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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pesticide Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Pesticide Residues Monitoring of Medicinal Herbs in Seoul
Choi, Young-Hee ; Park, Sung-Kyu ; Kim, Ouk-Hee ; Seoung, Hyun-Jung ; Han, Sung-Hee ; Lee, Young-Ju ; Jeong, Hee-Jeong ; Kim, Yun-Hee ; Jo, Han-Bin ; Yu, In-Sil ; Han, Ki-Young ; Chae, Young-Zoo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 335~349
100 residual pesticides in 1,565 medicinal herbs being on sale in Seoul was analyzed by a simultaneous multiresidue method. The recovery ratio was 71.0~119.7%. The detection rate of pesticide residues was 5.3% and the rate of excess to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) was 0.9% of the total samples. The medicinal herbs which had the high detection rate of residual pesticides were Alismatis Rhizoma, Citri Unshii Pericarpium, Lycii Fructus and Zyzyphi Fructus. The medicinal herbs detected pesticide over Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) were Alismatis Rhizoma (4), Cnidii Rhizomain (4), Chrysanthemi Zawadski Herba (1), Citri Unshii Pericarpium (1), Lycii Radix Cortex (1), Menthae Herba (1), Schisandrae Fructus (1) and Taraxaci Herba (1). The residual pesticides which had the high detection frequency were cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, phenthoate, endosulfan, isoprothiolane, chlorothalonil and chlorfenapyr. Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of detected pesticides was compared to Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in order to assess risk. Ethoprophos detected in Cnidii Rhizomain showed the highest %ADI, 26.85. And pyraclofos and endosulfan in Cnidii Rhizomain, endosulfan and isoprothiolane in Alismatis Rhizoma and cyprodinil in Taraxaci Herba showed more than 1 %ADI, but others showed below 1 %ADI.
Acute Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Thyme White, Clove Bud, Cassia, Lavender, Lemon Eucalyptus Essential Oil of Plant Extracts
You, Are-Sun ; Choi, Young-Woong ; Jeong, Mi-Hye ; Hong, Soon-Seong ; Park, Yeon-Ki ; Jang, Hui-Sub ; Park, Jae-Yup ; Park, Kyung-Hun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 350~356
Environment-friendly agro-materials tend to be preferred to chemical insecticides recently. For this reason, many studies were conducted to develop environment-friendly insecticides containing natural materials. The purpose of this study was to assess ecotoxicity for 5 plant essential oils (Thyme white, Clove bud, Cassia, Lavender, Lemon eucalyptus) expected to prevent from pests and be used for agro-materials. Target species used to assess acute toxicity were aquatic invertebrate (Daphina magna), fish (Oryzias latipes), honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) and earthworm (Eisenia fetida). The EC50 value, toxicological responses of thyme white, clove bud, and cassia to Daphina magna were 2.5, 2.8, and
respectively and these values were moderately toxic according to standard of USEPA.
of Lavender and lemon eucalyptus were >
then they were considered as slightly toxicity. In case of acute toxicity test to fish,
of thyme white and cassia were 6.7 and
each other. The other plant essential oils indicated
. Acute contact and oral toxicity test to Honeybee were conducted. As a result,
of all essential oils were >
in both of tests. In case of acute toxicity test to earthworm,
of thyme white, clove bud, cassia, lavender, and lemon eucalyptus were 149, 230, 743, 234, and
, respectively. In conclusion, if the safety for earthworm is confirmed, 5 plant essential oils are expected to be use for environment-friendly insecticide materials with low risk against ecosystem and contribute to developing environment-friendly agro-materials.
Method Validation for Monitoring of Agricultural Worker Exposure to Insecticide Fenthion
Kim, Eun-Hye ; Lee, Hye-Ri ; Choi, Hoon ; Moon, Joon-Kwan ; Hong, Soon-Sung ; Jeong, Mi-Hye ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Lee, Hyo-Min ; An, Xue Hua ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 357~365
Exposure measurement of agricultural worker to pesticide is one of important part of health risk assessment of pesticide. Therefore exposure matrices, apparatus, instruments and methods must be validated in advance to field experiment. In this study, method validation with an organophosphorus insecticide fenthion was carried out for exposure monitoring of agricultural worker. LOD and LOQ were 0.01 and 0.05 ng, respectively. Calibration curve linearity (
> 0.999) and reproducibility (C.V. < 3%) were also excellent. Recovery at LOQ, 10LOQ and 100LOQ levels from gloves, socks, mask, patch, solid sorbent, glass fiber filter was 76~113% (C.V. < 3%). Trapping efficiency was 95~105% while no breakthrough was observed. Method validation for the exposure monitoring was established successfully through several experiments. Such method validation can be usually performed in laboratory and not much different for each pesticide so that, this techniques will be applied widely in research for pesticide exposure monitoring by combination with body surface area and respiration rates.
Residue of Fungicide Boscalid in Ginseng Treated by Different Spraying Methods
Hwang, Jeong-In ; Jeon, Young-Hwan ; Kim, Hyo-Young ; Kim, Ji-Hwan ; Ahn, Ji-Woon ; Kim, Ki-Su ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 366~373
This study was conducted to identify the residue patterns of fungicide boscalid in ginseng cultivated for 4 or 6 years treated by various spraying methods. The pesticide was sprayed separately on ginseng according to safe use guideline, and the field was divided into three groups and they were traditional, soil and vinyl mulching applications. The maximum residue amounts of boscalid were 0.76 mg/kg in traditional application group, 0.69 mg/kg in soil application group, 0.62 mg/kg in vinyl mulching application group in the whole part of 4 years old ginseng, respectively. These residue levels in ginseng exceeded the maximum residue limit established by Korea Food & Drug Administration, which is 0.3 mg/kg.
Mutagenicity Studies of the Herbicide Methiozolin
Koo, Suk-Jin ; Lee, Zong-Yun ; Park, Cheol-Beom ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 374~382
We investigated the mutagenicity of methiozolin, newly developed herbicide, in vitro reverse mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, chromosome aberration test using chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells and in vivo micronucleus test of mice. In the reverse mutation test, the methiozolin did not induce mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, Escherichia coli WP2uvrA with and without metabolic activation at
/plate. In the chromosome aberration test, the results showed no incidence of increased structural and numerical chromosome abberrations at any doses tested (80, 40,
/mL). In micronucleous test, the ratio of micronuclei was measured in polychromatic erythrocytes with treated methiozolin for ICR mice. No incidence of increased micronuclei were observed in polychromatic erythrocytes (1,500, 1,000, 500 mg/kg). Based on these results, we concluded that methiozolin has no mutagenic toxicity in vitro and in vivo systems.
Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of the Herbicide Methiozolin
Koo, Suk-Jin ; Kwon, Min ; Park, Cheol-Beom ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 383~388
We investigated methiozolin acute toxicity using with Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of acute oral toxicity using rats showed
value of over 2,000 mg/kg bw for methiozolin. The calculate acute dermal
value of methiozolin was over 4,000 mg/kg. The skin irritation test showed moderately irritation and weak response of eye irritation test was observed in this experimental condition. According to these results, We concluded that methiozolin was Category IV in GHS chemical classification for acute toxicity. Future, we need more chronic toxicity test for safety.
High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Phenothrin and Silafluofen Residues in Crops with Mass Spectrometric Confirmation
Lee, Young-Deuk ; Oh, Jae-Ho ; Jang, Sang-Won ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 389~400
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to determine residues of phenothrin and silafluofen, known as synthetic pyrethroids, in agricultural commodities. Insecticide residues were extracted with acetone from representative samples of four crops which comprised rice, apple, pepper and cabbage. The extract was purified serially by liquid-liquid partition and Florisil column chromatography. For rice and pepper samples, acetonitrile/n-hexane partition was additionally adopted to remove nonpolar interferences. Reversed phase HPLC using an octadecylsilyl column was successfully applied to separate two phenothrin isomers and silafluofen from sample co-extractives. Intact parent compounds were sensitively detected by ultraviolet absorption at 226 nm. Recovery experiment at the quantitation limit validated that the proposed method could apparently determine phenothrin and silafluofen residues at 0.02 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Mean recoveries of phenothrin and silafluofen from four crop samples fortified at three levels in triplicate were in the range of 82.4~109.8% and 83.7~109.8%, respectively. Relative standard deviations of the analytical method were all less than 10%, irrespective of crop types and spiking levels. A selected-ion monitoring (SIM) LC/mass spectrometry (MS) with electrospray ionization was provided to confirm the suspected residue of phenothrin, even though no sufficient ionization of silafluofen was obtained. Both phenothrin and silafluofen could be successfully confirmed by gas chromatography/MS SIM with electron impact at 70 eV. The proposed method is sensitive, repeatable and rapid enough to apply to officially routine inspection of agricultural products.
Analysis of 236 Pesticides in Apple for Validation of Multiresidue Method using QuEChERS Sample Preparation and PTV-GC/TOFMS Analysis
Ju, Ok-Jung ; Kwon, Hye-Young ; Park, Byeong-Jun ; Kim, Chan-Seob ; Jin, Yong-Duk ; Lee, Je-Bong ; Yun, Seo-Hee ; Son, Kyung-Ae ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Im, Geon-Jae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 401~416
The recent trend for pesticide residue analysis in food involves fast cleanup and use of mass spectrometry to achieve quantitative and qualitative analysis at the same time. Recently, the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) multi-reside method has received much attention as a fast extraction and cleanup method of pesticide residue analysis. Therefore, multi-residue analysis of 236 pesticides was tested with the QuEChERS method by concurrent use of PTV-GC/TOFMS (gas chromatography/ time-of-flight mass spectrometry with programmable temperature vaporizer). PTV condition was optimized and when the method was applied to apples, pesticide recovery rates (spiked at 400 ng/g) ranged from 80% to 120%, and RSD values were under 10% for most compounds. The results showed that the QuEChERS sample preparation and PTV-GC/TOFMS analysis can be applied to multi-residue analysis of pesticides in fruits and vegetables.
Multiresidue Analysis of 240 Pesticides in Apple and Lettuce by QuEChERS Sample Preparation and HPLC-MS/MS Analysis
Kwon, Hye-Young ; Kim, Chan-Sub ; Park, Byung-Jun ; Jin, Yong-Duk ; Son, Kyung-Ae ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Lee, Je-Bong ; Im, Geon-Jae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 417~433
The study tested QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) sample preparation and HPLC-MS/ MS analysis for measurement of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable. 240 kinds of pesticides spiked at three levels of 90, 45, 9 ng/g in lettuce and apple. For QuEChERS sample preparation, graphitized carbon black (GCB) was used for only lettuce in dispersive-SPE as absorbent. Matrix-matched standard calibration was used for quantitative analysis of HPLC-MS/MS. 218 pesticides (91%) in apple and 207 pesticides (86%) in lettuce showed recoveries in the range of 70~120% with
. The lowest calibrated level (LCL) were 4.5 ng/g for 192 pesticides, 9 ng/g for 42 pesticides, 45 ng/g for 3 pesticides and 3 pesticides were not detected at all concentration levels. The results showed that the QuEChERS sample preparation and HPLC-MS/MS analysis can be applied to multi-residue analysis of pesticides in vegetables and fruits.
Trend Analysis of Hazard Substances in/on Agricultural Products Reported by Press
Lee, Je-Bong ; Moon, Byeng-Chul ; Jin, Yong-Duk ; Kwon, Hye-Young ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Hong, Moo-Ki ; Kang, Kyu-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 434~440
In order to establish the guidance of management and safe use hazard substance, trend analysis of hazard substance in/on agricultural products reported by press for 5 years (2005-2009) was performed. Data for the analysis collected from the articles about hazard substances from web portals, newspapers and so on. The mostly detected harmful factors in/on agricultural products were pesticides residue and heavy metals by the reports by press for last 5 years. The number of detected pesticides was slightly increased from 14 to 34 through the passage of time but the number of cases reported by press was not increased. On the other hand, the number of accidents and reports related to heavy metals were highly increased from 3 to 13 and 42 to 112, respectively. 65 pesticides including chlorpyrifos were detected in domestic agricultural products for the 5 years. Frequently detected pesticides were chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, carbendazim, azoxystrobin, and procymidone. Pesticide residues were repeatedly detected on green vegetables such as a green perilla leaf, a lettuce, a leek, and spinach among crops.
Monitoring of Endocrine Disruptor-suspected Pesticide Residues in Greenhouse Soils and Evaluation of Their Leachability to Groundwater
Noh, Hyun-Ho ; Lee, Kwang-Hun ; Lee, Jae-Yun ; Park, Hyo-Kyung ; Lee, Eun-Young ; Hong, Su-Myung ; Park, Young-Soon ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 441~452
This study was carried out to survey the residual characteristics of endocrine disruptor (ED)-suspected pesticides in greenhouse soils and assess their leachabilites to groundwater. Greenhouse soils were collected from 40 sites of greenhouse in 2008 in Korea. Sixteen ED-suspected pesticides which had been using in Korea, such as alachlor, benomyl, carbaryl, cypermethrin, 2,4-D, dicofol, endosulfan, fenvalerate, malathion, mancozeb, metribuzin, metiram, methomyl, parathion, trifluralin, and vinclozolin, in the soils, were analyzed by chromatographic methods using GLC-ECD and HPLC-DAD/FLD. Limits of detection (LODs) of the test pesticides ranged from 0.0004 to 0.005 mg/kg. Recoveries of the target pesticides from soil ranged from 72.69 to 115.28%. Four pesticides including cypermethrin were detected in the range of from 0.001 to 2.019 mg/kg, representing that their detection rate from greenhouse soils was 37.5%. The highest detection rate was observed from endosulfan which was detected from 16 site soils of the total samples, indicating that endosulfan is persistent in soil because of its very low mobility and high adsorption characteristics in soil. Based on the groundwater ubiquity scores (GUSs) of the pesticides detected from greenhouse soils, most of them have little possibilities of groundwater contamination except the fungicide vinclozolin with some leaching potential because of high water solubility and very low soil adsorption property.
Characteristics of Pesticide Residues in Leafy Vegetables Collected from Wholesale and Traditional Markets in Cheongju
Noh, Hyun-Ho ; Lee, Kwang-Hun ; Lee, Jae-Yun ; Park, Hyo-Kyoung ; Park, So-Hyun ; Kim, Sun-Ho ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 453~462
This study was carried out to survey the residual characteristics of pesticides and assess their safety. Nineteen agricultural commodities, collected from wholesale and traditional markets in Cheongju. Nineteen agricultural commodities including perilla leaves were collected from the markets on October 29th, 2010. Total 240 pesticides which can be analyzed by multiresidue analysis method by GLC and HPLC were monitored and the pesticides detected were confirmed by GC-MSD and LC-MS. Five pesticides, alachlor, bifenthrin, endosulfan, procymidone and triflumizole, were detected from five samples, such as welsh onion, leek and celery in case of wholesale market and perilla leaves and welsh onion in case of traditional market. Detection rate of 13.2% was obtained as a result of pesticide analysis but 2.6% of the pesticides detected exceeded their maximum residue limits. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) of the pesticides detected were less than 26% and 0.05% of their acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) respectively, representing that residue levels of the pesticides detected would be safe.
Residual Characteristic of Chlorpyrifos in Squash and Estimation of Its Residues Before Harvest
Park, Hyo-Kyoung ; Noh, Hyun-Ho ; Lee, Kwang-Hun ; Lee, Jae-Yun ; Park, Young-Soon ; Kang, Kyung-Won ; Lee, Eun-Young ; Yun, Sang-Soon ; Jin, Chung-Woo ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 463~470
This study was carried out to survey the residual characteristic of chlorpyrifos and estimate their residues in squash before harvest. The pesticide was sprayed onto the crop at the recommended and its double rates 10 days before the prearranged harvest and sampling was done at 0, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 10 days after spraying. The amounts of the chlorpyrifos residue in the crop was analyzed by chromatographic method. Limit of detection (LOD) of chlorpyrifos was 0.005 mg/kg and its recovery ranged from 95.21 to 102.69%. The initial concentration of chlorpyrifos sprayed with recommended dose exceeded its MRL of 0.1 mg/kg but its concentration was less than its MRL 10 days after application. However its concentration in case of the double dose was over its MRL both immediately and 10 days after application. Biological half-lives of chlorpyrifos sprayed onto squash was 2.5 and 2.9 days at the recommended and double doses, respectively. Ten days later, the residual concentration of chlorpyrifos in squash was decreased substantially. The concentration of chlorpyrifos was estimated in squash at the given day using its regression equations. The estimated concentration of chlorpyrifos in case of application with recommended dose was below its MRL at 10 days after application but its concentration in case of application with double dose was over its MRL at 10 days of the prearranged harvest. The rate of the estimated daily intake (EDI) of chlorpyrifos to its acceptable daily intake (ADI) was 282% right after application but it decreased to less than 18% at 10 days of the prearranged harvest.
Environmental-Friendly Control of the Ginseng Stem Fungus Gnat (Phytosciara procera, Diptera) in the Ginseng Field
Seo, Mi-Ja ; Shin, Hyo-Seob ; Gawk, Chang-Soon ; Jo, Shin-Hyuk ; Cho, Hye-Sun ; Shin, Jung-Sup ; Cho, Dae-Hui ; Youn, Young-Nam ; Yu, Yong-Man ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 471~478
The ginseng stem fungus gnat, Phytosciara procera, overwintered in old stems and roots of ginseng as a larvae from late September to early May in next year. In the late Spring they become pupa then emerged. Therefore, the first control period has to be set between late May and early June. It is a same period of elimination of ginseng flower stalks. Two or three times pest control might be needed per month for controlling adult of P. procera. Otherwise, the overwintered form as larva in old stem by removal of old stems of ginseng, the population of first generation of P. procera adults could be reduced. However, it seemed that the removal of old stems was not necessarily correlated with the population of P. procera adults in the next generation. Three kinds of environmental-friendly control agents that were mainly contained sophora extract, showed the highly insecticidal activities against larva of P. procera. Among them, one agent containing sophora extract and paraffin oil showed an ovicidal action as well as oviposition repellency.
Selection of Environmental-Friendly Control Agents for Controlling the Comstock Mealybug [Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Pseudococcidae, Hemiptera]
Seo, Mi-Ja ; Shin, Hyo-Seob ; Jo, Shin-Hyuk ; Gawk, Chang-Soon ; Kwon, Hye-Ri ; Park, Min-Woo ; Kim, Sae-Hee ; Cho, Dae-Hui ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 479~484
The number of comstock mealybug, Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana) suddenly increased at ginseng fields in Yangpyeong, Gyeonggi-do from mid July to early August. By the late of September just before digging up the roots of ginseng, more than 8 individuals of the comstock mealybug per plant were occurred and evenly dispersed around the roots. Through the bioassay in the laboratory, six environmental friendly agricultural materials (for example, Nobug, Kkagsami, GB-1, GB-2, GB-3, GB-5) containing sophora extract or paraffin oil as main components were selected by the effective control agents for controlling the comstock mealybug. These selected agents showed a quite similar insecticidal activities to 2 insecticides such as clothianidin and thiamethoxam registered in control of ginseng insect pests. Also. in the ginseng field test, the agent containing sophora extract and paraffin oil, like 2 insecticides showed high control effects against the comstock mealybug.
Rice Plant Growth Promotion and Induced Systemic Resistance Against Rice strip tenuivirus by a Selected PGPR, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
Park, Jin-Woo ; Park, Kyung-Seok ; Lee, Key-Woon ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 485~489
In previous reports, the treatment of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain EXTN-1 showed a broad diseasecontrolling spectrum to the plant diseases caused by viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens as well as the promotion of plant growth. In mechanisms of EXTN-1, treatment of EXTN-1 increased oxidative burst in early stage and induced the expression of resistance genes, PR-1a, PDF1.2. Mechanism involved in induced systemic resistance by EXTN-1 was revealed as simultaneous activation of SA and JA or ethylene metabolic pathways. The purpose of this study was to determine whether B. amyloliquefaciens EXTN-1 has a similar effect on rice plant against Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV) under greenhouse conditions. When rice seeds were soaked in B. amyloliquefaciens strain EXTN-1, rice plants showed significant systemic resistance against RSV as well as promoted growth. In the case of plant growth, in 30-day old plants treated with B. amyloliquefaciens EXTN-1, the heights, weights, and lengths of roots increased by 12.6%, 9.8%, and 16.0%, respectively confirming the effects of PGPR. When the induced systemic resistance to RSV was examined, in 20-day old plants were treated with B. amyloliquefaciens EXTN-1, the heights, weights, and lengths of roots increased by 8.4%, 10.9%, and 4.8%, respectively compared to the control. Induced systemic resistance was more prominent in susceptible cultivars - Chucheong and Ilpum compared to the resistant cultivar, Nakdong.
Studies on the Some Aspect of Small Brown Planthopper Transmission of Rice stripe tenuivirus
Park, Jin-Woo ; Lee, Min-Ho ; Lee, Key-Woon ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 490~494
Rice stripe virus (RSV) has been the main viral disease of rice plant in western coastal region of Korea since 2000. The control of the vector insect, small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus), is the most effective management method of the persistently-transmitted viral disease. Thus, ecological study between RSV and the vector insect was needed and investigated in order to make effective control plan, especially about study on the feeding and transmission of the virus by the vector insect. Each larval stage of vector insect differed in vector competence; larvae over 4th stage were shown as higher transmission after feeding on RSV-infected rice plant. These 4th and 5th larvae had higher transmission rates, 69.2% and 67.9% respectively, than 44.8% of the adult stage. The vector competence, however, was changed according to temperature; the highest transmission rate was 93.3% on
in comparison to 70.6% on
and 43.8% on
Antifungal and Proteolytic Activity and Auxin Formation of Bacterial Strains Isolated from Highland Forest Soils of Halla Mountain
Kim, Tack-Soo ; Ko, Min-Jung ; Lee, Se-Weon ; Han, Ji-Hee ; Park, Kyung-Seok ; Park, Jin-Woo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 495~501
Bacterial strains were isolated from forest soils of Halla mountain, Jeju island in Korea. The soil samples were collected at each altitude of 100m from 1,000 m above sea level. Total 398 strains were isolated and tested for their physiological characteristics of antagonistic and proteolytic activities, and auxin production. Among the isolates, 172 strains were selected as antifungal strains showing antagonistic activity against at least one of 8 plant fungal pathogens (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Collectotrichum acutatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). In addition 203 strains for proteolytic activity and 26 strains for auxin production were characterized for further study. Je28-4 (Rhodococcus sp.) were showed 80% of control value against tomato gray mold in vivo. Thus, it is suggested that soil bacteria isolated from forest soils of Halla mountain can be important sources of bioactive compounds for improving plant growth or promising biocontrol agents.
Quantitative Analysis of Residual 24 Organochlorine POPs in Sundried Salts
Choi, Geun-Hyoung ; Park, Mi-Ran ; Park, Jong-Min ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Kwon, Oh-Kyoung ; Park, Yun-Ki ; Kim, Jin-Hyo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 502~506
Most countries have the legislation and regulation for POPs control in food. In here, we studied the quantitative analysis of 24 organochlorine POPs (
-HCH 4, trans-chlrodane 5, 2,4'-DDE 6,
-endosulfan 7, cis-chlordane 8, 2,4'-DDD 9, endrin 10,
-endosulfan 11, 2,4'-DDT 12, endosulfan sulfate 13, HCB 14, aldrin 15, trans-nonachlor 16, 4,4'-DDE 17, dieldrin 18, 4,4'-DDD 19, cis-nonachlor 20, 4,4'-DDT 21, heptachlor 22, heptachlor epoxide 23 and mirex 24) with GC-ECD. The retention time of analytes were ranged between 19.18 min and 34.69 min, and their peak intervals were over 0.05 min at least. LOQs were ranged 0.003 ~ 0.033 ng/g, and their recovery rates were showed 60.9 ~ 120.8% on the 0.1 ng/g concentration of 24 organochlorine POPs. All tested 30 sundried salts were collected on Korean retailed market, and any analyte was not found in all the samples on LOQ levels.
Methodology for Quantitative Monitoring of Agricultural Worker Exposure to Pesticides
Kim, Eun-Hye ; Lee, Hye-Ri ; Choi, Hoon ; Moon, Joon-Kwan ; Hong, Soon-Sung ; Jeong, Mi-Hye ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Lee, Hyo-Min ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 507~528
Agricultural workers who mix/loads and spray pesticide in fields expose to pesticide through dermal and inhalation routes. In such situation, exposed amount should be measured quantitatively for reasonable risk assessment. Patch, gloves, socks and mask will be good materials for monitoring for dermal exposure while personal air monitor equipped with solid adsorbent and air pump will be a tool for inhalation exposure. For extrapolation of absorbed amount in dermal exposure matrices and of trapped amount in solid sorbent to total deraml or inhalation exposure, Korean standard body surface area and respiration rate were proposed in substitution of EPA data. Important exposure factors such as clothing and skin penetration ratio of dermal and inhalation exposure were suggested based on Spraying time for exposure monitoring must be long enough that the amount of pesticide to get absorbed/trapped in exposure matrices results in reasonable analytical value. In domestic case for the both of speed sprayer and power spray machine, spraying time of 20~40 minutes (0.1~0.2 ha) will be reasonable per single replicate before extrapolating to 4 hours a day with triplicates experiment.
Quality Control System for Analytical Chemistry Laboratory of Pesticide Products
Chang, Hee-Ra ; Lee, Joon-Yeob ; Lee, Young-Ju ; Kang, Hye-Rim ; Kim, Chan-Sub ; Kim, Kyun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 529~544
Many international organizations, such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Collaborative International Pesticide Analytical Council (CIPAC), have published a guide to quality control requirements, proficiency testing and method validation for pesticide formulation. In general, proficiency testing is to determine the performance of individual laboratories from the comparison of test results and to monitor a laboratory's performance abilities. One of quality assurance (QA) scheme would be include the validation of analytical method that implies a performance characteristics, specificity, selectivity, linearity and so on. According to many international organizations, the quantification methods of active substance in formulated pesticide products are required to be reproducible, accurate and precise. This study was conducted to compare the international guidelines for the quality control, proficiency testing and method validation of analytical laboratories and to propose a general guidance for the establishment of quality control system in the analytical chemistry laboratories of pesticide formulation in domestic.
Severe Outbreak of Rice Stripe Virus and Its Occurring Factors
Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Lee, Gwan-Seok ; Kim, Chang-Seok ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Lee, Soo-Heon ; Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Kwag, Hae-Ryun ; Nam, Mun ; Kim, Jeong-Sun ; Noh, Tae-Hwan ; Kang, Mi-Hyung ; Cho, Jeom-Deog ; Kim, Jin-Young ; Kang, Hyo-Jung ; Han, Jong-Woo ; Kim, Byung-Ryun ; Jeong, Sung-Soo ; Kim, Ju-Hee ; Kuo, Sug-Ju ; Lee, Jung-Hwan ; Kim, Tae-Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 15, issue 4, 2011, Pages 545~572
The genetic diagnosis methods by RT-PCR and Virion capture (VC)/RT-PCR against Rice stripe virus (RSV) were developed. Three diagnosis methods of seedling test, ELISA and RT-PCR were compared in virus detection sensitivity (VDS) for RSV. The VDS of ELISA for RSV viruliferous small brown plant hopper (SBPH) was higher with 40.5% than that of seedling test. The VDS of RT-PCR was higher with 21% than that of ELISA. The VDS of ELISA and VC/RT-PCR was same with 9.2% in average on the SBPH collected from fields at the areas of Gimpo, Pyungtaeg and Sihueng, Gyeonggi province in 2009. The specific primers of RSV for SBPH and rice plant were developed for the diagnosis by Real time PCR. The RQ value of Real time PCR for the viruliferous and non viruliferous SBPH was 1 for 50 heads of non viruliferous SBPH, 96.5 for 50 heads of viruliferous SBPH, 23.1 for 10 heads of viruliferous SBPH + 40 heads of non viruliferous SBPH, and 75.6 for 30 heads of viruliferous SBPH + 20 heads of non viruliferous SBPH. The RQ value was increased positively by the ratio of viruliferous SBPH. Full sequences of 4 genomes of RSV RNA1, RNA2, RNA3 and RNA4 were analysed for the 13 RSV isolates from rice plants collected from different areas. Genetic relationships among the RSV isolates of Korea, Japan and China were classified as China + Korea, and China + Korea + Japan by phylogenetic analysis for RSV RNA1 and RNA2. In case of RNA3 involved in pathogenicity, genetic relationship of RSV among the three countries was grouped into 3 as China, China + Korea, and Korea + Japan. According to the genetic relationships in RSV RNA4, RSV isolates were grouped into 4 as China, Korea, China + Korea + Japan, and Korea + Japan. Viruliferous insect rate (VIR) of RSV in average increased in each year from 2008 to 2010, and the rates were 4.3%, 6.1%, and 7.2%, respectively, at the 28 major rice production areas in 7 provinces including Gyeonggido. The highest VIR in each year was 11.3% of Gyeonggido in 2008, 20.1% of Jellanamdo in 2009 and 14.2% of Chungcheongbukdo in 2010. The highest VIR depending upon the investigated areas was 22.1% at Buan of Jellabukdo in 2008, 36% at Wando and Jindo of Jellanamdo in 2009, and 30.0% at Boeun of Chungcheongbukdo in 2010. Average population density (APD) of overwintered SBPH was 13.1 heads in 2008, 13.9 heads in 2009 and 5.6 heads in 2010. The highest APD was 39.1 and 60.4 heads at Buan of Jellabukdo in 2008 and 2009, respectively, and 14.0 heads at Pyungtaeg of Gyeonggido. The acreage of RSV occurred fields was 869 ha in the western and southern parts, mainly at Jindo and Wando areas, of Jellanamdo in 2008. In 2009, RSV occurred in the acreage of 21,541 ha covered whole country, especially, partial and whole plant death were occurred with infection rate of 55.2% at 3,025 plots in 53 Li, 39 Eup/Myun, 19 Si/Gun of Gyeonggido, Incheonsi, Chungcheongnamdo, Jeollabukdo and Jeollanamdo. Seasonal development of overwintered SBPH was investigated at Buan, Jeollabukdo, and Jindo, Jeollanamdo for 3 years from 2008. Most SBPH developed to the 3rd and 4th instar on the periods of May 20 to June 10, and they developed to the adult stage for the 1st generation on Mid and Late June. In 2009, all SBPH trapped by sky net trap were adult on May 31 to June 1 at Mid-western aeas of Taean, Seosan and Buan, and South-western areas of Sinan and Jindo. The population density of adult SBPH was 963 heads at Taean, 919 at Seocheon and 819 at Sinan area. The origin of these higher population of adult SBPH were verified from the population of non-overwintered SBPH but immigrant SBPH. From Mid May to Mid June in 2010, adult SBPH could not be counted as immigrant insects by sky net trap. The variation of RSV VIR was high with 2.1% to 9.5% for immigrant adult SBPH trapped by sky net trap at Hongsung of Chungcheongbukdo, Buan of Jeollabukdo and so forth in 2009. The highest VIR for the immigrant adult SBPH was 9.5% at Boryung of Chungcheongnamdo, followed by 7.9% at Hongsung of Chungcheongnamdo, 6.5% at Younggwang of Jeollanamdo, and 6.4% at Taean of Cheongcheongnamdo. The infection rate of RSV on rice plants induced by the immigrant adult SBPH cultivated near sky net trap after about 10 days from immigration on June 12 in 2009 was 84.6% at Taean, 65.4% at Buan and 92.9% at Jindo, and 81% in average through genetic diagnosis of RT-PCR. Barley known as a overwintering host plant of RSV had very low infection rate of 0.2% from 530 specimens collected at 10 areas covering whole country including Pyungtaeg of Gyeonggido. Twenty nine plant species were newly recorded as natural hosts of RSV. In winter annual plant species, 11 plants including Vulpia myuros showed RSV infection rate of 24.9%. The plant species in summer annual ecotype were 13 including Digitaria ciliaris with 44.9%, Echinochloa crusgalli var. echinata with 95.2% and Setaria faberi with 65.5% in infection rate of RSV. Five perennial plants including Miscanths sacchariflorus with infection rate of 33.3% were recorded as hosts of RSV. Rice cultivars, 8 susceptible cultivars including Donggin1 and 17 resistant ones including Samgwang, were screened in field conditions at 3 different areas of Buan, Iksan and Ginje in 2009. All the susceptible cultivars were showed typical symptom of mosaic and wilt. In 17 genetic resistant cultivar, 12 cultivars were susceptible, however, 5 cultivars were field-resistant plus genetic resistant to RSV as non symptom expression. When RSV was artificially inoculated at seedling stage to 4 cultivars known as genetic resistant and 3 cultivars known as genetic susceptible, the symptom expression in resistant cultivars was lower as 19.3% in average than that of 53.3% in susceptible ones. In comparison of symptom expression rate and viral infection rate using resistant Nampyung and susceptible Heugnam cultivars by artificial inoculation of RSV at seedling stage, the symptom expression of Heugnam was higher as 28% than 12% of Nampyung. However, virion infection of resistant Nampyung cultivar was higher as 12% reversely than 85% of susceptible Heugnam. Yield loss of rice was investigated by the artificial inoculation of RSV at the seedling stage of resistant cultivars of Nampyung and Onnuri, and susceptible cultivars of Donggin1 and Ungwang for 3 years from 2008. The average yield per plant was 7.8 g, 8.5 g and 13.8 g on rice plants inoculated at seedling stage, tillering stage and maximum tillering stage, respectively. The yield loss rate was increased by earlier infection of RSV with 51% at seedling stage, 46% at tillering stage and 13% at maximum tillering stage. In resistant rice cultivars, there was no statistically significant relation between infection time and yield loss. In natural fields on susceptible rice cultivar of Ungwang at Taean and Jindo areas in 2009, the yield loss rate was increased with same tendency to the infection hill rate having the corelation coefficient of 0.94 when the viral infection was over 23.4%.