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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
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Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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Performance Improvement of the Horizontal Control System for a Tractor Implement Using Sensor Signal from the Front Axle
Ro, Young-Min ; Moon, Jun-Hee ; Kim, Kyeong Uk ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 67~74
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2016.41.2.067
Purpose: Many tractors have adopted the horizontal control system designed to maintain the three-point mounted implements in horizontal position when they are tilted sideways. The control system rotates the implement in the opposite direction to the inclination of rear axle of the tractor. However, the current control system was found to have poor performance in accuracy and response. A new control system was therefore developed to improve the performance. Methods: The new control system was designed to get the response of the implement to be started earlier by using the tilt information from the front axle of the tractor. By this approach, the rotation of the implement can be adjusted as required to make it horizontal at the expected time, even though the response is slow. The optimal values of the control parameters for the new system were determined by computer simulation and validated by a performance test conducted with an obstacle of 120 mm height on a flat concrete surface. The performance of the control system was evaluated by the root mean square error (RMSE) of the rotation angle of the implement with respect to the actual inclination of the rear axle. Results: The new control system reduced the RMSE of the current control system by 44.6% indicating a high performance improvement. The inclination of the front axle was easily obtained from a sensor mounted on the front axle of the tractor and used as input to the new control system. Conclusions: The method of getting the response of the implement to be started earlier by utilizing the inclination information of the front axle can be applied to improve the performance of the current control system at least cost.
An Automated Water Nitrate Monitoring System based on Ion-Selective Electrodes
Cho, Woo Jae ; Kim, Dong-Wook ; Jung, Dae Hyun ; Cho, Sang Sun ; Kim, Hak-Jin ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 75~84
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2016.41.2.075
Purpose: In-situ water quality monitoring based on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) is a promising technique because ISEs can be used directly in the medium to be tested, have a compact size, and are inexpensive. However, signal drift can be a major concern with on-line management systems because continuous immersion of the ISEs in water causes electrode degradation, affecting the stability, repeatability, and selectivity over time. In this study, a computer-based nitrate monitoring system including automatic electrode rinsing and calibration was developed to measure the nitrate concentration in water samples in real-time. Methods: The capabilities of two different types of poly(vinyl chloride) membrane-based ISEs, an electrode with a liquid filling and a carbon paste-based solid state electrode, were used in the monitoring system and evaluated on their sensitivities, selectivities, and durabilities. A feasibility test for the continuous detection of nitrate ions in water using the developed system was conducted using water samples obtained from various water sources. Results: Both prepared ISEs were capable of detecting low concentrations of nitrate in solution, i.e., 0.7 mg/L
. Furthermore, the electrodes have the same order of selectivity for nitrate:
, and maintain their sensitivity by > 40 mV/decade over a period of 90 days. Conclusions: The use of an automated ISE-based nitrate measurement system that includes automatic electrode rinsing and two-point normalization proved to be feasible in measuring
in water samples obtained from different water sources. A one-to-one relationship between the levels of
measured with the ISEs and standard analytical instruments was obtained.
Fermentation: The Key Step in the Processing of Black Tea
Jolvis Pou, K.R. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 85~92
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2016.41.2.085
Background: The same plant, Camellia sinensis, is used to produce all types of tea, and the differences among the various types arise from the different processing steps that are used. Based on the degree of fermentation, tea can be classified as black, green, white, or oolong tea. Of these, black tea is the most or fully fermented tea. The oxidized polyphenolic compounds such as theaflavins (TF) and thearubigins (TR) formed during fermentation are responsible for the color, taste, flavor, and aroma of black tea. Results: Research indicates that an optimum ratio of TF and TR (1:10) is required to ensure a quality cup of tea. The concentrations of TF and TR as well as desirable quality characteristics increase as fermentation time increases, reaching optimum levels and then degrading if the fermentation time is prolonged. It is also necessary to control the environment for oxidation. There are no established environment conditions that must be maintained during the fermentation of the ruptured tea leaves. However, in most cases, the process is performed at a temperature of
for 2-4 h or 55-110 min for orthodox tea or crush, tear, and curl (CTC) black tea, respectively, under a high relative humidity of 95-98% with an adequate amount of oxygen. Conclusion: The polyphenolic compounds in black tea such as TF and TR as well as un-oxidized catechins are responsible for the health benefits of tea consumption. Tea is rich in natural antioxidant activities and is reported to have great potential for the management of various types of cancers, oral health problems, heart disease and stroke, and diabetes and to have other health benefits such as the ability to detoxify, improve urine and blood flow, stimulate, and improve the immune system.
Trends and Constraints of Grain Slurry Food Processing in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Dolapo, Oloyede O. ; Shittu, Sarafadeen K. ; Kayode, Fadele O. ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 93~97
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2016.41.2.093
Purpose: Grain slurry diet are described as food obtained from ground grain paste. They serve as highly nutritious food for both adults and infants in Nigeria because of their immense nutritive and economical value. However, the production of these grain slurry diets is confronted with challenges that have hampered their commercialization. This study examines the trends and constraints of grain slurry food processing in Kaduna State. Methods: A survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire to elicit information from 192 selected processors, including both men and women. The survey was structured in line with the study objectives. The information was collated and synopsized into frequency distribution. Results: These findings revealed that 80% of the respondents processed between 1.0 tons and 13.0 tons of grain slurry per month. More than 90% of the processors processed grain slurry into koko, kunu, agidi, and pito. Accordingly, 80% of the interviewed processors indicated that sieving is one of the major constraints. Furthermore, inadequate modern machinery required to perform this operation makes it highly discouraging. One of the major challenges faced by the grain slurry producers in Nigeria is the lack of processing machinery for most operations (39.1%), followed by the tedious processing nature (27.1%), high labor cost (18.1%), and lack of market (9.4%). The traditional method of grain slurry processing was more popular than using modern equipment, except milling (96.5%), which is the only mechanized unit operation in grain slurry processing. Conclusion: Grain slurry processing and marketing were found to be profitable. However, these limitations could extremely reduce the level of grain slurry production, processing, and economic returns, thereby affecting the general wellbeing of the processors. The study also raised concerns about the safety and hygiene associated with traditionally processed grain slurry diets in the investigated areas.
Study of Pallet Scale Modified Atmosphere Packaging Films for Reducing Water Condensation
Kim, Jinse ; Park, Jong Woo ; Park, Seokho ; Choi, Dong Soo ; Choi, Seung Ryul ; Kim, Yong Hoon ; Lee, Soo Jang ; Park, Chun Wan ; Lee, Jung- Soo ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 98~107
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2016.41.2.098
Purpose: The aim of this study was to find an appropriate polymer film, which could reduce the water condensation for pallet-size modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Methods: Five different types of films were selected from several commercialized films. Prior to the real food storage test, plastic boxes with wetted plastic balls were used to simulate the high humidity conditions of real food storage. The initial MAP condition was 5% oxygen and 95% nitrogen, and the
concentration, the relative humidity and water condensation inside the films were checked on a daily basis. The MAP test for tomatoes was conducted by using the most appropriate film from the five films examined in this study. Results: Every film except Mosspack(R) indicated a similar variation in the
concentration over the course of time. The relative humidity near the surfaces of all the films except nylon-6 approached saturation conditions over time. For three kinds of films, namely, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film, anti-fogging oriented polypropylene (AFOPP) film, and Mosspack(R), the inner surfaces of the films were fully covered with dew after a storage period of a day. Conversely, an area of 4.5% was covered with dew in the case of the poly lactic acid (PLA) film, and there was no dew inside the nylon-6 film. The pallet-size MAP test for tomatoes was conducted by using the nylon-6 film and there was no water condensation inside the nylon-6 film over three weeks of storage. Conclusions: During the pallet scale MAP, water condensation could cause severe fungal infection and wetting of the corrugated box. Hence, it was important to minimize water condensation. This study showed that the MAP films with high WVTR such as nylon-6 and PLA could reduce the water condensation inside the pallet scale MAP.
Study of Radio Frequency Thawing for Cylindrical Pork Sirloin
Kim, Jinse ; Park, Jong Woo ; Park, Seokho ; Choi, Dong Soo ; Choi, Seung Ryul ; Kim, Yong Hoon ; Lee, Soo Jang ; Park, Chun Wan ; Han, Gui Jeung ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 108~115
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2016.41.2.108
Purpose: Radio frequency (RF) heating is a promising thawing method, but it frequently causes undesirable problems such as non-uniform heating. This can occur because of the food shape, component distribution, and initial temperature differences between food parts. In this study, RF heating was applied to the thawing of cylindrically shaped pork sirloin by changing the shape of electrodes and the surrounding temperature. Methods: Curved electrodes were utilized to increase the thawing uniformity of cylindrically shaped frozen meat. Pork sirloin in the shape of a half-circle column was frozen in a deep freezer at
and then thawed by RF heating with flat and curved electrodes. In order to prevent fast defrosting of the food surface by heat transfer from air to the food, the temperature of the thawing chamber was varied by -5, -10, and
. The temperature values of the frozen pork sirloin during RF thawing were measured using fiber-optic thermo sensors. Results: After multiple applications of curved electrodes resembling the food shape, and a cooled chamber at
the half-cylindrically shaped meat was thawed without surface burning, and the temperature values of each point were similarly increased. However, with the parallel electrode, the frozen meat was partially burned by RF heating and the temperature values of center were overheated. The uniform heating rate and heat transfer prevention from air to the food were crucial factors for RF thawing. In this study, these crucial factors were accomplished by using a curved electrode and lowering the chamber temperature. Conclusions: The curved shape of the electrode and the equipotential surface calculated from the modeling of the parallel capacitor showed the effect of uniform heating of cylindrically shaped frozen food. Moreover, the low chamber temperature was effective on the prevention of the surface burning during RF thawing.
Applications of Microfluidics in the Agro-Food Sector: A Review
Kim, Giyoung ; Lim, Jongguk ; Mo, Changyeun ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 116~125
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2016.41.2.116
Background: Microfluidics is of considerable importance in food and agricultural industries. Microfluidics processes low volumes of fluids in channels with extremely small dimensions of tens of micrometers. It enables the miniaturization of analytical devices and reductions in cost and turnaround times. This allows automation, high-throughput analysis, and processing in food and agricultural applications. Purpose: This review aims to provide information on the applications of microfluidics in the agro-food sector to overcome limitations posed by conventional technologies. Results: Microfluidics contributes to medical diagnosis, biological analysis, drug discovery, chemical synthesis, biotechnology, gene sequencing, and ecology. Recently, the applications of microfluidics in food and agricultural industries have increased. A few examples of these applications include food safety analysis, food processing, and animal production. This study examines the fundamentals of microfluidics including fabrication, control, applications, and future trends of microfluidics in the agro-food sector. Conclusions: Future research efforts should focus on developing a small portable platform with modules for fluid handling, sample preparation, and signal detection electronics.
Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Multi-temporal Monitoring of Soybean Vegetation Fraction
Yun, Hee Sup ; Park, Soo Hyun ; Kim, Hak-Jin ; Lee, Wonsuk Daniel ; Lee, Kyung Do ; Hong, Suk Young ; Jung, Gun Ho ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 126~137
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2016.41.2.126
Purpose: The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetation fraction of soybeans, grown under different cropping conditions using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a red, green, and blue (RGB) camera. Methods: Test plots were prepared based on different cropping treatments, i.e., soybean single-cropping, with and without herbicide application and soybean and barley-cover cropping, with and without herbicide application. The UAV flights were manually controlled using a remote flight controller on the ground, with 2.4 GHz radio frequency communication. For image pre-processing, the acquired images were pre-treated and georeferenced using a fisheye distortion removal function, and ground control points were collected using Google Maps. Tarpaulin panels of different colors were used to calibrate the multi-temporal images by converting the RGB digital number values into the RGB reflectance spectrum, utilizing a linear regression method. Excess Green (ExG) vegetation indices for each of the test plots were compared with the M-statistic method in order to quantitatively evaluate the greenness of soybean fields under different cropping systems. Results: The reflectance calibration methods used in the study showed high coefficients of determination, ranging from 0.8 to 0.9, indicating the feasibility of a linear regression fitting method for monitoring multi-temporal RGB images of soybean fields. As expected, the ExG vegetation indices changed according to different soybean growth stages, showing clear differences among the test plots with different cropping treatments in the early season of < 60 days after sowing (DAS). With the M-statistic method, the test plots under different treatments could be discriminated in the early seasons of <41 DAS, showing a value of M > 1. Conclusion: Therefore, multi-temporal images obtained with an UAV and a RGB camera could be applied for quantifying overall vegetation fractions and crop growth status, and this information could contribute to determine proper treatments for the vegetation fraction.
Sensing Technology for Rapid Detection of Phosphorus in Water: A Review
Islam, Sumaiya ; Reza, Md Nasim ; Jeong, Jin-Tae ; Lee, Kyeong-Hwan ;
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 138~144
DOI : 10.5307/JBE.2016.41.2.138
Purpose: Phosphorus is an essential element for water quality control. Excessive amounts of phosphorus causes algal bloom in water, which leads to eutrophication and a decline in water quality. It is necessary to maintain the optimum amount of phosphorus present. During the last decades, various studies have been conducted to determine phosphorus content in water. In this study, we present a comprehensive overview of colorimetric, electrochemical, fluorescence, microfluidic, and remote sensing technologies for the measurement of phosphorus in water, along with their working principles and limitations. Results: The colorimetric techniques determine the concentration of phosphorus through the use of color-generating reagents. This is specific to a single chemical species and inexpensive to use. The electrochemical techniques operate by using a reaction of the analyte of interest to generate an electrical signal that is proportional to the sample analyte concentration. They show a good linear output, good repeatability, and a high detection capacity. The fluorescence technique is a kind of spectroscopic analysis method. The particles in the sample are excited by irradiation at a specific wavelength, emitting radiation of a different wavelength. It is possible to use this for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the target analyte. The microfluidic techniques incorporate several features to control chemical reactions in a micro device of low sample volume and reagent consumption. They are cheap and rapid methods for the detection of phosphorus in water. The remote sensing technique analyzes the sample for the target analyte using an optical technique, but without direct contact. It can cover a wider area than the other techniques mentioned in this review. Conclusion: It is concluded that the sensing technologies reviewed in this study are promising for rapid detection of phosphorus in water. The measurement range and sensitivity of the sensors have been greatly improved recently.