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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pesticide Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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The Influence of the Substituents for the Insecticidal Activity of N' -phenyl-N-methylformamidine Analogues against Two Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae)
Lee, Jae-Whang ; Choi, Won-Seok ; Lee, Dong-Guk ; Chung, Kun-Hoe ; Ko, Young-Kwan ; Kim, Tae-Joon ; Sung, Nack-Do ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 319~325
To understand the influences of the substituents (
) on insecticidal activity of N'-phenyl-N-methylformamidine analogues (1~22) against two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) model and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) model as three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSARs) model were derived and discussed quantitatively. From the results, the correlativity and predictability (
) of the CoMFA 1 model were higher than those of the rest models. The the CoMFA 1 and CoMSIA 1 model with the sensitivity of the perturbation and the prediction produced (
) by a progressive scrambling analysis were not dependent on chance correlation. The insecticidal activities from the optimized CoMFA 1 model were depend upon the steric field (62.5%), electrostatic field (28.9%), and hydrophobic field (8.6%) of N'-phenyl-N-methylformamidine analogues. Therefore, the inhibitory activities with optimized CoMFA 1 model were dependent upon steric factor. From the contour maps of the optimized models, it is predicted that the structural distinctions that contribute to the insecticidal activity will be able to applied new potent insecticides design.
Selection of Beneficial Microbial Agents for Control of Fungal Diseases in the Phyllosphere of Cucumber Plant
Lee, Sang-Yeob ; Lee, Young-Kee ; Park, Kyung-Seok ; Kim, Yong-Ki ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 326~331
Bacillus subtilis B29, B. subtilis M10 and Streptomyces sp. CC19 obtained from phyllosphere of cucumber plants were selected for biological control of fungal air-borne diseases. For the downy mildew, diseased area of B. subtilis B29, B. subtilis M10 and Streptomyces sp. CC19 showed 0.5%, 20.2% and 42.0%, but that of control was 82.0% respectively, in cucumber seedling test. Incidence of powdery mildew by once application of B. subtilis B29, B. subtilis M10 and Streptomyces sp. CC19 was 2.8%, 3.6% and 12.3%, respectively, whereas that of control was 65.6%. On the gray mold, diseased area of B. subtilis B29, B. subtilis M10 and Streptomyces sp. CC19 was 8.0%, 30.8% and 5.2%, respectively, compared to 81.2% for the control. Therefore, B. subtilis B29 could be a prospective antagonist for biological control of powdery mildew, downy mildew and gray mold of cucumber plant.
Degradation Characteristics of Insecticide Diazinon by Treatment of Raw Pig Slurry and Processed Pig Slurry in Upland and Paddy Soil
Lee, Young-Ju ; Park, Hee-Won ; Moon, Joon-Kwan ; Choi, Hong-Lim ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 332~338
Degradation characteristics of insecticide diazinon in upland and paddy soils under laboratory conditions were investigated to elucidate the effect of raw pig slurry (RPS) and processed pig slurry (PPS) treatment. Soil (20g) was treated with RPS and PPS by standard rate, double rate and triple rate before treating with diazinon (0.5mg/kg level) and incubating at (
) for 60 days. The half-lives of diazinon in the untreated upland and paddy soil were about 28 and 22 days respectively. The degradation rate of diazinon was faster by
days in the paddy soil than in the upland soil independent of fertilizer types. This result indicates that soil moisture content affects the half-life of diazinon probably by hydrolysis. Degradation of diazinon was faster in RPS treatment soil than in PPS treatment soil. The more amount of fertilizers were treated, the more rapidly diazinon degraded regardless of fertilizers and soil types. Based on the results obtained, degradation of diazinon in soil was definitely influenced by soil water contents and treatment of those fertilizers.
Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of Plant Extracts, Lavender, Lemon Eucalyptus and Cassia Essential Oil
Jeong, Mi-Hye ; Kwon, Mi-Jeong ; Park, Soo-Jin ; Hong, Soon-Sung ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Yeon, Sung-Hum ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 339~346
The acute toxicity test of high bio-active plant essential oils was conducted with Lavender, Lemon eucalyptus and Cassia oils selected to develop environment-friendly insecticides. The results of acute oral toxicity using rats showed that
of over 2,000 mg/kg bw for Lavender, Lemon eucalyptus and Cassia oils. The calculated acute dermal
value of all testing materials was over 4,000 mg/kg bw. The Skin irritation test indicated that Lavender and Lemon eucalyptus oil have no irritation while Cassia oil has a moderate irritation. For the Eye Irritation test, the result showed no irritation for Lavender and Lemon Eucalyptus oil and irritation for Cassia oils. However, the irritation was not showed for Eye Irritationwashing test of Cassia oil. Consequently, the Lavender and Lemon eucalyptus oils were showed to be low in toxicity whereas Cassia oil indicated to cause a moderate irritation on the skin and eyes.
Adsorption Column Chromatography for Simultaneous Determination of Multi-pesticide Residues
Kim, Chan-Sub ; Ihm, Yang-Bin ; Choi, Ju-Hyun ; Lee, Kyoung-Mi ; Lee, Young-Deuk ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 347~360
In order to develop the multi-residue purification method for 180 pesticides commonly used in Korea, many analytical methods on individual and multi- pesticide residues in the agricultural commodities and food product were examined. Through the modification of adsorption chromatographic methods used in Europe, the United States and Korea, the Florisil and silica-gel chromatographic systems were developed. Through these purification systems, elution profiles for all pesticides were examined. As the results, 145 pesticides were recovered in the range of 70-120% in Florisil clean-up system. The distribution of pesticides in the elution profile was 12 pesticides in the first fraction, 76 pesticides in the second fraction, 81 pesticides in the third fraction, 60 pesticides in the fourth fraction and 30 pesticides in the last fraction. And, in silica-gel system, 137 pesticides were recovered in the range of 70~120%. The distribution of pesticides in the elution profile was 22 pesticides in the first fraction, 59 pesticides in the second fraction, 102 pesticides in the third fraction, 46 pesticides in the fourth fraction and 8 pesticides in the last fraction.
Simultaneous Determination of Pesticide Residues in Soils by Dichloromethane Partition - Adsorption Chromatography - GC-ECD/NPD Analytical Methods
Kim, Chan-Sub ; Lee, Byung-Moo ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Park, Byung-Jun ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Lee, Young-Deuk ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 361~370
Considering the efficiencies of the preparation process at each stage obtained in previous studies, the analytical determination method was established for multi-pesticide residues in soils. It consist of the acetone-extraction, the dichloromethane-partition, the Florisil or silica-gel chromatography and the gas chromatography analysis equipped with the electron capture detector and the nitrogen-phosphorus detector. In the soil recovery test by Florisil clean-up system, the number of pesticides recovered in the range of 70~120% and showed less than 20% of RSD were 165 pesticides for paddy soil, 169 pesticides for upland soil and 159 pesticides in both soils through the tested 183 pesticides. And in the soil recovery test by silica-gel system, the number of pesticides recovered in the range of 70~120% and showed less than 20% of RSD were 154 pesticides for paddy soil, 145 pesticides for upland soil, and 134 pesticides in both soils.
Establishment of Analytical Method for Cyprodinil Residue In Apple, Mandarin, Korean Cabbage and Green Pepper
Lee, Hye-Ri ; Riu, Myoung-Joo ; Kim, Eun-Hye ; Moon, Joon-Kwan ; Do, Jung-A ; Oh, Jae-Ho ; Kwon, Ki-Sung ; Im, Moo-Hyeog ; Lee, Young-Deuk ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 371~380
This study was performed to develop a precise single residue analytical method of fungicide cyprodinil in representative crops for using as general residue analytical methods which could be applied to most of crops. Apple, mandarin, Korean cabbage and green pepper were selected as representative crops, and they were macerated, extracted with acetonitrile, concentrated and partitioned with n-hexane. Then the extracts were concentrated and cleaned-up through silica gel column with ethyl acetate:n-hexane (15:85, v/v) before concentration and analysis with HPLC. LOQ (limit of quantitation) of cyprodinil was 5 ng (S/N>10) and MQL (method qnantitation limit) was 0.05 mg/kg. Recoveries were measured at three fortification levels (MQL, 10MQL and 100MQL) on crop samples and ranged from 82.0 to 108.2% and coefficients of variation were less than 10% regardless of sample type.
Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Leafy Vegetables Collected from Wholesale and Traditional Markets in Cheongju
Noh, Hyun-Ho ; Park, Young-Soon ; Kang, Kyung-Won ; Paik, Hyo-Kyung ; Lee, Kwang-Hun ; Lee, Jae-Yun ; Yeop, Kyung-Won ; Choi, Song-Rim ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 381~393
In order to monitor the residual characteristics of the pesticides in leafy vegetables selling at wholesale markets and traditional markets in Cheongju, a total of 180 samples of 15 leafy vegetables, such as broccoli, celery, chard, chicory, Chinese vegetable, Chwinamul, crown daisy, Korean cabbage, leek, lettuce, perilla leaves, Shinsuncho, spinach, welsh onion and young radish, were purchased from the wholesale markets and traditional markets in June and August in 2010 and the pesticide residues in them were analyzed by multiresidue analysis method using GLC, HPLC and GC-MSD. Seven pesticides were detected from 12 samples out of total 180 samples collected, representing detection rate was 6.7%. In case of the samples collected from markets in June, four pesticides including tefluthrin were detected from six samples and in case of the samples collected from markets in August, three pesticides including pendimethalin were detected from three samples. The MRL-exceeding rate of pesticides detected from leafy vegetables was 0.6%. The pesticide exceeded its MRL was azoxystrobin detected from crown daisy and many pesticides were not registered to the crops, excepting that azoxystrobin detected from Chwinamul and tefluthrin from leek. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of the pesticides detected from leafy vegetables were less than 7% of their acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), representing that residue levels of the pesticides detected were evaluated as safe.
Insecticidal Activities of Prunus mume Extract Against Rice Leaf Folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee)
Park, Eun-Mi ; Kim, Yeon-Kook ; Hwang, Jung-Taek ; Moon, Jong-Min ; Hwang, Tae-Hwan ; Lee, Jong-Jin ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 394~400
Insecticidal activities of methanol extracts of the different parts of Prunus mume were investigated against the larvae of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (C. medinalis) by topical application. The mortalities of the larvae of C. medinalis were 34% at the concentration of 4,000 ppm, 36% of 8,000 ppm, 40% of 16,000 ppm and 58% of 32,000 ppm of the extracts from the fruits, and 38% of 4,000 ppm, 45% of 8,000 ppm, 58% of 16,000 ppm and 75% of 32,000 ppm from the stem + flower of Prunus mume (P. mume), respectively. The rates of pupation of C. medinalis treated with either fruit or stem+flower were gradually low according to the concentration of extracts increased. The weight of pupae of C. medinalis has no significantly different in between the control and the treated groups of the extracts from both of fruit and stem+flower. However, the differences of the pupal weight and the rate of pupation of C. medinalis treated with the extracts from the stem+flower and fruit of P. mume were significant as the level of 56% (
=0.56363, P=0.4364). Both of stem+flower and fruit extracts of P. mume showed good effects of anti-feeding against C. medinalis. The extracts of the stem+flower of P. mume could be advocated for developing as birational agent for the control of C. medinalis.
Control Effect of Environmental-friendly Organic Materials against Major Pear Diseases
Yoon, Deok-Hoon ; Patk, Hae-Jun ; Nam, Ki-Woong ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 401~406
This study was conducted to investigate the control effects of the environmental-friendly materials against major diseases of pear and to elucidate factors related to spore disperse of pear scab and pear rust. Spore disperse was deeply related ambient temperature in the early stage of disease occurrence and the maximum spore disperse was affected greatly by the air humidity, Percent of infected leaves of pear scab in plot treated with Trichoderma harzianum-YC459 was 29.3% and 43.3% in plot treated with Sulfur-80%. Two formulations above-mentioned were less effective to control pear scab than the chemical pesticide, hexaconazole. Control effect in plots single- and mixed-treated with Trichoderma harzianum-YC459, Sulfur-80% and hexaconazole against pear scab were compared with that in plot treated with chemicals by conventional application schedule in pear orchard. The incidence of pear scab was lower in plot treated with the environmental-friendly materials than that of untreated plot. However there was no significant difference among the treatments at the 5% level. Application of Sulfur-80% reduced significantly the incidence of pear scab (7.8%) compared to that (10.3%) in plot treated by conventional application schedule in organically cultivated pear orchard. Alternative application of Trichoderma harzianum-YC459 and Sulfur-80% (4.3%) suppressed the incidence of pear rust than that (7.1%) in plot treated by conventional application schedule in organically cultivated pear orchard.
Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis Native Strains for Plant Growth Promotion and Induced Systemic Resistance in Tomato and Red-pepper
Park, Jin-Woo ; Jahaggirdar, Shamarao ; Cho, Yung-Eun ; Park, Kyoung-Soo ; Lee, Seo-Hyun ; Park, Kyung-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 407~414
Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from different regions of Korea were screened for their plant growth promotion and induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tomato and red-pepper. The plant growth promotion on red-pepper and tomato revealed maximum plant height (22.73 cm) on red pepper treated with B. subtilis strain JE 21-1 and 30.18cm in case of tomato treated with B. subtilis strain JE 8-1. There was also significant improvement in root and shoot dry weight in both the plants. The strain JE 21-1 showed better promise for all growth parameters in red-pepper and tomato when compared to other strains and positive check BTH. Different strains screened in square plate method also revealed maximum plant height and leaf width, and suppressed anthracnose on red pepper in case of strain JE 21-1 at
cells/ml when compared to other strains. In all the bacterial inoculations the population was significantly high when compared to untreated check. In plant growth promotion with respect to fruit length and weight, fruit length was maximal in treating with JE 9-4 and ES 2-2, while fruit weight was maximal in treating with JE 3-6, ES4-2, ES2-2 and JE 21-2 on red pepper. In case of tomato, comparatively better fruit weight was in JE 21-1, ES 3-3 and JE 10-2 when compared to BTH and untreated control. The soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum SCCI was completely suppressed in case of transgenic tobacco harboring GUS gene related to PR1a and increased the level of salicylic acid significantly in combined application of JE 9-4 on par with BTH. Thus, this study clarified some potential Bacillus subtilis strains for plant growth promotion and ISR in red-pepper and tomato.
Sound Stress Induces Developmental Alterations and Enhances Insecticide Susceptibility in the Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae
Seok, Jeong-Gyun ; Kang, Taek-Jun ; Kim, Yong-Gyun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 415~420
This study investigated effects of different sound frequencies on development and insecticide susceptibility of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Under a constant sound intensity (95 dB), different frequency (0-5,000 Hz) sounds were treated on entire developmental period of the aphids. With increase of sound frequencies, nymphal to adult development of the aphids showed significant retardation and the females exhibited a significant decrease in fecundity. The greatest disrupting effects were induced by treatment of 5,000 Hz, which also caused marked change in protein expression of the aphids analysed by two dimensional electrophoresis. Sound frequencies above 2,000 Hz significantly increased susceptibility of the aphids against imidacloprid. This study clearly suggest that there is a stress sound, which can be sensed by M. persicae and induces its physiological alteration.
Antifungal Activity of Bacterial Strains isolated from Tidal Mudflat and Salted Seafood (traditional Jeotgal) Against Six Major Plant Pathogens
Kim, Tack-Soo ; Lee, Ga-Hyung ; Kim, Gyun-Jang ; Lee, Se-Won ; Park, Kyung-Seok ; Park, Jin-Woo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 421~426
Many bacterial strains inhabit strong saline condition, such as tidal mudflat and salted seafoods, were identified and reported for the proposed protease activities and salt resistance; however antifungal activities against plant fungal pathogen have not well been studied until now. In this study, primary screening was performed for the isolation of promising strains against major plant pathogens like Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici, Botrytis cineria, Collectotrichum acutatum and Pythium ultimum. Totally 423 bacterial strain were isolated from laboratory media which was based on different morphological characteristics and all the strains were dual cultured against major fungal pathogens on PDA, finally 40 strains were selected as antifungal bacterial strain and identified by fatty acid phylogenic difference analysis from MIDI shorlock gas chromatography system. As a result, antifungal strains from tidal mudflat were 10 species of 6 genus. Paenibacillus macerans was dominant species; 5 strains among the 17 isolates from tidal mudflat. Antifungal strains from salted seafoods were 7 species of 3 genus and Bacillus atrophaeus was dominant species; 12 strains among the 23 isolates from salted fishes.
Fungicide Resistance of Fusarium fujikuroi Isolates Isolated In Korea
Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Kim, So-Yeon ; Choi, Hyo-Won ; Lee, Myeong-Ji ; Ra, Dong-Soo ; Kim, In-Seon ; Park, Jin-Woo ; Lee, Se-Weon ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 427~432
Rice bakanae disease caused by Fusarium fujikuroi is one of the most serious rice diseases in Korea. From 2006 to 2009, 118 F. fujikuroi isolates were collected from various regions of rice fields in Korea. Resistance assay of 118 F. fujikuroi isolates to prochloraz, tebuconazole, and benomyl, were performed using agar dilution method. To investigate inhibitory effects of the fungicides, minimum inhibitory concentration of mycelial growth (MIC) and effective concentration inhibiting mycelial growth by 50% (
) for 118 isolates were calculated using Sigmaplot 8.02 (Antro, SPSS UK, Ltd). Based on the means of
values, baseline resistance values were determined as
for tebuconazole and
for benomyl. Number of resistant isolates to each fungicide was 17, 19 and 43 for prochloraz, tebuconazole and benomyl, respectively. Furthermore, 4 isolates showed the double resistance to both prochloraz and tebuconazole, 6 isolates to prochloraz and benomyl, and 11 isolates to tebuconazole and benomyl. Isolates CF366 and LF335 isolated from Gyeongbuk province were resistant to the three fungicides tested, prochloraz, tebuconazole and benomyl.
Repellent Effect of Wild Mint Oil Against Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
Jeong, Jin-Won ; Moon, Sang-Rae ; Cho, Sun-Ran ; Shin, Yun-Ho ; Kim, Gil-Hah ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 433~439
This study was performed to investigate repellent effect of plant essential oils against Bemisia tabaci adult. Among the 20 tested oils, wild mint oil repelled B. tabaci adult significantly (>90%) at a dose of
, but the other oils did not. In dose responses (2, 1, 0.5,
) to B. tabaci adult, wild mint oil showed repellent response (77.8~65.7%) significantly with dose-dependent manner. Wild mint oil analyzed by GC/MS revealed that the major components of wild mint oil were menthol (56.5%), menthone (29.0%) and menthyl acetate (14.5%), and the active components responsible for the effective repellency proved to be menthol (77.8%) and menthone (75.8%) when treated the proportion found in original oil. However, menthyl acetate did not show significant repellency. Combined constituents of wild mint oil were showed synergistic effect.
Chemical Control Effect Against Spot Clothing Wax Cicada, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) Nymphs and Adults
Kim, Sun-Kook ; Lee, Gi-Yeul ; Shin, Yon-Ho ; Kim, Gil-Bah ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 440~445
This study was carried out to investigate the toxicities of five registered insecticides to the Lycorma delicatula nymphs and adults. Insecticidal activities were evaluated by testing systemic and residual effects in the laboratory, and control efficacy in the vineyard. For the 3rd nymphal instars and adults, etofenprox+diazinon, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, dinotefuran and imidacloprid showed perfect insecticidal activity. The systemic effects of dinotefuran and etofenprox+diazinon on grape roots at half concentration were showed the adult mortality of 82.2% and 84.4%, respectively. Chlorpyrifos at recommended concentration was showed mortality of 86.0%. The leaf systemic effects at recommended and half concentrations of all insecticides except dinotefuran were lower than 65% but the mortality at double concentration of chlorpyrifos, dinotefuran, etofenprox were more than 82%. The residual effect between etofenprox+diazinon and dinotefuran at recommended and double concentrations were 100% at 14 days after treatment, the other insecticides have low efficacy. All the four insecticides showed 87% control value on nymphs in the field test and adults appeared more than 96% control value st and adinotefuran, etofenprox+diazinon, however, the other insecticides decreased to 59.1 % and 61.2%. Therefore, dinotefuran and etofenprox+diazinon showing high systemic effects to roots and long residual effects to leafs have high control efficacies.
-Endotoxin Protein Produced from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki KB099 Isolate Showing High Bioactivity against Spodoptera litura
Jung, Sun-Young ; Seo, Mi-Ja ; Youn, Young-Nam ; Yu, Yong-Man ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 446~455
The characteristics of parasporal inclusion body from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki KB099 isolate which is high bioactive to the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura, were examined. Parasporal inclusion of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki KB099 isolate showed only 1 band at 130 kDa compared with B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-l isolate producing 2 protein bands at 130 kDa and 60 kDa from by SDS-PAGE analysis without any enzyme treatment. Also, we confirmed that gut extract of sensitive S. litura KB099 isolate had digested only 60 kDa
-endotoxin protein. When the digestive enzyme of sensitive insect responsible for parasporal inclusion from KB099 and HD-l isolate was treated to each of them, protein band 60 KDa of KB099 was maintained up to 12 hours but all bands of HD-l were disappeared within 6 hours. In KB099 isolate, 6 genes (Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, Cry1D and Cry1I) were identified by PCR analysis. Also,
mutant of KB099 isolate was investigated by phase- contrast microscope, SDS-PAGE and PCR.
Establishment of Baseline Sensitivity of Phytophthora capsici Causing Pepper Phytophthora Blight to Carboxylic Acid Amide Fungicides
Kim, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Joo-Hyung ; Lee, Kyeong-Hee ; Rho, Chang-Woo ; Kim, Heung-Tae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 456~462
Baseline sensitivity to benthiavalicarb, iprovalicarb and dimethomorph included into carboxylic acid amide (CAA) group was evaluated in 180 isolates of Phytophthora capsici over 4 years from 2005 to 2008.
(effective concentration inhibiting mycelial growth by 50%) value of benthiavalicarb ranged from
with a mean of
. The mean values of
of iprovalicarb and dimethomorph were 0.411 (0.197 - 0.556)
and 0.271 (0.101 - 0.798)
, respectively. Although there was no increasing tendency in
of benthiavalicarb and iprovalicarb during 4 years,
of dimethomorph was increased gradually by laps of time. There was no cross-resistance between each fungicide used in this study and metalaxyl. Among fungicides included into CAA group, there was a positive correlation between benthiavalicarb and iprovalicarb, and between dimethomorp and mandipropamid.
Control Efficacy of Carboxylic Acid Amide Fungicides against Pepper Phytophthora Blight Causing Phytophthora capsici
Shin, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Jooh-Young ; Kim, Hyeong-Jo ; Choi, Young-Ki ; Kim, A-Hyeong ; Lee, Kyeong-Hee ; Rho, Chang-Woo ; Kim, Heung-Tae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 463~472
It was conducted to investigate the control efficacy of carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides, such as benthiavalicarb, iprovalicarb, dimethomorph and mandipropamid, against pepper Phytophthora blight caused by P. capsid in the laboratory and the field. The fungicides inhibited mycelial growth and direct sporangium germination of P. capsid strongly, while there was no activity of all fungicides against zoospore release from sporangium. In greenhouse test, they showed the good protective and curative effect against pepper Phytophthora blight. Benthiavalicarb applied at
7 days before inoculation prevented pepper Phytophthora blight by 100%, even though the zoosporangiurn suspension of P. capsid adjusted to not only
was inoculated by soil-drenching. Except for dimethomorph, the other fungicides showed an excellent control activity over 2 years from 2009 to 2010 in the field test. The control value of dimethomorph applied at
was low, 27.2% in 2009, but that of dimethomorph applied even at
was high, 89.5% in 2010. All the fungicides showed good inhibitory effect on the mycelial growth and the direct germination of zoosporangiurn, and controlled pepper Phytophthora blight preventively and curatively, can be used to establish the spray system for control1ing the pepper disease.
Studies on the Soil Transmission of CGMMV and Its Control with Crop Rotation
Park, Jin-Woo ; Jang, Tae-Ho ; Song, Sung-Ho ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Ko, Sug-Ju ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 473~477
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is one of major plant viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops via soil or infected seeds. This study investigate ecology of infection of CGMMV in soil, and control tactics of this virus with soil hygiene and crop rotation. This virus was survival to 50% in soil without host plants for 17 months and had high vitality in debris of infected plant over 1 year. Infection rate of CGMMV was 1.0~3.6% in control soil and 12~36% in soil transplanted with wounded root of watermelon. It showed that wounded root may affect severity of soil infection. Rotation between rice and watermelon caused dramatical reduction from 76.8% in repeated cultivation to 7.3% of progeny infection by CGMMV. Therefore, it is suggested that crop rotation be effective for control of CGMMV.
Toxicity Assessment and Establishment Acceptable Daily Intake of Penthiopyrad
Jeong, Mi-Hye ; Hong, Soon-Sung ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Kim, Chan-Sub ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Hong, Moo-Ki ; Im, Moo-Hyeog ; Kim, Young-Bum ; Han, Bum-Seok ; Han, Jeung-Sul ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 478~489
Penthiopyrad is a fungicide agent in types of pyrazole which is showing the effect of prevention in fungal disease and powdery mildew. In order to register this new pesticide, reports of acute toxicity and chronic toxicity by animal study were examined to set acceptable daily intake to evaluate hazards of consumers. Acute toxicity was low in toxic, and it did not have the effect of acute dermal toxicity, acute eye irritation, or skin sensitization. As the result of the study in chronic toxicity, the common effect of chemical appeared in the liver and thyroid which was proven as a toxic effect. Two-generation reproduction toxicity, genotoxicity, and prenatal development toxicity were not proven. As the result of carcinogenic study, increase of thyiroid follicular adenoma in the rat and the frequency of liver hepatocellar adenoma in mice were also increased. However, it was decided that the threshold value on the effect in chemicals could be controlled through study liver enzyme induction. Therefore, the ADI for penthiopyrad is 0.081 mg/kg/ bw/day, based on the NOAEL of 8.10 mg/kg bw/day of twelve-months dogs study and applying an uncertainty factor of 100.
Toxicity Assessment and Establishment of Acceptable Daily Intake of Fungicide Isotianil
Jeong, Mi-Hye ; Hong, Soon-Sung ; Park, Kynng-Hun ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Hong, Moo-Ki ; Lim, Moo-Hyeog ; Kim, Young-Bum ; Han, Bum-Sook ; Han, Jeung-Sul ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 14, issue 4, 2010, Pages 490~498
Isotianil is a fungicide which has prevention effects against rice blast disease. In order to register this new pesticide, the series of toxicity data on animal testing were reviewed to evaluate its hazards to consumers and to determine its acceptable daily intake. Isotianil was almost excreted by urine and feces. It has low acute oral toxicity while has no skin toxicity and ocular irritation. Its skin sensitization was evaluated as slight. Genotoxicity of parent compound and metabolite was negligible. Chronic toxicity tests on rats and dogs showed changes of hematology, clinical biochemistry and liver weight. It had no reproductive and teratogenic effects. The estimation of Acceptable Daily Intake(ADI) is based on the lowest no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). The lowest NOAEL of 2.83 mg/kg bw/day was found in the twelve-months rats study. The NOAEL was based on increased liver weight and treatment-related effect on clinica chemistry finding at the nest higher dose level of 2.83 mg/kg bw/day. Therefore, it is considered appropriated to apply an uncertainty factor of 100 to the NOAEL 2.83 mg/kg bw/day from the rat study, resulting in an ADI of 0.028 mg/kg bw/day.