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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pesticide Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
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Isolation and Identification Antifungal Compounds from Vitex trifolia L.
Park, Young-Sik ; Hwang, Joo-Tae ; Kim, Young-Shin ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Lim, Chi-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 267~272
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.267
Vitex trifolia L. is a full grown fruit of Vitex rotundifolia L. (Verbenaceae). It has been used for treating headache, dizziness, toothache and removal of fever as a traditional medicine in Korea. V. trifolia (500 g) were extracted three times with 80% aqueous MeOH at room temperature. The MeOH extract (38 g) was successively partitioned with n-hexane, EtOAc, n-BuOH and
. Both n-hexane and EtOAc fractions showed more than 80% antifungal activity in vivo against several plant pathogens at 2000 ppm. Successive repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, preparative TLC, and preparative HPLC of these fractions led to isolation of three compounds. Using mainly mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnatic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, their chemical structures were determined as agnuside(1), chrysosplenol B(2), and artemetin(3). Compound 2 was isolated for the first time from V. trifolia. Study on in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of the isolated compounds is in progress.
Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Rice Straw for Livestock Feed
Gil, Geun-Hwan ; Kim, Jin-Bae ; Kim, Chan-Sub ; Son, Gyeong-Ae ; Gwon, Hye-Yeong ; Park, Jea-Eup ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 273~281
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.273
This study was conducted for the establishment of the analytical method of pesticide residues in rice straw for 9 pesticides; etofenprox, tricyclazole, diazinon, edifenphos, propiconazole, carbaryl, carbofuran, 3-hydroxy carbofuran and 3-keto carbofuran and for the monitoring of these pesticides in rice straw for livestock feed in Korea. These pesticides were classified into 4 groups according to analytical instrument condition. Group 1 (HPLC-UVD1) included tricyclazole and etofenprox while group 2 (HPLC-UVD2) included propiconazole and edifenphos. Group 3 (HPLC-FLD) included carbaryl, carbofuran, 3-hydroxy carbofuran and 3-keto carbofuran. Group 4 (GC-NPD) included Diazinon. The dried rice straw samples were extracted with acetone and purified by liquid-liquid partition and solid phase extraction (SPE): Combination of Florisil SPE and amino-propyl SPE was used for group 1 and group 2, amino-propyl SPE for group 3, and Florisil SPE was for group 4. Recovery was in the ranged 70~110% and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) were lower than the half of maximum residue limits. Therefore this method was proved to be efficient for monitoring of these pesticides residue in rice straw. A total of 18 rice straw samples from 6 provinces in Korea in 2010 were analyzed using established method and, only 3-keto carbofuran was detected in one sample at concentration of 0.04 mg/kg.
Effect of Pesticide Residues on Perilla Leaf by Nozzle Types of Knapsack Sprayers
Son, Kyeong-Ae ; Kang, Tae Kyeong ; Park, Byeong Jun ; Jin, Yong-Duk ; Gil, Geun-Hwan ; Kim, Chan Sub ; Kim, Jin Bae ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Lee, Key-Woon ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 282~287
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.282
This study was carried out to clarify the effects of the application of pesticide by different spray nozzle types on pesticide residues. The average droplet size and discharge rate were investigated when the manual compressed sprayer with two head disk type nozzle and the knapsack engine powered sprayer with two head fan shape nozzles were used. The fan type nozzles were classified into three types by the number of orifice in the nozzle. Three type nozzles tested were fan with one orifice, fan with two orifices and fan with three orifices. Fan (trade name : D-3) with 2.4 L/min. of the discharge rate and
of the average droplet size while maintaining constant pressure
MPa, and fan D-35 with 2.6 L/min. and
while maintaining constant pressure
MPa were appropriate. The orifice size of D-3 was 0.65 mm length
0.45 mm width and the orifice size of D-35 was 0.62 mm length
0.46 mm width. The residue levels of imidacloprid on perilla leaves among four applications by four different nozzles show significantly difference with 5% significance level. The residue levels
by fan or disk type is smaller than
by fan II or fan III. The residue levels of imidacloprid on perilla leaf were different depend on the spray nozzles type.
Dissipation Pattern of Amisulbrom in Cucumber under Greenhouse Condition for Establishing Pre-harvest Residue Limit
Hwang, Kyu-Won ; Kim, Tae Wan ; Yoo, Jae-Hong ; Park, Byeoung-Soo ; Moon, Joon-Kwan ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 288~293
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.288
The dissipation patterns of amisulbrom in cucumber under a greenhouse condition was investigated to establish biological half-life and pre-harvest residue limit (PHRL). Amisulbrom residue in/on cucumber on the day of application under standard application condition was
and decreased to
after 5 days after treatment, so that biological half-life calculated 3.6 day, while initial concentration of amisulbrom twice application 3 days interval under standard application condition was
and decreased to
after same period and the biological half-life calculated 2.4 day. PHRL was suggested by prediction curve calculated from the decay constant of amisulbrom at standard rate. For example,
at 5 days before harvest and
at 2 days before harvest were suggested.
Comparision of the Residue Property of Insecticide Bifenthrin and Chlorfenapyr in Green Onion and Scallion under Greenhouse Condition
Park, Jong-Woo ; Son, Kyeong-Ae ; Kim, Tae-Hwa ; Chae, Seok ; Sim, Jae-Ryoung ; Bae, Byung-Jin ; Lee, Hae-Kuen ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Kim, Jin-Bae ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 294~301
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.294
In order to use in the classification of minor crop for the mutual application of safe use guideline, it was compared a green onion with a scallion on the residue property of insecticide bifenthrin and chlorfenapyr. After pesticides were applied 2 times with 1 week interval in that day of harvest, 3 days, 7 days, 10 days and 14 days before harvest, vegetables were harvested, and the residue of pesticides was investigated. Base on the residue in that day of harvest, the deposit of spray solution in vegetables was calculated. The deposit of spray solution of bifenthrin was 123.0 mL/kg in a green onion, and 74 mL/kg in a scallion. In case of chlorfenapyr, it was calculated 126.5 mL/kg in a green onion, and 70.0 mL/kg in a scallion. When the amount of the deposit of both pesticides was compared a green onion with a scallion, it was higher in a green onion. On the other hand, it was estimated the predicted dissipation curve of pesticides in a green onion and a scallion during cultivation. The dissipation curve of bifenthrin was y
Residual Characteristics and Processing Factors of Environment Friendly Agricultural Material Rotenone in Chilli Pepper
Noh, Hyun Ho ; Lee, Jae Yun ; Park, So Hyun ; Jeong, Oh Seok ; Choi, Ji Hee ; Om, Ae Son ; Kyung, Kee Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 302~307
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.302
This study was carried out to elucidate residual characteristics of environment friendly agricultural material rotenone in chilli pepper and calculate processing factors by drying. The test material was sprayed twice onto chilli peppers at an interval of seven days and then the chilli peppers were harvested at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after final spray. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of rotenone in fresh and dried chilli peppers were 0.03 and 0.07 mg/kg, respectively. Recoveries of the test material in fresh and dried chilli peppers ranged from 89.52 to 97.86% and from 85.76 to 91.61%, respectively. As a results of residual material analysis, amounts of rotenone in fresh and dried chilli peppers ranged from 0.03 to 0.39 mg/kg and from 0.07 to 0.75 mg/kg, respectively, representing that the residual amounts of rotenone decreased time-coursely. Processing factors of rotenone in fresh chilli pepper by drying were found to be from 2.03 to 3.13, indicating that the residual concentration of rotenone in dried chilli pepper increased from two to three times by drying. However, the reduction factor of rotenone in fresh chilli pepper by drying ranged from 0.38 to 0.59, representing that some of rotenone in fresh chilli pepper disappeared during the drying process.
Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Commercial Environment Friendly Fruits and Fruiting Vegetables
Lee, Jae Yun ; Noh, Hyun Ho ; Park, So Hyun ; Lee, Kwang Hun ; Park, Hyo Kyoung ; Hong, Su Myeong ; Kim, Doo Ho ; Kyung, Kee Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 308~314
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.308
In order to monitor the residual pesticides in environment friendly agricultural commodities, fruits and fruiting vegetables. Twenty-five agricultural commodities were collected twice in May and August 2011 from nine environment friendly agricultural commodities-selling supermarkets and retail stores located in eight major cities in Korea. The number of each agricultural commodity collected, 555 samples in total, was 152 organic agricultural products, 202 pesticide-free agricultural products and 201 low-pesticide agricultural products. Pesticide residues in samples were analyzed by multiresidue method for 245 pesticides using a GC-ECD/NPD and an HPLC-DAD/FLD and the peaks suspected as pesticides were identified with a GC/MSD. As a result of pesticide residue analysis, three pesticides, bifenthrin, EPN and chlorpyrifos, were detected from four samples including apple, representing a detection rate of 0.72%. The residue levels of the four pesticide-detected samples were less than their maximum residue limits (MRLs) but one pesticide EPN detected from pear exceeded its legible criterion of one twentieth MRL. Estimated daily intakes of the pesticides detected from fruits and fruiting vegetables were less than 0.76% of their maximum permissible intake.
Fate of Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid aerially applied to the Pine Forest
Kim, Chan-Sub ; Kwon, Hye-Young ; Son, Kyeong-Ae ; Gil, Geun-Hwan ; Kim, Jin-Bae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 315~321
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.315
Fate of acetamiprid and imidacloprid aerially sprayed to control pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) were studied in a forest of Haman area. Acetamiprid 20% SL or imidacloprid 20% DC were diluted 100 times and applied two times as rate of 50 L/ha using an aircraft of Bell 206 L helicopter. Average acetamiprid deposits on forest floor ranged from 2 to 4% of standard aerial application rate. Following to the second application, acetamiprid deposits in the pine needle ranged 1.8~8.5 mg/kg and then gradually decreased to 1.2~2.1 mg/kg after 48 days. Deposits on the plant washed off by rainfall and reached to soil surface was ca. 17% of the application rate. All of acetamiprid on the ground resided in the forest floor covering the soil surface, where acetamiprid residues were decreased to a quarter at 48 days after the second application, but they were not detected in soil beneath it. And the only low level of acetamiprid residues, 0.0003 mg/L, was detected in the reservoir nearby the experimental forest on the day of aerial application. The acetamiprid detection was presumably due to spray drift. And average imidacloprid deposits on forest floor ranged from 1 to 3% of standard aerial application rate. Following to the second application, imidacloprid deposits in the pine needle analysed very low concentration of 0.1 mg/kg, but the amount of imidacloprid in wash-off in standard and two-fold treatment were ca. 8% and 4% of the application rate, respectively. Most of imidacloprid on the ground also resided in the forest floor, where imidacloprid residues were decreased to a twentieth at 111 days after the second application, and they were detected below 0.5% of the application rate in sol beneath it. And the low level of imidacloprid, 0.0003~0.0017 mg/L, were detected in the streams in the experimental forest. It was not to the level of contamination concerns.
Fate of Fenitrothion aerially applied to the Pine Forest
Kim, Dae-Gyun ; Kim, Chan-Sub ; Lee, Byung-Moo ; Choi, Ju-Hyeon ; Park, Jae-Eup ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 322~327
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.322
Fate of fenitrothion aerially sprayed to control pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) was studied in a forest of Haman area. And the monitoring of fenitrothion was conducted in a stream flowed from forest area of Gijang sprayed fenitrothion. Fenitrothion 50% EC was diluted 100 times and applied two or three times using helicopter in Haman and Gijang, respectively. Average fenitrothion deposits on forest floor ranged from 6% of standard aerial application rate. Following to the second application, fenitrothion deposits in the pine needle ranged from 0.6 to 0.9 mg/kg and then rapidly decreased to 0.01 mg/kg after 109 days. Deposits on the plant washed off by rainfall and reached to soil surface was 1.3% of the application rate. All of fenitrothion on the ground resided in the forest floor covering the soil surface, where fenitrothion residues were decreased to a tenth at 109 days after the second application, but they were not detected in sol beneath it. And the only low level of fenitrothion residues, 0.0009 mg/L, was detected in runnel of the experimental forest just after aerial application. The concentration of fenitrothion in effluent from Gijang area was less than detection limit (0.0001 mg/L) during the entire period.
The Residue Property of Fungicide Dimethomorph and Pyraclostrobin in Green Onion under Greenhouse Condition
Park, Jong-Woo ; Kim, Tae-Hwa ; Chae, Seok ; Sim, Jae-Ryoung ; Bae, Byung-Jin ; Lee, Hae-Kuen ; Son, Kyeong-Ae ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Kim, Jin-Bae ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 328~335
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.328
In order to use in the classification of minor crop for the mutual application of safe use guideline, it was investigated the residue property of fungicide dimethomorph and pyraclostrobin in green onion, a stem-crop. After pesticides were applied 2 times with 1 week interval in that day of harvest, 3 days, 7 days, 10 days and 14 days before harvest, a green onion was harvested. The residue of dimethomorph in a green onion was 26.31 and 39.08 mg/kg in that day of harvest, however, in according to elapse time, it was reduced to 6.86 and 9.34 mg/kg in 14 days before harvest. In case of pyraclostrobin, it was also reduced from 13.46 and 39.08 mg/kg to 3.57 and 5.21 mg/kg. Based on the residue in that day of harvest, the deposit of spray solution in a green onion was calculated. The deposit of spray solution of dimethomorph was 274.35~345.84 mL/kg, in case of pyraclostrobin, it was calculated 213.65~343.33 mL/kg. When the amount of the deposit of both pesticides was compared in a green onion, it was so similar. On the other hand, it was estimated the predicted dissipation curve of pesticides in the green onion during cultivation. The half-life of dimethomorph was 6.95~7.45 days, in case of pyraclostrobin, 7.15~7.45 days. When both pesticides were compared with the residue property, the deposit of spray solution and half-life of dissipation were so similar.
Comparison of Pesticide Residues in Perilla Leaf, Lettuce and Kale by Morphological Characteristics of Plant
Son, Kyeong-Ae ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Kim, Jin Bae ; Ihm, Yang Bin ; Ko, Hyeon Seok ; Kim, Jang Eok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 336~342
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.336
This study was carried out in order to compare the residue levels of pesticides among lettuce, kale and perilla leaf depending on the morphological characteristics of plant. Residue levels were investigated at the zero, second, fifth days after last application, 9 species of systemic or non-systemic pesticide were twice applied with 7 days interval by knapsack power sprayer with 2 heads fan shape nozzle. Ratios of leaf area to weight (
) were 58 of perilla leaf, 27 of lettuce and 23 of kale. Ratios of leaf area to weight of perilla leaf was 2.1 times higher than that of lettuce. Residue levels of perilla leaf were 1.3 to 2.3 times higher than those of lettuce at the day of spraying and 1.3 to 3.3 times higher at the fifth day. Therefore the differences of pesticide residues between perilla leaf and lettuce were affected by the ratio of leaf area to weight. Residue levels in lettuce were 2.4 to 7.3 times higher than those in kale at the day of spraying because the adhesive effect of pesticide particles on kale leaf was low.
Operator Exposure to Indoxacarb Wettable Powder and Water Dispersible Granule during Mixing/loading and Risk Assessment
Kim, Eunhye ; Hwang, Yon-Jin ; Kim, Suhee ; Lee, Hyeri ; Hong, Soonsung ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 343~349
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.343
Exposure and risk assessments were conducted to evaluate the relative safety of mixing/loading work of indoxacarb between wettable powder (WP) and water dispersible granule (WG). Hand exposure was monitored using cotton gloves while inhalation exposure was measured using personal air monitor. Method validation for the exposure monitoring was established successfully through several experiments. Limit of determination and limit of quantitation were 0.25 and 1 ng, respectively.
of calibration curve linearity was more than 0.9999 and reproducibility was 0.7-6. Recovery of indoxacarb from gloves, solid sorbent and glass fiber filter at three different levels was 81.5-108.8%. Trapping efficiency and breakthrough tests gave 981.5-108.8% of recovery. During mixing/loading procedure, hand exposure amount (75 percentile of 30 repetitions) for indoxacarb WP was 6 folds (459.8 mg/kg a.i) than that of WG (81.4 mg/kg a.i). This result indicates that WG has less drift than WP thanks to its granular type of formulation. Inhalation amount was
of spray mixture prepared and
of hand exposure. In inhalation case, no significant differences were observed between two formulations. Margin of safety was calculated for risk assessment using male Korean average body weight and acceptable operator exposure level as the important exposure factors. Mixing/loading procedures for both of the formulations were considered to be of least risk because calculated MOS values were more than 1.
Establishment of National Quality Control System for Analytical Laboratory of Pesticide Products by Proficiency Testing
Chang, Hee-Ra ; Park, Hyo-Kyung ; Lim, Youngjoo ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Chan Sub ; Kim, Kyun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 350~356
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.350
Performance of proficiency testing and the validation of analytical method was included a scheme of quality assurance in analytical chemistry laboratory to monitor a laboratory`s performance abilities and produce consistently reliable data. This study was assessed the applicability of proficiency testing scheme proposed for analytical laboratories of pesticide product in domestic. The validation of analytical methods, stability and homogeneity for formulated pesticide products (emulsifiable concentrate) of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron was confirmed for the proficiency testing. The z-score of 33 participation laboratories for emamectin benzoate were that the numbers of outlier were 2 laboratories (6.0%), z-score outside the range from -3 to 3 designated "unaccptable" were 2 laboratories and z-score in the ranges -2 to -3 and 2 to 3 designated "questionable" were 3 laboratories (9.0%). Three laboratories (9.0%) showed the z-score designated "questionable" for lufenuron. The additional proficiency testing for various product types will be needed to establish the scheme of quality control.
Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus Species Possessing Antifungal Activity against Ginseng Root Rot Pathogens
Kim, Byung-Yong ; Ahn, Jae-Hyung ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ; Song, Jaekyeong ; Kim, Sung-Il ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 357~363
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.357
Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is an economically important crop in Korea. While the consumption of the crop is gradually increasing, the yield is decreasing due to the injury of continuous cultivation or infection of soil-borne fungal pathogens such as Cylindrocarpon destructans, Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia nivalis. In order to find promising biocontrol agents, we have isolated 439 soil bacteria from ginseng cultivated soil and tested their antifungal activities against ginseng rot pathogens. Among them, 3 strains were finally selected and tested for the elucidation of their genetic and biochemical properties. They were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, all selected strains showed positive reaction for PCR detection targeting biosynthetic gene sequences of iturin A and surfactin. The results provided promising evidences that the bacterial strains isolated from ginseng cultivated soil can be novel biocontrol agents for ginseng cultivaion.
Effect of Microbial Agent on Control of Tomato Gray mold and Powdery mildew
Kim, Tack-Soo ; Ko, Min-Jung ; Lee, Se-Weon ; Han, Ji Hee ; Park, Kyungseok ; Park, Jin-Woo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 364~368
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.364
In vivo experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of microbial agents on tomato disease occurrences in a sustainable tomato farm in Gong-ju, Chung-nam during 2 years (2010-2011). Two kind of commercial microbial agents (EXTN-1 and Cillus suspension concentrate) and 2 kind of microbial agents (Bacillus subtilis strain `B4` and `B17`) developing by National academy of agricultural science were used in this study. In the 1st experimental year, the microbial agents were sprayed on leaves for 2-4 times at 1-2 weeks interval from 3 weeks after transplanting, and then disease occurrence were observed. As a result, the control efficacies of commercial EXTN-1 and Cillus suspension concentrate (SC) against gray mold were 59.6% and 50.5% in the treatment of 4 times foliar application at 1 week interval from 3 weeks after transplanting, and the control efficacy of commercial EXTN-1 SC against gray mold was 55.4% in the treatment of 3 times foliar application at 1 week interval from 4 weeks after transplanting. However, the control efficacies of EXTN-1 and Cillus SC were not enough for tomato crop protection against powdery mildew. In the 2nd experimental year, the microbial agents were treated following by the planned combination schedule of transplanting stage drip-watering, early stage root irrigation and early blooming stage foliar application. The control efficacies of EXTN-1 SC and B17 treatment following by transplanting stage drip-watering, 2 times root irrigation at 2 weeks interval root irrigation and 4 times foliar application at 1 weeks interval for gray mold management were 57.0 and 55.1%, respectively. In the case of same treatment for gray mold management mentioned at above, the control efficacies of EXTN-1 SC, B4 and B17 treatment for powdery mildew management were 50.5, 51.3 and 52.5%, respectively.
Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Loess-sulfur Complex in different pH
Paik, Min-Kyoung ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Lee, Je-Bong ; Oh, Jin-Ah ; Jeong, Mi-Hye ; Kim, Doo-Ho ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Choi, Eun-Ji ; Cho, Hyeon-Jo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 369~375
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.369
Loess-sulfur complex has been widely used as an environmental friendly organic materials for insecticides and fungicides in crop cultivation. However, there are high concerns about skin and eye irritation for farm workers due to the high alkaline properties of loess-sulfur complex. The acute toxicity evaluation was conducted with three samples of loess-sulfur complex in different pH (pH 9, 10, 11) in order to supply the evidentiary data for selecting the optimal product among the test materials. The results of acute oral toxicity using rats showed
of over 2,000 mg/kg b.w. for all three samples of loess-sulfur complex. The calculated acute dermal
of all tested materials was over 4,000 mg/kg b.w.. The Skin and eye irritation indicated that all tested materials have no irritation. Consequently, it was suggested that loess-sulfur complex be low in acute toxicity at all different pH values (pH 9~11).
Acute Ecotoxicity Evaluation of 3 Emulsifiable Concentrates Containing Garlic Extract, Zanthoxylum Extract, and Lemon Grass Oil Originated from Plant
You, Are-Sun ; Hong, Soon-Sung ; Jeong, Mihye ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Chang, Hee-Seop ; Lee, Je Bong ; Park, Jae-Yup ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 376~382
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.376
Environment-friendly agro-materials are are likely to be preferred to chemical insecticides recently. For this reason, many studies are conducted to develop environment-friendly insecticides containing natural materials. This study was also conducted so as to assess ecotoxicity for Emulsifiable concentrate (EC) containing 30% of garlic extract or two plant essential oils (Zanthoxylum, Lemongrass) expected to prevent from pests and be used for agro-materials. Target species used to assess acute toxicity were invertebrate (Daphina magna), fish (Oryzias latipes), honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) and earthworm (Eisenia fetida). The
values for of garlic extract 30% EC, Zanthoxylum oil 30% EC and lemongrass oil 30% EC to Daphina magna were 3.3, 10, and
, respectively. The category of garlic extract 30% EC was moderately toxic, while those of Zanthoxylum oil 30% EC and lemongrass oil 30% EC were slightly toxic according to standard of USEPA.
for both of Zanthoxylum oil 30% EC and lemongrass oil 30% EC were more than
then they were considered as slightly toxicity. In case of acute toxicity test to fish,
of garlic extract 30% EC was
. Zanthoxylum oil 30% EC and lemongrass oil 30% EC indicated
. Classification of acute toxicity to all test substances was in Korea criteria. Acute contact and oral toxicity test to Honeybee were conducted. As a result,
of all test substances were more than 100 a.i.
in the acute contact test while
of garlic extract 30% EC was 4.4 a.i.
of Zanthoxylum oil 30% EC and lemongrass oil 30% EC were more than 100 a.i.
. In case of acute toxicity test to earthworm,
of garlic extract 30% EC, Zanthoxylum oil 30% EC and lemongrass oil 30% EC were 267, 592, and
, respectively. In conclusion, if the safety for earthworm is confirmed, these substances are expected to be use for environment-friendly insecticide materials with low risk against ecosystem and contribute to developing environment-friendly agro-materials.
Effects of Streptomyces spp. on Growth of Plants and Antifungal Activity of Plant Pathogens
Han, Ji Hee ; Park, Kyung Seok ; Lee, Sang Yeob ; Kim, Jeong Jun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 383~386
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.383
Streptomyces spp. were isolated from rhizosphere in fallow lands. The Streptomyces spp. were identified as Streptomyces griseus (MSS181), Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus (MSS269), Streptomyces microflavus (MSS275), Streptomyces herbaricolor (MSS276) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Afterwards, cucumber, pepper, tobacco and tomato were drenched with the isolates at early growth stages and plant growth such as height and dry weight of plants was measured. By treatment of Streptomyce spp., plant height of cucumber was increased by 16-29% compared to the control, But there were no statistically significant differences in dry weight. When the same isolates were treated on chili-pepper, plant height and dry weight of chili-pepper were increased respectively by 10-19% and 19-25% compared to the control. The dry weight of tobacco and tomato were increased by 44-73% and 65-165%, respectively compared to the control. When antifungal activities of the isolates were tested against plant pathogenic fungi, Streptomyces microflavus (MSS275) effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
Control Effects of different Concentrations and Mixtures of the commercial Bacillus thuringiensis Products against Moths
Kim, Jeong Jun ; Zhu, Hong ; Han, Ji Hee ; Lee, Sangyeob ; Park, Hong-Hyun ; Lee, Sang Guei ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 387~390
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.387
Beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and tobacco cutworm (S. litura) are insect pests causing damage in many economically important vegetables in Korea. Bacillus thuringiensis, commonly known as Bt, has been available as an alternative insecticide for many years. Five commercial Bt products and the mixtures evaluate the control efficacy against three kinds of moths. These commercial Bt products had high control efficacy against
instar of diamondback moth, but didn`t show high mortality against beet armyworm and tobacco cutworm. Mixtures of Bt products didn`t have synergistic effects to the tested moths. Also application of twice and four times the recommended concentration didn`t improve the control effects against the tested three species of moths.
Hand Exposure of Operator to Chlorpyrifos during Mixing/loading and Risk Assessment
Kim, Eunhye ; Lee, Hyeri ; Jeong, Mihye ; Hong, Soonsung ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 391~394
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.391
Exposure and risk assessment during mixing/loading of chlorpyrifos emulsifiable concentrate (EC, 20%) were carried out. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.02 and 0.1 ng, respectively. Calibration curve linearity and reproducibility were excellent. Recovery of chlorpyrifos from gloves was 72.3-103.4%. During mixing/loading procedure, average hand exposure amount of chlorpyrifos was 3.9 mg which is corresponding to 0.004% of total active ingredient in the prepared spray mixture. In calculation of MOS (Margin of Safety) for risk assessment, male Korean average body weight and AOEL (Acceptable Operator Exposure Level) were used. Nine events of mixing/loading procedure were assumed per day. And 75 percentile of 30 repetition (4.6 mg) was used as for the worst case. MOS was more than 1 for total repetition, indicating mixing/loading work was of least risk. However, MOS of individual repetition was examined, two cases were less than 1 suggesting careful work habit is essential in mixing/loading procedure.
Survey of Pesticide use in Fruit Vegetables, Fruits, and Rice Cultivation Areas in Korea
Ha, Huen-Young ; Ra, Dong-Soo ; Shin, Wook-Cheol ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Park, Jae-Eup ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 395~400
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.395
In order to survey the actual pesticide usage, this survey was carried out on the growers of 3 plant groups, fruit vegetables, fruits and rice field, from 2009 to 2011. 390 farmers were selected from main production areas to investigate their pesticide application during the growing seasons. Input amounts per area of domestic fruit vegetables was surveyed as 11.6 kg a.i./ha for red pepper of field culture, 2.0 kg a.i./ha for red pepper of greenhouse, 2.3 kg a.i./ha for strawberry, 2.2 kg a.i./ha for watermelon, 4.8 kg a.i./ha for cucumber, 1.5 kg a.i./ha for oriental melon and 2.1 kg a.i./ha for tomato, respectively. Input amounts per area on fruits and on rice field were surveyed as 11.7 kg a.i./ha for apple, 12.5 kg a.i./ha for pear, 7.7 kg a.i./ha for peach, 4.5 kg a.i./ha for grape, 40.0 kg a.i./ha for citrus 5.4 kg a.i./ha for persimmon, and 3.46 kg a.i./ha for rice, respectively. As a result of the actual pesticide usage survey, The safety guideline for pesticide use is generally kept well by all farmers of fruits vegetables, fruits and rice.
Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in the Certificated Organic and Pesticide-free Cereals and Root Vegetables
Lee, Jae Yun ; Noh, Hyun Ho ; Park, So Hyun ; Jeong, Oh Seok ; Kim, Seo Hong ; Hong, Su Myeong ; Kim, Doo Ho ; Kyung, Kee Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 401~405
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.401
This study was carried out to investigate characteristics of the pesticide residues in environment friendly cereal grains and root vegetables. The samples, 747 the environment friendly agricultural products were collected from supermarkets and retail stores in eight major cities in May and August 2012. Residues of 245 pesticides in the samples collected were analyzed by multiresidue methods using GC and HPLC. No pesticide residues were detected in all the samples, representing the environment friendly cereal grains and root vegetables were produced according to the guideline for prohibition of use of pesticides during crop cultivation.
Operational Status and Improvement of OECD Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)
Hong, Soonsung ; Jeong, Mihye ; You, Are-Sun ; Park, Kyung-Hun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 406~408
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.406
Research Trend on Secure Tools to Manage Pesticide Resistance
Han, Sang-Bin ; Kim, Jong-Heon ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 16, issue 4, 2012, Pages 409~417
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.409