Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biosystems Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Dec 1980
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Jun 1980
Selecting the target year
Factors Affecting Wet-Paddy Threshing Performance
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 5, issue 1, 1980, Pages 1~14
Threshing operation may be one of the most important processes in the paddy post-production system as far as the grain loss and labor requirement are concerned . head-feeding type threshers commercially available now in Korea originally were developed for threshing dry paddy in the range of 15 to 17 % in wet basis. However, threshing wet-paddy with the grain moisture content above 20 % has been strongly recommended, especially for new high-yielding Indica -type varieties ; (1) to reduce high grain loss incurred due to the handling operations, and (2) to prevent the quantitative and qualitative loss of milled -rice when unthreshed grains are rewetted due to the rainfall. The objective of this study were to investigate the adaptability of both a head-feeding type thresher and a throw-in type thresher to wet-paddy , and to find out the possiblilities of improving the components of these threshers threshing. Four varieties, Suweon 264 and Milyang 24 as Tongil sister line varieties, minehikari and Jinhueng as Japonica-type varieties, were used at the different levels of the moisture content of grains. Both the feed rate and the cylinder speed were varied for each material and each machine. The thresher output quality , composition of tailing return, and separating loss were analyzed from the sampels taken at each treatment. A separate experiment for measurement opf the power requirement of the head-feeding type thresher was also performed. The results are summarized as follows : 1. There was a difference in the thresher output quality between rice varieties. In case of wet-paddy threshing at 550 rpm , grains with branchlet and torn heads for the Suweon 264 were 12 % and 7 % of the total output in weight, respectively, and for the Minehikari 4.5 % and 2 % respectively. In case of dry paddy threshing , those for the Suweon 264 were 8 % and 5% , and for the Minehikari 4% and 1% respectively. However, those for the Milyang 23 , which is highly susceptable to shattering, were much lower with 1 % and 0.5% respectively, regardless of the moisture content of the paddy. Therefore, it is desirable to breed rice varieties of the same physical properties as well as to improve a thresher adaptable to all the varieties. Torn heads, which increased with the moisture content of rall the varieties except the Milyang 23 , decreased as the cylinder speed increased, but grains with branchlet didnt decrease. The damaged kernels increased with the cylinder speed. 3. The thresher output quality was not affected much by the feed rate. But grains with branchlet and torn heads increased slightly with the feed rate for the head-feeding type thresher since higher resistance lowered at the cylinder speed. 4. In order to reduce grains with branchlet and torn heads in wet-paddy threshing , it is desirable to improve the head-feeding type thresher by developing a new type of cylinder which to not give excess impact on kernels or a concave which has differenct sizes of holes at different locations along the cylinder. 5. For the head-feeding type thresher, there was a difference in separating loss between the varieties. At the cylinder speed of 600 rpm the separating losses for the Minehikari and the Suweon 264 were 1.2% and 0.6% respectively. The separating loss of the head-feeding type thresher was not affected by the moisture content of paddy while that of the Mini-aged thresher increased with the moisture content. 6. From the analysis of the tailings return , to appeared that the tailings return mechanism didn't function properly because lots of single grains and rubbishes were unnecessarily returned. 7. Adding a vibrating sieve to the head-feeding type thresher could increase the efficiency of separation. Consequently , the tailing return mechanism would function properly since unnecessary return could be educed greatly. 8. The power required for the head-feeding type thresher was not affected by the moisture content of paddy, but the average power increased linearly with the feed rate. The power also increased with the cylinder speed.
Investigation of Natural Air Drying of Rough Rice Based on The Weather Data in Taegu Area
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 5, issue 1, 1980, Pages 15~23
Natural-air drying systems have been extensively used for cereal grains, and many researches on the systems have been conducted in foreign countries. However, little research on drying rough rice with natural air has been done. Especially . little research on natural air drying of rough rice based on weather data has been done in Korean. The objective of this study was to present fundamental data for estimating optimum requirements and basic information available for natural air drying of rough rice based on the weather data . The weather data analyzed in this study were the 10-year (1969 to 1978) record of air temperatures, wet-bulb temperatures and relative humidities, which were three-hourly observations in Taegu area. The results of this study are summarized as follows ; 1 From the results of weather data analysis the average air temperature was about
and the average relative humidty 67.5% . Average equilibrium moisture content appeared to be 13.8 percent on wet basis, which showed great potential for natural air drying in Taegue area in October. 2. Possible fan operation time based on the equilibrium moisture content of 15% on wet basis was about 14 hours a day during October in Taegu area. Probabilities of possible drying days based on minimum time available for drying in a day were analyzed. 3. Minimum air flow requirements based on the worst year were determined for different fan operation methods and initial moisture contents.
Optimization of Row-Crop Production System on Terraced Lands
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 5, issue 1, 1980, Pages 24~32
Investigation "On the Paddy Storage at the Farm Level"
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 5, issue 1, 1980, Pages 33~42
This study was carried out to investigate the actual environmental paddy storage conditions in conventional Korean farm warehouses. The paddy storage conditions by the locations and sizes of warehouses were figured out. The effectiveness of the small insulated box for storing paddy was also examined. Observations were made at sixteen different warehouses located in Moonsan-Myeon, Jinyandg-gun, Gyungnam Province from July lst to September 28 th, the period which was considered to be the worst for storing grains. The results are as follows ; 1. the average temperatures of rough rice and air inside the warehouse were 0.9 and 0.7
higher than the outside air temperature. 2. The average relative humidity in warehouses was 1.5percent higher than that of the atomosphere. This fact resulted in the increased moisture content of grains. Therefore, the ventilation for equalizing the relative humidity of inside and outside of warehouses was required. 3. The dry matter of stored rough rice was decreased by 1.1 percent in average druing the observation period. In order to reduce the dry matter loss, application of new grain storing method ;hermetic storage or filling inert gas storage, was highly recommended. 4. Environmental conditions for storing rough rice in a warehouse located in a sloping site are, in general , better than those of a warehouse located in a flat site. But as far as the dry matter of rough rice was concerned, above situation is not always satisfactory. Because it is fairly frequent to observe the higher rate of moisture absorption by grains stored in a warehouse located in a sloping site. 5. Environmental conditions for storing rough rice in a large-scale warehouse were better than those in a small size warehouse. Therefore, it is advisible for farmers to store their grins in the large-scale warehouses commonly used by villagers. 6. It was undesirable to store rough in a insulated box.
Study on the Separation Performance of a Tray-type Paddy Separator
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 5, issue 1, 1980, Pages 43~50
The milling plants in Korea have been generally used the paddy-separator that operated in accordance with the principle of sieving action. This type of paddy separator was considered as inefficient, especially in relation to the new high-yielding varieties which have different size characteristics within their varieties and also as compared to traditional varieties. With the installation of modern paddy separator it may be possible to increase the overall milling system efficiency and to reduce the grain loss. This study was intended to identify and define important parameters required for assessing the separation performance of a tray-type paddy separator and to determine the optimum conditions of the inclination of separator-table. The results of the study were summarized as follows : (1) Separation performance can be given by use of many parameters found from the measurement of separator outputs. such as upper-tail recovery
, purity of upper-tail
, separation recovery of brown rice
, separation recovery paddy
, and efficiency of separator
, Among these para-meters ,
, were designated , respectively, their independent properties of the paddy separator. In addition, their modes of variation due to a varied inclination of the separation table did not indicated in the same direction . However, the efficiency of separator had an advantage to indicate the overall characteristics of the separator performance with a clear optimum inclination condition of the separator table. (2) The optimum feed rate and maximum efficiency of the separator did not occur at the identical inclination of the separator table. Thus, for its practical operation it is necessary to compromise between the qualitative and quantitative performances of the separator. (3) The optimum setting of the separator table tested in the study showed to occur at its inclination of approximately $26^\circ<$/TEX> for the front and $8^\circ<$/TEX> for lateral.
Effect of Rice-Bundle size the harvesting performance with binder and the threshing performance
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 5, issue 1, 1980, Pages 51~57
It is desirable to increase the diameter of rice bundle harvested by Japanese reaper binder recently introduced into Korean farmers , since it is too small for stalking in the field for preliminary drying prior to threshing operation which is dominant procedure in rice harvesting . Accordingly, this study was conducted to analyze the effect of the size of rice-bundle on the performance of binder and self-feeding thresher. The results are summarized as follows : 1. The diameter of rice-bundle could be increased from
105.0-125.4 while the number of rice bundles per 10 a were reduced to 1200 from 1600. The time required for harvesting 10 a of rice was 81 minutes in small size bundles and 84 minutes in large size bundles and no statistical difference was obtained. 2 .The grain loss due to discharge and cutting were slightly increased with large size bundle compared to the small size but no statistical difference was obtained. The precision of operation and drying rate was not significantly different between small and large size bundles. 3. The unthreshed losses were the same between large and small sizes of rice bundles when self-feeding thresher was used. When 8 PS engine was used , continuous operation was possible for small size bundles , but 1.5seconds of time interval was necessary for large size buldles. 4. The consumption of binding twine was reduced to 603 from 820 meters with the larger bundles , and the labour requirement for stalking rice bundles in the field was also reduced to 1.83 form 2.50 man-hour per 10 a Therefore, harvesting cost can be reduced up to 26.5 percent by increasing the bundle size.
A Study on the Effects of Sinkage on the Performance of a Rice Transplanter
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 5, issue 1, 1980, Pages 58~65
Sinkage differences between the wheels of a transplanter which are caused by the different hard pan of fields and land preparation affect the field performance of a rice transplanter. In this experiment the relationships between the sinkage differences of the wheels of a transplanter and the planting distance, planting angle, planting depth and deviation from a straight transplanting line were investigated. The objective of this experiment was to obtain some basic informations for the effective use of the rice transplanter . The results of this experiment are as follows. 1. Transplanting distance became shorter as the sinkage differences increased. This effect was greater on the side of the transplanter with a shallower sinkage. 2. The depth of transplanting increased as the differences in the depth of sinkage increase for the side with the deeper sinkage. An opposite trend was observed for the side with shallower sinkage. 3. The angle of transplanted seedlings from the vertical portion increased slightly as the sinkage differences increased. The variation in results were greater from the side of the transplanter with deeper sinkage than with shallower sinkage. 5. The best postures of planted seedling were found when the water depth was 3 cm for the side of transplanter with deeper sinkage and 4 cm for the shallower sinkage side. The relationships between the postures of planted seedling and water depth. , or
for the side of transplanter with deeper sinkage and
for the side with shallower sinkage, were found from this experiment.
Journal of Biosystems Engineering, volume 5, issue 1, 1980, Pages 66~71