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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Impact of Sound Insulation in a Combine Cabin
Kim, Chiho ; Jung, Ho Jun ; Jo, Jin Seok ; Kim, Myong il ; Lee, Bongho ; Park, Tae Jong ; Seo, Kwangwook ; Kim, Hyeon Tae ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 159~164
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.159
Purpose: Recently, environmental pollution and safety problems in agricultural production have become important issues. Initially, bio-production machines focused on high production efficiency rather than workers' safety and comfort, but this trend slowly has changed as time went on. Methods: This study was carried out to identify sound efficiently and reliably for noise reduction by using a combine cabin model. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (M-class) rubber (EPDM) was applied to improve noise reduction performance from parts connected directly to the front, rear, left side, and bottom side of the cabin. Results: As a result, an average noise reduction of 1.85 dB was achieved in the normal hearing range between 500 Hz to 2 kHz. Conclusions: Reducing the cabin noise levels can reduce a worker's fatigue, improve working environment, and contribute to future low-noise and high-quality cabin environment.
Development of a Real-Time Measurement System for Horizontal Soil Strength
Cho, Yongjin ; Lee, Dong Hoon ; Park, Wonyeop ; Lee, Kyou Seung ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 165~177
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.165
Purpose: Accurate monitoring of soil strength is a key technology applicable to various precision agricultural practices. Soil strength has been traditionally measured using a cone penetrometer, which is time-consuming and expensive, making it difficult to obtain the spatial data required for precision agriculture. To improve the current, inefficient method of measuring soil strength, our objective was to develop and evaluate an in-situ system that could measure horizontal soil strength in real-time, while moving across a soil bin. Methods: Multiple cone-shape penetrometers were horizontally assembled at the front of a vertical plow blade at intervals of 5 cm. Each penetrometer was directly connected to a load cell, which measured loads of 0-2.54 kN. In order to process the digital signals from every individual transducer concurrently, a microcontroller was embedded into the measurement system. Wireless data communication was used between a data storage device and this real-time horizontal soil strength (RHSS) measurement system travelling at 0.5 m/s through an indoor experimental soil bin. The horizontal soil strength index (HSSI) measured by the developed system was compared with the cone index (CI) measured by a traditional cone penetrometer. Results: The coefficient of determination between the CI and the HSSI at depths of 5 cm and 10 cm (
and 0.88, respectively) were relatively less than those measured below 20 cm (
). Additionally, the measured HSSIs were typically greater than the CIs for a given numbers of compactor operations. For an all-depth regression, the coefficient of determination was 0.94, with a RMSE of 0.23. Conclusions: A HSSI measurement system was evaluated in comparison with the conventional soil strength measurement system, CI. Further study is needed, in the form of field tests, on this real-time measurement and control system, which would be applied to precision agriculture.
Criteria for Determining Working Area and Operating Cost for Long-Term Lease of Agricultural Machinery
Shin, Seung Yeoub ; Kang, Chang Ho ; Yu, Seok Cheol ; Kim, Yu Yong ; Noh, Jae Seung ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 178~185
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.178
Purpose: This research suggests a method of establishing criteria for working area and operating cost for a long-term lease of agricultural machinery. Methods: Eight crops were selected-three food crops and five open-field vegetables-and agricultural machines used for sowing, transplanting, and cultivation in dry-field farming were analyzed. Results: The break-even acreage for agricultural machinery under a long-term lease was found to differ by agricultural machine, ranging from 1.0 to 5.8 ha. In terms of arable land area, the break-even acreages for harvesting machinery and transplanters were 15.6 to 26.1 ha and 6.1 to 8.6 ha, respectively. The working area lessees should secure was divided into two cases: (1) 2.0 to 11.6 ha when leasing individual agricultural machines (sowing and transplanting) for a long-term period, and (2) more than 10 ha when farmers who cultivate beans, potatoes, garlic, onions, and so on lease sowing and transplanting machines as a set. When agricultural machinery was leased for a long term, the operating cost and working time were reduced by 27.6 to 74.4% and 2.5 to 21.6%, respectively, indicating considerable effect. Conclusions: A long-term lease project needs to be promoted to overcome the limitation of short-term leases of agricultural machinery. The local government should lead this project and facilitate the mechanization of dry-field farming. The department in charge of agricultural machinery lease projects needs to set the working area to cover the rate and maintenance cost for farmers who lease agricultural machinery for the long term.
Utilization of Solar Energy in Agricultural Machinery Engineering: A Review
Hussain, M. Imtiaz ; Lee, Gwi Hyun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 186~192
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.186
Background: Various solar energy collecting systems have been developed and analyzed for agricultural applications. They include solar thermal and electric devices such as solar crop dryers, solar water pumps, solar greenhouse heating, ventilation for livestock, solar aeration pumps, solar electricity, and many more. Purpose: This review provides the current status of research and development in the field as well as the solar energy systems that are currently in use in the agriculture sector across the globe. Review: Solar energy is the largest and cheapest energy resource on earth; one hour of solar radiation exceeds the complete global energy consumption in one year. The potential annual total solar radiation in South Korea is
. The available solar energy is sufficient for agricultural applications across the entire country. Conclusion: The scope of solar energy utilization in agricultural machinery engineering in South Korea and in other countries is promising.
Analysis of Heating Characteristics Using Aluminum Multi-Layer Curtain for Protected Horticulture Greenhouses
Park, Bum-Soon ; Kang, Tae-Hwan ; Han, Chung-Su ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 193~200
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.193
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy saving effects and characteristics of plant growth in a greenhouse with an aluminum multi-layer curtain compared to a greenhouse with non-woven fabric. Method: The dimensions of both greenhouses
, and both used hot air heater systems for maintaining a constant temperature
. Heating characteristics such as solar intensity, inside and ambient temperatures, and fuel consumption were measured and analyzed. Results: The changes of average temperature of both greenhouses during a 15-days (December 06 - 20) showed approximately
at around 2 pm when the ambient temperature was highest. The greenhouses were set by the heater to keep a temperature of
from 4 pm to 8 am the following day. The average heat loss (for 15 days) from the greenhouse with an aluminum multi-layer curtain was
during the daytime and
during the nighttime. The average heat loss (for 15 days) from the greenhouse with non-woven fabric was
during the daytime and
during the nighttime. The total heat loss (for one day) from the non-woven fabric system was
during the daytime,
during the nighttime). The heat supply over 36 days for the non-woven fabric system was higher than the aluminum multi-layer curtain system by
. Conclusions: These results suggest that a greenhouse with an aluminum multi-layer curtain could save energy usage by 35% over a greenhouse with non-woven fabric.
Measurement of Engineering Properties Necessary to the Design of Drumstick (Moringa oleifera L.) Pod Sheller
Oloyede, Dolapo O. ; Aviara, Ndubisi A. ; Shittu, Sarafadeen K. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 201~211
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.201
Purpose: Designing equipment for processing, sorting, and other post-harvest operations of agricultural products requires information about their physical properties. This study was conducted to investigate some of the mechanical and physical properties of Moringa oleifera L. pods and seeds. Methods: Properties such as the length, width, thickness, bulk density, porosity, mass, static coefficient of friction, and angle of repose were determined as a function of moisture content. Statistical data and force-deformation curves obtained at each loading orientation and moisture level were analyzed for bioyield point, bioyield strength, yield force, rupture point, and rupture strength using a testrometric machine. Result: The basic dimensions (length, width, and thickness) of moringa pods and seeds were found to increase linearly from 311.15 to 371.45 mm, 22.79 to 31.22 mm, and 22.24 to 29.88 mm, respectively, in the moisture range of 12 to 49.5% d.b. The coefficient of friction for both pods and seeds increased linearly with an increase in moisture content on all the surfaces used. The highest value was recorded on mild steel, with 0.581 for pods and 0.3533 for seeds, and the lowest on glass for pods, with a value of 0.501, and of 0.2933 for seeds on galvanized steel. The bioyield and rupture forces, bioyield and rupture energies, and deformation of the pods decreased with an increase in moisture content to a minimum value, then increased with further decrease within the moisture content range, while the yield force increased to a maximum value and then decreased as the moisture content increased. Conclusion: These results will help to determine the most suitable conditions for processing, transporting, and storing moringa pods, and to provide relevant data useful in designing handling and processing equipment for the crop.
Moisture-dependent Physical Properties of Detarium microcarpum Seeds
Aviara, Ndubisi A. ; Onaji, Mary E. ; Lawal, Abubakar A. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 212~223
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.212
Purpose: Physical properties of Detarium microcarpum seeds were investigated as a function of moisture content to explore the possibility of developing bulk handling and processing equipment. Methods: Seed size, surface area, and 1,000-seed weight were determined by measuring the three principal axes, measuring area on a graph paper, and counting and weighing seeds. Particle and bulk densities were determined using liquid displacement and weight in a measuring cylinder, respectively. Porosity was computed from particle and bulk densities. Roundness and sphericity were measured using shadowgraphs. Angle of repose and static and kinetic coefficients of friction were determined using the vertical cylindrical pipe method, an inclined plane, and a kinetic coefficient of friction apparatus. Results: In the moisture range of 8.2%-28.5% (db), the major, intermediate, and the minor axes increased from 2.95 to 3.21 cm, 1.85 to 2.61 cm, and 0.40 to 1.21 cm, respectively. Surface area, 1,000-seed weight, particle density, porosity, and angle of repose increased from 354.62 to
, 3.184 to 3.737 kg, 1060 to
, and 30.0% to 53.1%, respectively, whereas bulk density decreased from 647.6 to
. Angle of repose increased from
. Static and kinetic coefficients of friction varied between 0.096 and 0.638 on different structural surfaces. Conclusions: Arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and equivalent sphere effective diameters determined at the same moisture level were significantly different from each other, with the arithmetic mean diameter being greatest. Surface area, 1,000-seed weight, particle density, porosity, and angle of repose all increased linearly with moisture content. Bulk density decreased linearly with moisture content. The coefficients of friction had linear relationships with moisture content. The highest values of static and kinetic coefficients of friction were observed on galvanized steel and hessian fabric, respectively, whereas the lowest values were observed on fiberglass.
Effect of Microwave Heat Treatment on Inhibition of Corn Seed Germination
Ambrose, Ashabahebwa ; Lee, Wang-Hee ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 224~231
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.224
Purpose: Corn is a major commercial crop targeted for genetic modification owing to its high consumer demand as a foodstuff for humans and livestock, as well as its other industrial applications. However, the safety of genetically modified (GM) crops is controversial. Indeed, several countries have banned the importation of GM seeds that can germinate. Therefore, development of effective, convenient, and nondestructive methods to inhibit seed germination is required. Methods: This study aimed to examine the efficacy of microwave heat treatment for inhibition of germination of corn kernels and for optimization of power and exposure time required for effective aging treatment. Artificial inhibition was induced in corn kernels using microwave heat treatment. Seven power levels were examined (400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, and 1000 W) at each of the four exposure times (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 min). Results: Corn kernels could be aged effectively after heating for 0.5~1.0 min at powers greater than 800 W, with increasing efficacy observed at higher powers. Further analysis showed that the most effective inhibition of germination was observed at 1000 W for 40 s. This setting did not cause any physical damage to the corn kernels. Conclusions: Optimal inhibition of corn kernel germination was achieved using higher power for shorter times, which may be useful for industrial corn seed treatment.
Simulation of Wheat Circulating Cross-flow Dryer
Kim, Oui-Woung ; Kim, Hoon ; Kim, Woong ; Lee, Hyo-Jai ; Han, Jae-Woong ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 232~237
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.232
Purpose: In Korea, wheat is dried using circulating cross-flow grain dryers. However, there is no research on wheat drying which can be utilized for the dryers. Therefore, this study developed and evaluated a simulation of the circulating cross-flow dryer, and examined the effects of various factors on drying performance. Methods: The simulation program was developed using drying models and was evaluated against wheat-drying experiments with a dryer having a 30-ton capacity. The influence of drying temperature, air volume, and grain falling rate on drying performance were examined through the simulation. Results: The experimental results validated the simulation program by showing the same root mean square error (RMSE) for moisture content (0.286%) and drying rate (0.056%/h) in both the experimental data and the simulation values. The appropriate wheat-drying parameter values, considering drying conditions, were determined to be
for drying temperature,
for air volume, and a grain falling rate of
. Conclusions: The developed simulation program for circulating cross-flow dryers analyzed the influences of performance factors such as drying temperature, air volume, and falling rate on drying performance.
Current State of Postharvest Fruit and Vegetable Management in East Africa
Wakholi, Collins ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ; Mo, Changyeun ; Kim, Moon S. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 238~249
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.238
Purpose: Fruit and vegetable production is a fast-growing sector in East Africa, and it bears considerable local and international market potential. In an effort to analyze the challenges within this sector and suggest possible solutions, this study reviews the postharvest handling technologies commonly used with fruits and vegetables in East Africa. Methods: During the course of this study, small-scale farmers were identified as the most prominent producers of fruit and vegetable crops in the region. Results: We found that many of these small-scale farmers employed relative simple and inexpensive techniques in handling their limited volumes of produce. Several factors could be addressed to reduce postharvest losses, including weak policies, inferior infrastructure, and poor market strategies. However, the lack of basic knowledge (including demographic, scientific, and economic knowledge) among the stakeholders (e.g., researchers, farmers, governments, nongovernment organizations, and merchants) on how to develop, implement, use, and sustain the recommended handling technologies is probably the most problematic. Conclusions: We recommend that high priority be placed on closing the knowledge gap, which could enhance the efforts of all the stakeholders to address and reduce postharvest losses.
Design and Fabrication of a Dual Cylindrical Microwave and Ohmic Combination Heater for Processing of Particulate Foods
Lee, Seung Hyun ; Choi, Won ; Park, Sung Hee ; Jun, Soojin ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 250~260
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.250
Purpose: Dual cylindrical microwave chambers equipped with an ohmic heating tube were designed and fabricated to maximize the electric field strength for expeditious heat treatment of particulate foods. Methods: The efficacy of the combination heater was investigated by simulating the electric field distribution by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Results: All components of the designed microwave heating unit were suitable for transmitting maximal microwave power to the load. The simulated electric field distribution implied that single-mode microwave heating would be sufficient for the steady generation of a highly localized heating zone in the cavity. During impedance matching, the calculated reflection coefficient (
) was small, possibly implying minimal power loss and wave reflection in the designed microwave heating chamber. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the possibility of concentrating the microwave power at the centerline for a single-frequency microwave, for thermal treatment of multiphase foods without attenuating the microwave power.
Food Preservation Technology at Subzero Temperatures: A Review
Shafel, Tim ; Lee, Seung Hyun ; Jun, Soojin ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 261~270
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.261
Purpose: Cold storage is the most popular method used to preserve highly perishable foods such as beef and fish. However, at refrigeration temperatures, the shelf life of these foods is limited, and spoilage leads to massive food waste. Moreover, freezing significantly affects the food's properties. Ice crystallization and growth during freezing can cause irreversible textural damage to foods through volumetric expansion, moisture migration induced by osmotic pressure gradients, and concentration of solutes,which can lead to protein denaturation. Methods: Although freezing can preserve perishable foods for months, these disruptive changes decrease the consumer's perception of the food's quality. Therefore, the development and testing of new and improved cold storage technologies is a worthwhile pursuit. Results: The process of maintaining a food product in an unfrozen state below its equilibrium freezing temperature is known as supercooling. As supercooling has been shown to offer a considerable improvement over refrigeration for extending a perishable product's shelf life, implementation of supercooling in households and commercial refrigeration units would help diminish food waste. Conclusions: A commercially viable supercooling unit for all perishable food items is currently being developed and fabricated. Buildup of this technology will provide a meaningful improvement in the cold storage of perishable foods, and will have a significant impact on the refrigeration market as a whole.
Effects of Electromagnetic Heating on Quick Freezing
Kim, Jinse ; Park, Jong Woo ; Park, Seokho ; Choi, Dong Soo ; Choi, Seung Ryul ; Kim, Yong Hoon ; Lee, Soo Jang ; Yoo, Seon Mi ; Han, Gui Jeung ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 271~276
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.271
Purpose: Quick freezing is widely used in commercial food storage. Well-known freezing techniques such as individual quick freezing require a low-temperature coolant and small cuts for the heat-transfer efficiency. However, the freezing method for bulk food resembles techniques used in the 1970s. In this study, electromagnetic (EM) heating was applied to improve the quick freezing of bulk food. Methods: During freezing, the surface of food can be rapidly cooled by an outside coolant, but the inner parts of the food cool slowly owing to the latent heat from the phase change. EM waves can directly heat the inner parts of food to prevent it from freezing until the outer parts finish their phase change and are cooled rapidly. The center temperature of garlic cloves was probed with optical thermo sensors while liquid nitrogen (LN) was sprayed. Results: When EM heating was applied, the center cooling time of the garlic cloves from freezing until
was 48 s, which was approximately half the value of 85 s obtained without EM heating. For the white radish cubes, the center cooling time was also improved, from 288 to 132 s. The samples frozen by LN spray with EM heating had a closer hardness to the unfrozen samples than the samples frozen by LN only. Conclusions: The EM heating during quick freezing functions to maintain the hardness of fresh food by reducing the freezing time from 0 to
A Review on Lateral Flow Test Strip for Food Safety
Kim, Giyoung ; Lim, Jongguk ; Mo, Changyeun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 277~283
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.277
Background: Foodborne disease outbreaks from various food sources are a major health concern worldwide. Current methods for detection of foodborne pathogens are both expensive and time-consuming. Purpose: This review aims to present the current information available on the use of lateral flow test strips to detect pathogens in food products to enhance food safety. Results: Frequent foodborne disease outbreaks from various food sources have increased the need for rapid and easy methods for routine analysis of foodborne pathogens. Present detection methods for foodborne pathogens require expensive instruments, experts, and long time for sample analysis. Lateral flow test strips have drawn attention in recent years because of their ability to detect analytes quickly and easily. This review focuses on the principle of the lateral flow test, the various formats of lateral flow test strips, recognition elements, labeling tags, and reading instruments. In addition, this review also discusses the future prospects for the lateral flow test strips.
Development of Mock Control Devices and Data Acquisition Apparatus for Power Tiller Training Simulator
Kim, YuYong ; Kim, Byounggap ; Shin, Seung-yeoub ; Kim, Byoungin ; Hong, Sunjung ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 284~288
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.284
Training power tiller operators in safe farming is necessary to avoid farming accidents. With the continuing progress in computational technology, driving simulators have become increasingly popular for conducting such training. Purpose: The objective of this study is to develop mock control devices and data acquisition apparatus for a tiller simulator. Methods: Except for the stand and tail wheel adjusting levers, the mock control devices were developed using a tiller handle assay. The data acquisition apparatus was realized using an embedded data-logging device and LabVIEW, the system design software. Results: The control devices of a real handle assay were successfully mimicked by the mock operator control devices, which used sensors for the relevant measurements. The data from the mock devices were acquired and transmitted to the main computer at intervals of 10 ms via Wi-Fi. Conclusions: The developed mock control devices operate similar to real power tillers and can be utilized in power tiller training simulators.
Comparison of Three Normalization Methods for 3D Joint Moment in the Asymmetric Rotational Human Movements in Golf Swing Analysis
Lee, Dongjune ; Oh, Seung Eel ; Lee, In-Kwang ; Sim, Taeyong ; Joo, Su-bin ; Park, Hyun-Joon ; Mun, Joung Hwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 289~295
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.289
Purpose: From the perspective of biomechanics, joint moments quantitatively show a subject's ability to perform actions. In this study, the effect of normalization in the fast and asymmetric motions of a golf swing was investigated by applying three different normalization methods to the raw joint moment. Methods: The study included 13 subjects with no previous history of musculoskeletal diseases. Golf swing analyses were performed with six infrared cameras and two force plates. The majority of the raw peak joint moments showed a significant correlation at p < 0.05. Additionally, the resulting effects after applying body weight (BW), body weight multiplied by height (BWH), and body weight multiplied by leg length (BWL) normalization methods were analyzed through correlation and regression analysis. Results: The BW, BWH, and BWL normalization methods normalized 8, 10, and 11 peak joint moments out of 18, respectively. The best method for normalizing the golf swing was found to be the BWL method, which showed significant statistical differences. Several raw peak joint moments showed no significant correlation with measured anthropometrics, which was considered to be related to the muscle coordination that occurs in the swing of skilled professional golfers. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the BWL normalization method can effectively remove differences due to physical characteristics in the golf swing analysis.
Estimation of Moisture Content in Comminuted Miscanthus based on the Intensity of Reflected Light
Cho, Yongjin ; Lee, Dong Hoon ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 3, 2015, Pages 296~304
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.3.296
Purpose: The balance between miscanthus production and its cost effectiveness depends greatly on its moisture content during post processing. The objective of this research was to measure the moisture content using a non-destructive and non-contact methodology for in situ applications. Methods: The moisture content of comminuted miscanthus was controlled using a closed chamber, a humidifier, a precision weigher, and a real-time monitoring software developed in this research. A CMOS sensor equipped with
magnifier lens was used to capture magnified images of the conditioned materials with moisture content level from 5 to 30%. The hypothesis is that when light is incident on the comminuted particles in an inclined manner, higher moisture content results in light being reflected with a higher intensity. Results: A linear regression analysis for an initiative hypothesis based on general histogram analysis yielded insufficient correlations with low significance level (<0.31) for the determination coefficient. A significant relationship (94% confidence level) was determined at level 108 in a reverse accumulative histogram proposed based on a revised hypothesis. A linear regression model with the value at level 108 in the reverse accumulative histogram for a magnified image as the independent variable and the moisture content of comminuted miscanthus as the dependent variable was proposed as the estimation model. The calibrated linear regression model with a slope of 92.054 and an offset of 32.752 yielded 0.94 for the determination coefficient (RMSE = 0.2%). The validation test showed a significant relationship at the 74% confidence level with RMSE 6.4% (n = 36). Conclusions: To compensate the inconsistent significance between calibration and validation, an estimation model robust against various systematic interferences is necessary. The economic efficiency of miscanthus, which is a promising energy resource, can be improved by the real-time measurement of its crucial material properties.