pixels in the Region of Interest (ROI) of every sample image. The wavebands spanning 969 nm to 1551 nm (across 176 spectral bands) were selected for chemometric analysis. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) and the principal component analysis (PCA) methods of the chemometric analysis were applied to the model development. The purpose of the models was to correctly classify as many beef pixels as possible while misclassified fish pixels in an acceptable amount. Results: The results showed that the success classification rates were 97.9% for beef samples and 99.4% for fish samples by the PLSR model, and 85.1% for beef samples and 88.2% for fish samples by the PCA model. Conclusion: The chemometric analysis-based PLSR and PCA models for the hyperspectral image analysis could differentiate beef meals from fish ones in animal feeds.