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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
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Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Fatigue Life Prediction of Crank-type Rotavator
Kim, Dae-Chun ; Park, Young-Jun ; Lee, Geun-Ho ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 305~313
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.305
Purpose: This study was performed to predict the fatigue life of a crank-type rotavator operated in domestic soil conditions using Recurdyn
, a dynamic analysis program. Methods: Torque on the PTO shaft was measured using experiments conducted on the uplands and paddy fields in Korea. On the basis of the experimental and analytical results, the fatigue life of the crank-type rotavator was predicted by constructing an S-N curve according to the GL (Germanischer Lloyd Wind Energie GmbH) guideline. Results: The torques experienced by the PTO shaft in the paddy soil and the uplands were in the range of 472~797 N m and 313~430 N m, respectively, for every condition. In case of load condition, the peak torques (846 N m, 770 N m) were applied for severe conditions, resulting in a maximum (von Mises) stress of 75 MPa at the crank arm. The fatigue life of the crank-type rotavator was predicted to be 1,167 h that satisfies the target value of 1,110 h, by substituting the analysis results into an S-N curve of crank arm. Conclusions: The fatigue life of the crank-type rotavator was within the target life for the studied soil conditions; however, further field experiments for various soil conditions would be required to verify the prediction results.
Straw to Grain Ratio Equation for Combine Simulation
Kim, Sang Hun ; Gregory, James M. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 314~319
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.314
Purpose: The ratio of straw to grain mass as a function of cutting height affects combine efficiency and power consumption and is an important input parameter to combine simulation models. An equation was developed to predict straw to grain ratios for wheat as a function of cutting height. Methods: Two mass functions, one for straw and one for grain, were developed using regression techniques and measured data collected in west Texas during the summer, and used to predict the straw to grain ratio. Results: Three equations were developed to facilitate the simulation of a combine during wheat harvest. Two mass functions, one for straw and one for grain, were also developed; a quadratic equation describes the straw mass with an
of 0.992. An S-shaped curve describes the mass function for grain with an
of 0.957. An equation for straw to grain ratio of wheat was developed as a function of cutting height. The straw to grain ratio has an
value of 0.947. Conclusions: In all cases, the equations had
values above 0.94 and were significant at the 99.9 percent probability level (alpha = 0.001). Although all three equations are useful, the grain mass and straw to grain ratio equations will have direct application in combine simulation models.
Development of a Pasting and Garnishing Machine for Manufacturing Kimbugak
Oh, Kwang-Hyun ; Choi, Yeong-Soo ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 320~326
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.320
Purpose: Kimbugak is one of Korea's traditional snack foods made of laver. Mechanization of the manufacturing process is necessary to produce kimbugak in large quantities and standardize the products for industrialization. This study was conducted to develop a machine that can simultaneously accomplish the two processes of pasting and garnishing for manufacturing kimbugak, and test its performance. Methods: A pasting and garnishing machine was designed, and its target work efficiency was set at 720 sheets/h. The performance was tested based on the physical characteristics such as work efficiency, pasting uniformity, and garnishing uniformity. Results: With the developed technology, kimbugak could be produced up to a productive rate of 840 sheets/h on a single machine. The pasting uniformity ranged from 91.5% to 96.8%, and a garnishing uniformity of more than 90% could be obtained. Conclusions: It is expected that this approach to developing a machine with the functions of pasting and garnishing can contribute to the mechanization of the manufacturing process to produce Korean traditional foods including kimbugak in large quantities and standardize the products for industrialization.
Development and Performance Evaluation of Falling-type Dried-Persimmon Weight Sorting System Utilizing Load Cell
Lim, Jongguk ; Kim, Giyoung ; Mo, Changyeun ; Choi, Inchul ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 327~334
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.327
Purpose: A falling-type weight sorter equipped with a load cell was developed to sort lightweight dried persimmons. The performance of the sorter was also evaluated. Methods: The electronic weight sorter for dried persimmon comprises a feeder part, a weight-measurement part, an indicator part, a carrier cup, a discharging part, and a driving part. The weight setting and zero-point adjustment are performed digitally for the convenience of users. For the experimental trials, 228 rubber-clay specimens (representative of dried persimmons) in the weight range of 24.73~99.56 g were manufactured for use in experiments to evaluate the performance of the sorter. Results: The average error of the weight measurements from three experimental trials was 1.655%, with a bias of -0.492 g, a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of
, and a coefficient of determination (
) of 0.997. Conclusions: The load-cell-based electronic dried-persimmon weight sorter developed in this study facilitates effective, precise, and convenient sorting of dried persimmons.
Detecting Drought Stress in Soybean Plants Using Hyperspectral Fluorescence Imaging
Mo, Changyeun ; Kim, Moon S. ; Kim, Giyoung ; Cheong, Eun Ju ; Yang, Jinyoung ; Lim, Jongguk ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 335~344
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.335
Purpose: Soybean growth is adversely affected by environmental stresses such as drought, extreme temperatures, and nutrient deficiency. The objective of this study was to develop a method for rapid measurement of drought stress in soybean plants using a hyperspectral fluorescence imaging technique. Methods: Hyperspectral fluorescence images were obtained using UV-A light with 365 nm excitation. Two soybean cultivars under drought stress were analyzed. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was used to predict drought stress in soybeans. Results: Partial least square (PLS) images were obtained for the two soybean cultivars using the results of the developed model during the period of drought stress treatment. Analysis of the PLS images showed that the accuracy of drought stress discrimination in the two cultivars was 0.973 for an 8-day treatment group and 0.969 for a 6-day treatment group. Conclusions: These results validate the use of hyperspectral fluorescence images for assessing drought stress in soybeans.
A Review of Technologies to Prolong the Shelf Life of Fresh Tropical Fruits in Southeast Asia
Kusumaningrum, Dewi ; Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Lee, Wang-Hee ; Mo, Changyeun ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 345~358
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.345
Southeast Asia, a typical tropical region, plays an important role in exporting a variety of fruits worldwide. The market for fresh fruits has been growing consistently, and this is a chance for Southeast Asian countries to increase their national income. However, export of tropical fruits has limitations such as a short shelf life and difficulty in maintaining the quality because of tropical climate conditions and undeveloped postharvest technologies in Southeast Asia. An important objective for developing postharvest technologies is to extend the shelf life of fresh fruits without deterioration in fruit quality. Therefore, it is essential to determine factors that affect the shelf life of fruits. The shelf life of tropical fruits is significantly dependent on the inherent properties of the fruits, extrinsic conditions, postharvest treatment, and microbial contamination. Recently, Southeast Asian countries have supported agricultural research groups for developing new postharvest technologies and minimizing postharvest losses and maintaining export fruit quality so that the total sales of tropical fruit farms can increase. This review introduces how the primary factors for extending the shelf life of tropical fruits can be determined and discusses the development of postharvest technologies for tropical fruits in Southeast Asian countries.
Trends in Recent Studies on Post-Harvest Technology
Natsuga, Motoyasu ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 359~367
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.359
Purpose: This article summarizes the trends in recent research publications in relation to post-harvest technology for drying, storage, and quality, between 2005 and 2015. Methods: As of S eptember 7, 2015, a s earch query using two keywords, drying and agriculture, on the Web of Science (Registered trademark of Thomson Reuters) resulted in 3749 articles that were published between 2005 and 2015. However, the review was restricted to research articles published in the journals Transactions of the ASABE (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers) and Biosystems Engineering: Journal of European Agricultural Engineering. Results: The total number of articles in the two journals related to drying, storage, and quality was 500, 319, and 885, respectively. The number of articles related to drying, storage, and quality was 250, 177, and 250, respectively, in Transactions of the ASABE. The number of articles related to drying, storage, and quality was 250, 142, and 283, respectively, in Biosystems Engineering. Conclusions: A shift in research focus from drying and storage to quality in Transactions of the ASABE might reflect a shift toward quality-conscious consumers. It seems that ASABE members are more focused on articles related to post-harvest technologies on quality than their European counterparts. Articles were cited based on their abstract content. Readers should read the full articles for more details.
Monitoring Pig Body Temperature Using Infrared Sensors
Jang, Jin Cheol ; Lee, Min Ho ; Lee, Jun Yeop ; Choi, Hee Chul ; Choi, Dong Yun ; Kim, Hyeok Ju ; Kim, Hyeon Tae ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 368~372
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.368
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to verify the feasibility of using an infrared sensor to measure the body temperature of a sow. We first conducted experiments on three pigs by using three infrared sensors and one indoor temperature sensor. Methods: The three infrared sensors were installed inside our model house and were used to take temperature measurements per second of the backs of the pigs. While feeding, the temperatures of the backs of the pigs were measured at distances of 10 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm from the infrared sensors. Results: We concluded that the relation between the temperature of the pigs' backs and the indoor temperature was y =0.549x + 18.459 at a measuring distance of 30 cm. The relation was y = 0.645x + 15.461 for a distance of 20 cm and y = 0.760x + 11.913 for a distance of 10 cm. We found high correlation between the indoor temperature and the temperature of the pigs' backs. Conclusions: It is possible to use an infrared thermometer to monitor the temperature of pigs' backs. This system seems to be feasible and effective in monitoring pig temperature. The use of an infrared thermometer will also make daily monitoring easy. In later experiments, the possibility of developing a system that can determine if an error can be corrected by using infrared sensor is explored by considering humidity variables.
Cellulose Nanocrystals as Advanced "Green" Materials for Biological and Biomedical Engineering
Sinha, Arvind ; Martin, Elizabeth M. ; Lim, Ki-Taek ; Carrier, Danielle Julie ; Han, Haewook ; Zharov, Vladimir P. ; Kim, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 373~393
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.373
Background: Cellulose is a ubiquitous, renewable and environmentally friendly biopolymer, which has high promise to fulfil the rising demand for sustainable and biocompatible materials. Particularly, the recent progress in the synthesis of highly crystalline cellulose-based nanoscale biomaterials, namely cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), draws significant attention from many research communities, ranging from bioresource engineering, to materials science and engineering, to biological and biomedical engineering to bionanotechnology. The feasibility of harnessing CNCs' unique biophysicochemical properties has inspired their basic and applied research, offering much promise for new biomaterials with diverse advanced functionalities. Purpose: This review focuses on vital issues and topics on the recent advances in CNC-based biomaterials with potential, in particular, for bionanotechnology and biological and biomedical engineering. The challenges and limitations of CNC technology are discussed as well as potential strategies to overcome them, providing an essential source of information in the exploration of possible and futuristic applications of the CNC-based functional "green" nanomaterials. Conclusion: CNCs offer exciting possibilities for advanced "green" nanomaterials, driving innovative research and development in a wide range of fields, including biological and biomedical engineering.
Spectroscopic Techniques for Nondestructive Quality Inspection of Pharmaceutical Products: A Review
Kandpal, Lalit Mohan ; Park, Eunsoo ; Tewari, Jagdish ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 394~408
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.394
Spectroscopy is an emerging technology for the quality assessment of pharmaceutical samples, from tablet manufacturing to final quality assurance. The traditional methods for the quality management of pharmaceutical tablets are time consuming and destructive, while spectroscopic techniques allow rapid analysis in a non-destructive manner. The advantage of spectroscopy is that it collects both spatial and spectral information (called hyperspectral imaging), which is useful for the chemical imaging of pharmaceutical samples. These chemical images provide both qualitative and quantitative information on tablet samples. In the pharmaceutics, spectroscopic techniques are used for a variety of applications, such as analysis of the homogeneity of powder samples as well as determination of particle size, product composition, and the concentration, uniformity, and distribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient in solid tablets. This review paper presents an introduction to the applications of various spectroscopic techniques such as hyperspectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopies (Raman spectroscopy, FT-NIR, and IR spectroscopy) for the quality and safety assessment of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. In addition, various chemometric techniques that are highly essential for analyzing the spectroscopic data of pharmaceutical samples are also reviewed.
Feasibility Study on Styrofoam Layer Cushioning for Banana Bulk Transport in a Local Distribution System
Wasala, W.M.C.B. ; Dharmasena, D.A.N. ; Dissanayake, C.A.K. ; Tilakarathne, B.M.K.S. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 409~416
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.409
Purpose: This study evaluates a new banana bulk packaging method under the real transport conditions of Sri Lanka. Methods: A field evaluation of optimized 8-mm thick Styrofoam sheets used as the cushioning material was applied. A trial transport was conducted from Thambuttegama to Colombo using a medium-sized open truck, with banana leaves as the control material. Data were recorded at the farmer, transporter, retailer, and consumer stages of the supply chain. Mechanical damage, physiological loss in weight, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, ripeness index, visual quality ratings, and the physical damage index of the bananas were measured at each stage. A cost-benefit analysis was also conducted for both packaging methods. Results: The 8-mm styrofoam sheets significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the mechanical damage from 26.3% to 12.9% compared to the conventional method for long-distance transport, and the physiological loss in weight showed a decrease of 2.88%. The loss of firmness of the fruits followed a simmilar pattern for both methods until reaching the retailer, but at the consumer was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for the control. However, the physical damage index at the retail stage for the control showed symptoms of physical injury, whereas the bananas transported using the cushioning materials exhibited only minor symptoms. Further, the visual quality of the fruits after transport from the farmer to the consumer was preserved, which is one of the main factors affecting consumer preference and retail price. The proposed method increases the profit margin by 51.2% for Embul bananas owing to the reduced postharvest losses. Conclusion: The 8-mm thick Styrofoam sheets reduced the physical damage to the bananas, with the quality parameters maintained at the prefered level. Moreover, profits may be increased.
Band Selection Using Forward Feature Selection Algorithm for Citrus Huanglongbing Disease Detection
Katti, Anurag R. ; Lee, W.S. ; Ehsani, R. ; Yang, C. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 40, issue 4, 2015, Pages 417~427
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2015.40.4.417
Purpose: This study investigated different band selection methods to classify spectrally similar data - obtained from aerial images of healthy citrus canopies and citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing or HLB) infected canopies - using small differences without unmixing endmember components and therefore without the need for an endmember library. However, large number of hyperspectral bands has high redundancy which had to be reduced through band selection. The objective, therefore, was to first select the best set of bands and then detect citrus Huanglongbing infected canopies using these bands in aerial hyperspectral images. Methods: The forward feature selection algorithm (FFSA) was chosen for band selection. The selected bands were used for identifying HLB infected pixels using various classifiers such as K nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), naïve Bayesian classifier (NBC), and generalized local discriminant bases (LDB). All bands were also utilized to compare results. Results: It was determined that a few well-chosen bands yielded much better results than when all bands were chosen, and brought the classification results on par with standard hyperspectral classification techniques such as spectral angle mapper (SAM) and mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF). Median detection accuracies ranged from 66-80%, which showed great potential toward rapid detection of the disease. Conclusions: Among the methods investigated, a support vector machine classifier combined with the forward feature selection algorithm yielded the best results.