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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pesticide Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Aug 2013
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Removal of Pesticide Residues in Field-sprayed Leafy Vegetables by Different Washing Method
Kwon, Hyeyoung ; Kim, Taek-Kyum ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Kim, Chan-Sub ; Baeck, Minkyeong ; Kim, Doo-Ho ; Son, Kyung-Ae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 237~243
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.237
Pesticides were sprayed on perilla leaf and leafy lettuce in a greenhouse and the reduction rate of pesticide residues on each vegetable by washing were tested. The reduction rate of pesticide residues by washing for 30 sec~3 min on perilla leaf were 3~63% in tap water, 2~58% in salt water, 6~74% in green tea water, and 8~86% in detergent solution. The detergent solution only showed significant difference in reduction rates compared to the tab water washing. Considering reduction effects of the washing duration, it was showed that the reduction rates were a pattern of inclining as the duration of washing process increased, but there was no significant difference in the reduction rates except the reduction rates between washing in the detergent solution for 1 min and 3 min. Comparing washing in flowing tab water and in stagnant tab water with leafy lettuce, the reduction rate by one time washing were 8~68% in flowing tab water and 7~64% in stagnant tab water. The water and the time used in this experiment were 17.5 L, 2.9 min with flowing tab water and 4 L, 1 min with stagnant tab water. The reduction rate by 3 times washing in stagnant tab water were 16.5~76.6%, and the water and the time used were 12 L, 3 min. Therefore, when the water and the time used to wash vegetables were considered, washing two or three times in stagnant tab water could be more effective than washing one time in flowing tab water.
Processing Factor of Matrine in Chilli Pepper
Noh, Hyun Ho ; Lee, Jae Yun ; Kim, Jin Chan ; Jeong, Oh Seok ; Kim, Hye Sung ; Lee, Yong Hun ; Choi, Ji Hee ; Om, Ae Son ; Hong, Su Myeong ; Paik, Min Kyoung ; Kim, Doo Ho ; Kyung, Kee Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 244~248
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.244
This study was carried out to investigate the residual characteristics and calculate processing factor of the environment friendly material matrine in fresh chilli pepper by drying. Spray solution of matrine was prepared by dilution of the commercial product (2% active ingredient) with water at 1 : 1000 (v/v) ratio and sprayed onto chilli pepper plants at seven day intervals. Samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after last application and then dried using a hot air dry oven at
for 36 hours until the water content was reduced to 14%. Recoveries and storage period stabilities of matrine in the samples ranged from 106.6 to 119.1% and 106.6 to 113.1%, respectively. The residual concentrations of matrine in fresh chilli pepper and dried chilli peppers treated only once were found to be from less than 0.01 to 0.11 and from 0.03 to 0.25 mg/kg, respectively. In case of plants sprayed twice with matrine, the residual concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.12 and from 0.04 to 0.4 mg/kg, respectively. Processing factor of matrine in the fresh chilli pepper by drying was found to be from 1.5 to 3.3, indicating that the residual concentration of matrine in dried chilli pepper increased about two or three times by drying.
Human Exposure Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Cattle by-product Fed the Rice Straw
Gil, Geun-Hwan ; Paik, Min-Kyoung ; Kim, Jin-Bae ; Kim, Chan-Sub ; Son, Kyung-Ae ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Ihm, Yang-Bin ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 249~255
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.249
The objective of this study was to investigate the exposure assessment of Korean consumers to edifenphos and tricyclazole in cattle product fed the rice straw, using a probabilistic approach. We used tricyclazole and edifenphos residue data in rice straw reported by National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) for the 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2010 monitoring study and National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service (NAQS) for 2009 monitoring study. The mean exposures of edifenphos and tricyclazole for all of Korean consumers were 0.027% and 0.0006% of ADI and
percentile exposures were 0.034% and 0.0007% of ADI respectively. The group of 1~6 years old consumers has the lowest exposure of edifenphos and tricyclazole. The group of 19~29 years old consumers has the highest exposure of edifenphos and tricyclazole.
Runoff of Fluazinam Applied in Pepper Field-lysimeter
Kim, Chan-Sub ; Ihm, Yang-Bin ; Kwon, Hye-Young ; Im, Geon-Jae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 256~263
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.256
The field lysimeter study was undertaken to investigate influence of agricultural practice and topography on runoff and erosion loss of fluazinam from the sloped land grown pepper. The WP type formulation was applied on July in 2003~2005. The wash-off rates were from 1.4% to 8.4% of the applied fluazinam. The runoff losses of fluazinam from a series of pepper grown-lysimeter plots were 0.14~0.90% in the first year, 0.01~0.04% in the second year and 0.16~0.37% in the third year for the mulched contour ridge plots, 0.47~1.59% for the mulched up-down direction ridge plots and 0.07~1.05% for the no-mulched contour ridge plots as the control, and they increased with slope degree. Concentrations of fluazinam in runoff water ranged mostly to 10
at the first runoff event. Erosion rates from plots except the mulched up-down direction ridge plots was 0.00~0.21% for 10% and 20% slope-plots and 0.15~1.05% for 30% slope-plots with different slope degrees. Erosion rates from the mulched up-down direction ridge plots were 0.47~1.59% for 10% slope-plots and 0.75~1.05% for 20% slope-plots. Residues of fluazinam in soil at ten days after the application ranged from 0.007 mg
to 0.059 mg
except the soil under the mulch. After then the fluazinam residue in soil was dissipated at the rate of 20 days of half-life to below 0.01 mg
at 60 days after the application.
Analysis of Systemic Pesticide Imidacloprid and Its Metabolites in Pepper using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS
Seo, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Taek-Kyum ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Kwon, Hye-Yong ; Kwon, Ji-Hyung ; Son, Kyung-Ae ; Kim, Jang-Eok ; Kim, Doo-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 264~270
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.264
Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide which act as an insect neurotoxin. It used for control of pest such as aphids and other sucking insects in fruits and vegetables. Systemic pesticides move inside a crop following absorption by the plant, and these were converted into a variety of metabolites. Sometimes these metabolites make a problem about safety of agricultural products. So a simultaneous determination method of pesticide and its metabolites is needed, to monitor their presence in agricultural product and study on the fate of pesticide in a plant. This study's aim is to investigate simultaneous analysis method of imidacloprid and its metabolites, imidacloprid guanidine, imidacloprid olefin, imidacloprid urea, and 6-chloronicotinic acid in red pepper using QuEChERS method and LC-MS/MS systems. QuEChERS method was modifed beacuase
salts decreased the recoveries of 6-chloronicotinic acid in extraction procedure. Imidacloprid and its metabolites were extracted by acetonitrile with 1% glacial acetic acid and the extracts were purified through QuEChERS with primary secondary amine (PSA) and
and analyzed with LC-MS/MS in ESI positive mode. Standard calibration curves were made by matrix matched standards and their correlation coefficients were higher than 0.999. Recovery studies were carried out on spiked pepper blank sample at four concentration levels (0.01, 0.04 and 0.1, 0.4 mg/kg). The average recoveries of imidacloprid and its metabolites were in the range of 70~120% with < 20% RSD. This result indicated that the method using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS was suitable for the simultaneous determination of imidacloprid and its metabolites in red pepper.
Analysis of Recent Four Years Situation for Pesticide Residues in the GAP Certified Agricultural Products Analyzed by National Agricultural Cooperative Federation
Kim, Hyeong-Kook ; Choi, Dong-Seon ; Kim, Sung-Gu ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 271~282
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.271
This is the result of pesticide residue monitoring certified Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) by national agricultural cooperative federation (NACF) from 2009 to 2012. NACF evaluated simultaneously 283 pesticide multi-analysis method with GC (ECD, NPD) and HPLC. 6,590 agricultural products were analyzed in this period. As the results 1) detected 20.27% in 2009, 23.42% in 2010, 28.07% in 2011 and finally 31.75% in 2012, respectively. There was the total detected pesticide residue in the agricultural products. The violated ratio of agricultural products were 2.25% in 2009, 1.82% in 2010, 1.67% in 2011 and 3.47% in 2012, respectively. 13 pesticides went over the maximum residue limits (MRLs); carbendazim was the predominant violation. 40 pesticides; endosulfan was the predominant detected pesticide did not registered respectively crops in Korea. Most agricultural products that were under the MRLs met the safety standard, however agricultural products that contain neither registered nor set up MRL any level for example endosulfan in strawberry. Agricultural products that go over the MRLs with permitted pesticides, for example carbendazim in apple, are rejected. Because of these intricacies continual observation and evaluation will be need during GAP agricultural cultivation.
Long-term Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Arable Soils in Korea
Park, Byung-Jun ; Lee, Byeong-Moo ; Kim, Chan-Sub ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Park, Sang-Won ; Kwon, Hyeyoung ; Kim, Jin-Hyo ; Choi, Geun-Hyoung ; Lim, Sung-Jin ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 283~292
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.283
A series of monitoring studies were carried out to evaluate the residue level of pesticides in different native soils from 1999 to 2006. The nation-wide collection of soil samples from paddy, greenhouse, upland and orchard, were analyzed by GLC (ECD or NPD) and GC/MS. The results obtained are summarized as follows; out of 14 pesticides detected from paddy soils in 1999, the highest residue level was 0.25 mg
, and the frequency was 21.7% as butachlor, 20.0% as isoprothiolane, and 16.7% as iprobenfos. In 2003, 7 pesticides were detected and their frequencies were 0~36.0%; the frequency was 36.0% as isoprothiolane and 33.3% as oxadiazon. In the year 2000, 57 pesticides in the greenhouse soil samples were detected with the highest frequency of 65.3%. Of the pesticides detected, endosulfan and procymidone showed the frequency of 65.3 and 50.0%, respectively. In 2004, 19 pesticides were detected from greenhouse soils, and their frequencies and residue levels were decreased. Endosulfan and procymidone showed high detection frequencies and concentrations of 21.3 and 9.3% and 0.76 and 0.31 mg
, respectively. In 2001, a total of 25 pesticides were detected through monitoring in 170 upland soils and the highest residue level was 2.24 mg
. The detection frequencies showed the range of 0~53.5%. Especially, endosulfan showed the highest frequency of 53.5%. Residue levels and frequencies of pesticide in the year 2005 were almost the same compared with that of the year 2001. As a result of monitoring in 150 orchard soils in 2002, 26 pesticides were detected and the highest residue level was 1.43 mg
. Of them, the frequency of endosulfan showed the highest as 45.3%. In 2006, 20 pesticides were detected in orchard soils. The frequency of total endosulfan was the highest as 5.3% but was lower than that of the year 2002.
The Extrapolations to Reduce the Need for Pesticide Residues Trials on Continuous Harvesting Leafy Vegetables
Son, Kyeong-Ae ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Kim, Chan Sub ; Gil, Geun-Hwan ; Jin, Yong-Duk ; Kim, Jinba ; Ihm, Yang Bin ; Ko, Hyeon Seok ; Kim, Jang Eok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 293~301
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.293
This study was carried out to investigate the pesticide residue pattern among different leafy vegetables applied with foliar spraying under greenhouse and to check extrapolating from some residue trial data to other minor crops. Leafy vegetables used in this study were: Mustard greens (Brassica juncea L.), Kale (Brassica oleracea L.), Dacheongchae (a kind of pak-choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis L.)), Leaf broccoli (Brassica oleracea var alboglabra), Perilla leaf (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. Frutescens), Leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris) and Red leaf chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi). These are cultivated all year under indoor or outdoor and cut the leaf from plant continuously during harvest time. The amounts of pesticide deposit in/on the continuous harvesting leafy vegetables were affected by the ratios of leaf area to weight. Ratio of perilla leaf was the largest among crops as 58
. The residue levels of 7 pesticides in/on perilla leaf were the highest than those of other crops through the statistical analysis from zero day to fifth day after last application. The representative crop in 8 crops was perilla leaf selected based on the amounts of daily consumption and the high residues. This study suggest that the continuous harvesting leafy greens should be separated from the one time harvesting leafy vegetables for the pesticide recommendations because of different harvesting habits and pre-harvest intervals.
Risk Assessment of the Exposure to Rotenone in Lettuce and Cucumber
Choi, Ji Hee ; Woo, Hye-Im ; Jeong, Ye-Ji ; Noh, Hyun Ho ; Kyung, Kee Sung ; Kim, Doo-Ho ; Paik, Min-Kyung ; Om, Ae Son ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 302~306
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.302
We report the dietary exposure to rotenone in the Korean population and children (1-18) through consumption of lettuce and cucumber. To obtain the residue data, we analyzed using the GC-NPD and HPLC-DAD method. Rotenone residues in samples were as follows; lettuce 0.16-1.15, cucumber < 0.001-0.006. The average dietary intake was determined using result from the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. The risk index (RI) was calculated using rotenone residues and dietary intakes. The lettuce and cucumber showed the highest at 18.41%, 0.00, respectively. RI fell below 100 of %RfD showing no risks in these vegetables. Therefore, the risk assessment on the detected rotenone was evaluated as safe level.
Establishment of Pre-Harvest Residue Limit (PHRL) of Fungicides Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole on Prunus mume fruits
Lee, Dong Yeol ; Kim, Yeong Jin ; Park, Min Ho ; Lee, Seung Hwa ; Kim, Sang Gon ; Kang, Nam Jun ; Kang, Kyu Young ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 307~313
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.307
This study was carried out to investigate the residual characteristics of fungicide azoxystrobin and difenoconazole in Prunus mume fruits, and establish pre-harvest residue limits (PHRL) based on dissipation and biological half-lives of fungicide residues. The fungicides were sprayed onto the crop at recommended dosage once and 3 times in 7 days interval, respectively. The samples were harvested at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days after treatment. These residual pesticides were extracted with QuEChERS method, clean-up with
SPE cartridge, and residues were analyzed by HPLC/DAD and GLC/ECD, respectively. Method quantitative limits (MQL) of azoxystrobin were 0.03 mg
and of difenoconazole were 0.006 mg
. Average recovery were
for azoxystrobin at fortification levels at 0.3 and 1.5 mg
for difenoconazole at fortification levels at 0.06 and 0.3 mg
, respectively. The biological half-lives of azoxystrobin were 5.9 and 5.2 days at recommended dosage once and 3 times in 7 days interval, respectively. The biological half-lives of difenoconazole were 9.3 and 8.0 days at recommended dosage once and 3 times in 7 days interval, respectively. The PHRL of azoxystrobin and difenoconazole were recommended as 5.32 and 1.64 mg
for 10 days before harvest, respectively.
Multi-residue Pesticide Analysis in Cereal using Modified QuEChERS Samloe Preparation Method
Yang, In-Cheol ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Kwon, Hye-Young ; Kim, Taek-Kyum ; Kim, Doo-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 314~334
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.314
This study explored an efficient modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization with tandem mass spectrometric detection for the analysis of residues of 76 pesticides in brown rice, barley and corn including acidic sulfonylurea herbicides. Formic acid (1%) acid in acetonitrile and dispersive solid phase extractions used for extraction of pesticides and clean-up of the extract respectively. Two fortified spikes at 50 and 200 ng
levels were performed for recovery test. Mean recoveries of majority of pesticides at two spike levels ranged from 73.2 to 132.2, 80.9 to 136.8, 66.6 to 143.5 for brown rice, barley and corn respectively with standard error (CV) less than 10%. Good linearity of calibration curves were achieved with
> 0.9907 within the observed concentration ranged. The modified method also provided satisfactory results for sulfonylurea herbicides. The method was applied to the determination of residues of target pesticides in real samples. A total of 26 pesticides in 36 out of 98 tasted samples were observed. The highest concentration was observed for tricyclazole at 1.17 mg
in brown rice. This pesticide in two brown rice samples exceeded their MRLs regulated for rice in republic of Korea. Except tricyclazole none of the observed pesticides' concentration was higher than their MRLs. The results reveal that the method is effectively applicable to routine analysis of residues of target pesticides in brown rice, barley and corn.
In vitro Antimutagenic and Genotoxic Effects of Sophora Radix Extracts
Cho, Hyeon-Jo ; Yoon, Hyunjoo ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Lee, Je-Bong ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Jin Hyo ; Jeong, Mi Hye ; Oh, Jin-Ah ; Kim, Doo-Ho ; Paik, Min-Kyoung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 335~342
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.335
Sophorae radix extract (SRE) has been registered as an environment-friendly organic material that is widely used in the cultivation of crops in Korea. Matrine, the active ingredient in SRE, was reported as a toxic substance in the nervous system in mice. However, no information is available on its toxic effects in other organisms. Therefore, antimutagenicity and two kinds of genotoxicity tests (bacterial reverse mutation and chromosome aberration test) of two samples of SRE were investigated in this study. Antimutagenicity test was experimented by using bacterial reverse mutation test. In the reverse mutation test, Salmonella Typhimurim TA98, TA1535 and TA1537 were used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of SRE. Bacterial reverse mutation test was also performed on positive and negative control groups in the presence of the metabolic activation system (with S-9 mix) and metabolic non-activation system (without S-9 mix). In the chromosome aberration test, Chinese hamster lung cells were exposed to SRE for 6 or 24 hours without S-9 mix, or for 6 hours with S-9 mix. Negative and positive control groups were experimented for chromosome aberration test. As a result, the number of mutated colonies induced by 4-NQO were reduced by SRE treatment in all strains, indicating that SRE may have antimutagenic effects. Reverse mutation was not shown at all concentrations of SRE, regardless of application of the metabolic activation system. In the chromosomal aberration test, one of the SRE sample gave a suspicious positive result at 250
in the presence of S-9 mix. For the more adequate evaluation of the genotoxic potential of SRE samples, other in vivo genotoxicity study is needed.
Acute Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Environmental-friendly Organic Agro-materials Containing Pepper Extract, Cassia Oil, Lavender Oil for Control of Diamondbackmoth
You, Are-Sun ; Jeong, Mihye ; Hong, Soon-Seong ; Chang, Hee-Seop ; Lee, Je Bong ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Lee, Young Mook ; Ihm, Yangbin ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 343~349
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.343
Environment-friendly agro-materials tend to be preferred to chemical insecticides recently. For this reason, many studies are conducted to develop environment-friendly insecticides containing natural materials. The purpose of this study was to assess ecotoxicity for pepper extract and cassia oil (11.5+46%, A), pepper extract and cassia oil (23+34%, B), and pepper extract and lavender oil (40+10%, C). They are expected to prevent from pests especially diamondback moth, and can be used for agro-materials. Their formulation was emusifiable concentration (EC). Target species used to assess acute toxicity were aquatic invertebrate (Daphina magna), fish (Cyprinus carpio), honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) and earthworm (Eisenia fetida). The
value of A, B, and C to aquatic invertebrate were 0.46, 1.9, 0.25 mg
respectively and these values were moderately toxic according to standard of USEPA. In case of acute toxicity test to fish, the
of A, B, and C were 1.9, 2.9, 3.8 mg
respectively. A was category II in acute toxicity of fish and not acceptable to evaluation criteria of environment-friendly agro-materials. B and C were category III and acceptable. Acute contact and oral toxicity test to honeybee were conducted and the
of A, B, and C were > 100
in both of tests. It indicated they were low toxic to honeybee. In case of acute toxicity test to earthworm,
of A, B, and C were 695, 988, and 564 mg
. In conclusion, pepper extract+cassia oil 57% EC and pepper extract+lavender oil 50% EC were expected to be used for environment-friendly insecticide materials with low risk against ecosystem and contribute to developing environment-friendly agro-materials.
Toxic Impact Analysis by Exposure Duration of Dog Studies for Pesticides using in Korea
Lee, Je Bong ; Jeong, Mi-Hye ; You, Are-Sun ; Hong, Soonsung ; Paik, Min-Kyoung ; Oh, Jin-Ah ; Park, Kyung Hun ; Ihm, Yang Bin ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 350~358
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.350
Both 13-week and 1-year studies in dog were required for pesticide registration in domestic pesticide control authority. It is raising issue up whether to request 1-year dog study of pesticides using non-food crop. So at this investigation, relevant toxicity test to establish acceptable daily intake (ADI), target organs, difference of no-observed adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) in 13-week and 1-year of 166 active ingredients are analyzed. The data were evaluated to determine if the 13-week dog study and the long term studies in two rodent species (mice and rats) without 1-year dog study were sufficient for the identification of NOAELs and lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) for the derivation of ADI. Toxicity end points and dose response data from 13 week and 1-year studies were compared. The analysis showed that 68 ADIs of the 166 pesticides were established from dog studies. Major target organs of dog studies were liver in 49 cases, body weight change in 21 cases, cholinesterase inhibition in 16 cases, and alteration in hematology in 14 cases. Similarity of target organ in 13-week and 1-year was 73%. 22 of 40 pesticides had similar critical effects regardless of duration and had NOAELs within a difference of 1.5-fold of each other. For the remaining 18 pesticides, 14 items had lower NOAELs in the 1-year study than 13-week study primarily due to dose selection and spacing. In only 10% of the cases were additional toxic effects identified in the 1-year study that were not observed in the 13-week study.
Earthworm Risk Assessment of Picoxystrobin Considering Rainfall after Spraying
Hong, Soonsung ; You, Are-Sun ; Jeong, Mihye ; Lee, Jae Bong ; Ihm, Yangbin ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 359~362
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.359
This study was performed in order to assess the risk of earthworm when the picoxystrobin was sprayed in Korean orchard. The acute toxicity (
) of picoxystrobin active ingredient(99.3%) and soluble concentrate (25%) against earthworm was showed 10.93 mg/kg and 8-16 mg/kg respectively. This earth worm toxicity value means that the picoxystrobin do not show the earthworm risk in present Korean risk assessment system. However, in the test which was simulated the rainfall after spraying, all the earthworm were died in 24 hours. This result indicated that the risk assessment for the earthworm should be considered the weather condition.
Insecticidal Activity and Effect on Biological Characteristic of 16 Insecticides Against Phthorimaea Operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
An, Jeong-Jin ; Park, Jun-Won ; Kim, Ju-Il ; Kim, Hyun Kyung ; Koo, Hyun-Na ; Kim, Gil-Hah ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 363~370
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.363
Susceptibility of each developmental stage of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were investigated using 16 insecticides which are available in the market in Korea. For the eggs and pupae, only spinosad showed a 71.1% inhibition rate for egg hatchability and a 66.7% inhibition rate for emergence. For the 3rd instar larvae, the feeding toxicities were over 90% for fenitrothion (
336.6 ppm), esfenvalerate (
8.6 ppm), ethofenprox (
35.7 ppm), and emamectin benzoate (
0.05 ppm). Furthermore, the contact toxicities were over 90% for esfenvalerate (
0.87 ppm), ethofenprox (
16.5 ppm), emamectin benzoate (
0.53 ppm), and spinosad (
2.48 ppm) at the recommended concentrations. Deltamethrin and spinosad yielded 100% mortality for adult P. operculella 48 h after treatment. The adult female fecundity was inhibited by deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, emamectin benzoate, spinosad and dinotefuran, which were significantly different from the control. The adult longevities (7.3-8.3 days) were reduced by approximately 1-2 days compared with the control (9.3 day). The emamectin benzoate maintained 100% insecticidal activity 14 days after treatment and ethofenprox maintained over 90% activity 7 days after treatment.
Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Actinomycetes Isolated from Rhizosphere of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Lee, Hye-Won ; Ahn, Jae-Hyung ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ; Song, Jaekyeong ; Kim, Byung-Yong ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 371~378
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.371
Various microorganisms live in soil, of which those colonizing rhizosphere interact with nearby plants and tend to develop unique microbial communities. In this study, we isolated diverse actinomycetes from rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated in fertilized (APK) and non-fertilized (NF) paddy soils, and investigated the diversity and antimicrobial activity of them. Using four kinds of selective media, 152 isolates were obtained from the soil samples and identified by determining 16S rRNA gene sequence. All of the isolates showed 99.0%~100.0% similarities with type strains and were classified into six genera: Dactylosporangium, Micromonospora, Kitasatospora, Promicromonospora, Streptomyces and Streptosporangium. Most of the isolates, 143 isolates, were classified into the genus Streptomyces. Additionally, many isolates had antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, especially Magnaporthe oryzae (rice blast pathogen) in fungi. These findings demonstrated that rice rhizosphere can be a rich source of antagonistic actinomycetes producing diverse bioactive compounds.
Biological Control of Tomato and Red Pepper Powdery Mildew using Paenibacillus polymyxa CW
Kim, Yong-Ki ; Choi, Eun-Jung ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Han, Eun-Jung ; Jang, Bo-Kyung ; Yun, Jong-Cheul ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 379~387
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.379
In order to improve practical utility of agro-microorganisms (AMs) which had been cultured and disseminated to promote plant growth and to control crop diseases, 51 isolates of AMs were collected from 18 agricultural extension centers in local government and screened for multi-functions such as antifungal activity, activities of phosphorus solubilization, IAA and siderophore production, nitrogen fixation, and hydrolytic enzyme activity. Finally we selected one isolate showing good antifungal activity and multi-functions related to plant growth and disease control. The selected isolate, Paenibacillus polymyxa CW, showed good inhibitory effect against plant pathogens, Pyricularia gresea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Phomopsis sp., Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora capsici. Suppressive effect of P. polymyxa CW against the used plant pathogens except for R. solani was much higher than that of P. polymyxa AC-1 storing in National Academy of Agricultural Science. We found P. polymyxa CW isolate showed good activity in siderophore and IAA formation, and nitrogen fixation. With P. polymyxa CW isolate, siderophore formation activity was similar to that of P. polymyxa AC-1, but IAA formation and nitrogen fixation activity was much higher than that of P. polymyxa AC-1. However neither P. polymyxa CW nor P. polymyxa AC-1 showed hydrolytic enzyme (chitinase, pectinase and cellulase) activity. The treatment of P. polymyxa CW with culture suspension of different cell density (
cfu/ml) showed that the highest density reduced incidence of red pepper powdery mildew by 68.3% after 10 days of application. As application density of P. polymyxa CW was decreased, its control efficacy was proportionally decreased. In addition, when P. polymyxa CW was treated to control tomato powdery mildew at the same concentrations and their control effects were investigated after 7 days of inoculation, disease incidence was 0.03, 19.5, 45.7%, respectively, compared to 56.3% that of untreated check. Like red pepper powdery mildew, increase of application density of P. polymyxa CW resulted in increase of its control efficacy proportionally. P. polymyxa CW showed a density-dependent control efficacy against red pepper and tomato powdery mildews. Therefore we think that mode of action of the antagonist for suppressing two powdery mildew diseases might be antibiosis and density of more than
was needed to control effectively the two diseases. On this basis, we think that P. polymyxa CW can be a promising control agent for suppressing powdery mildews of red pepper and tomato.
Growth Promotion of Tobacco Plant by 3-hydroxy-2-Butanone from Bacillus vallismortis EXTN-1
Ann, Mi Na ; Cho, Yung Eun ; Ryu, Ho Jin ; Kim, Heung Tae ; Park, Kyungseok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 388~393
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.388
It has been well documented that Bacillus vallismortis strain EXTN-1, a beneficial rhizosphere bacterium, could enhance plant growth and induce systemic resistance to diverse pathogens in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms for how the EXTN-1 promote plant growth and induce resistances to diverse pathogens. Here, we show that 3-Hydroxy-2-butanone, a volatile organic compound (VOCs) emitted from the EXTN1, is a key factor for the bacteria-mediated beneficial effects on plant growth and defense systems. We found that the presence of volatile signals of EXTN-1 resulted in growth promotion of tobacco seedlings. The identification and analysis of EXTN-1-secreted volatile signals by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) indicated that a 3-hydroxy-2-butanone could provide not only the plant growth promotion, but also higher resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum SCC1. These results suggest that a volatile compound released from EXTN-1 enhances the plant growth promotion and immunity of plants.
Growth Promotion and Induction of Systemic Resistance Against Phytophthora capsici on Red-pepper Plant by Treatment of Trichoderma harzianum MPA167
Yang, Nuri ; Lee, Sae Won ; Kim, Heung Tae ; Park, Kyungseok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 394~401
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.394
Trichoderma harzianum is one of rhizosphere fungus usually lives near the plant root regions in the soil. T. harzianum plays an important role in plant growth promotion and increases disease resistance against various plant pathogens on crops. In this study, the strain T. harzianum MPA167 was isolated from the barley rhizosphere soil in Suwon, Korea. Among 183 isolates, the strain T. harzianum MPA167 was selected as promising strain in which based on hyperparasitical activity against Phytophthora capsici and estimated disease control activity against P. capsici in the greenhouse conditions. The strain T. harzianum MPA167 was identified using 23s rDNA internal transcribed spacer(ITS) region sequences. MPA167 treatment (
spores/ml) showed greater disease suppression against Phytophthora blight of red-pepper caused by P. capsici in greenhouse compared with the water-treated control. Volatiles derived from T. harzianum MPA167 elicit growth promotion of tobacco and Arabidopsis seedlings in I-plate assay. In addition, T. harzianum MPA167 strain was also found to be effective for the growth promotion and induction of systemic resistance on red-papper plant. These results suggest that MPA167 might be used as one of the potential biocontrol agents.
Seasonal Occurrences of Insect Pests and Control Effects of Eco-friendly Agricultural Materials (EFAMs) in the Field of Lycium chinense under Environment- Friendly Management
Ryu, Tae-Hee ; Park, Sang-Eun ; Ko, Na-Yeon ; Kim, Jeong-Gon ; Shin, Heo-Seob ; Kwon, Hye-Ri ; Kim, Yeong-Guk ; Lee, Bo-Hee ; Seo, Mi-Ja ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 402~410
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.402
Insect pests damages are increasing on the field of Lycium chinense under environment- friendly management Thus, we was to monitor the occurrence of pests on organic L. chinense in Chungnam Cheongyang and, insecticidal effect of eco-friendly agricultural materials (EFAMs) were tested against major pests. When the buds come out, injury by L. chinense was very high causing the high population density of Myzus persicae in late May and early June, and the injury by Lema decempunctata was increased from mid-June. Otherwise, injuries by Eriophys macrodonis, Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata and Hedma spp. were continued throughout the growing season. From the fruit held in late July, Hemipteran insects including Plautia stali and Halyomorpba balys were sucking the fruit, and their injury to L. chinense were gradually increased. For the eco-friendly environmental control of M. persicae, L. decempunctata and E. macrodonis, EFAMs containing Sophora flavescens, Melia azedarach (Chinaberry), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Mexican tea), Quassia amara (Amargo), Stemona sessilifolia, Sophora seeds and Nepeta cataria (Catmint), were selected and used to control the insect pests. Control effects of the mixed extract with S. flavescens and Sophora seeds against M. persicae and L. decempunctata were higher than any other EFAM as 84.0% and 86.6%, respectively. In case of E. macrodonis, its control effect was good with the mixed extract with S. flavescens, C. ambrosioides and M. azedarach.
Insecticidal Activity of 7 Herbal Extracts against Black Pine Bast scale, Matsucoccus thunbergianae
Song, Jin Sun ; Lee, Chae Min ; Lee, Sang Myeong ; Lee, Dong Su ; Choi, Young Hwa ; Lee, Dong Woon ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 411~418
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.411
The black pine bast scale, Matsucoccus thunbergianae is one of the most serious insect pest in Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii forest in Korea. Insecticidal activity of 10 folds hot water extracts from 7 herbal plants (Atractylodes lancea, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lonicera japonica, Melia azedarach, Quisqualis indica, Sophora flavescens and Taraxacum mongolicum) were tested against different stage of M. thunbergianae using spray method both in laboratory and field. Efficacies of herbal extracts were different depending on stage of M. thunbergianae. Q. indica sprayed with hand sprayer produced the highest corrected mortality of 95.7% on intermidiated nymph stage, however, A. lancea produced the highest corrected mortality (51.3%) on pupae of M. thunbergianae in laboratory. Q. indica and A. lancea were highly effective against female M. thunbergianae in laboratory, however, corrected mortality was lower than other stage (40.0%). Efficacy of Q. indica was similar to effective insecticide, fenitrothion 50% EC against M. thunbergianae in field trials. These results indicated that Q. indica could be an environmental friendly control agent of M. thunbergianae.
Toxicity of Plant Essential Oils and Their Spray Formulations against the Citrus Flatid Planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Hemiptera: Flatidae)
Kim, Jun-Ran ; Ji, Chang Woo ; Seo, Bo Yoon ; Park, Chang Gyu ; Lee, Kwan-Seok ; Lee, Sang-Guei ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 419~427
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.419
The insecticidal activity of 124 plant essential oils and control efficacy of six experimental spray formulations (SF) containing 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10% of the selected oils was examined against both nymph and adult of the citrus flatid planthopper, Metcalfa pruinosa using direct contact applications (leaf dipping and spray). Reponses varied according to dose (1,000 and 500 mg/L). When exposed at 1,000 mg/L for 24 h using leaf dipping assay, 19 essential oils showed strong mortality (100%) among 124 essential oils screened. At 500 mg/L, 100% mortality was observed in cinnamon technical, cinnamon green leaf, cinnamon #500, cassia tree, citronella java and pennyroyal followed by origanum, thyme white, grapefruit, savory, fennel sweet, aniseed and cinnamon bark showed considerable mortality (93.3-80%) against nymphs of M. pruinosa. The moderate mortality (73.3-60%) was found in thyme red, tagetes, calamus, lemoneucalptus and geranium. Oils applied as SF-10% sprays provided 100 % mortality against adult M. pruinosa. One hundred mortalities were achieved in cinnamon technical at >SF-0.5 formulation, in cinnamon #500, cinnamon green leaf and penny royal at >SF-2.5. To reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment, the active essential oils as potential larvicides could be provided as an alternative to control M. pruinosa populations.
Cultural Characteristics and Mechanism of Bacillus amyloliquefacien subsp. plantarum CC110 for Biological Control of Cucumber Downy Mildew
Lee, Sang Yeob ; Weon, Hang Yeon ; Kim, Jeong Jun ; Han, Ji Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 428~434
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.428
An isolate of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum CC110 was selected as an effective antagonist for biological control of cucumber downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Temperature range for growth of CC110 isolate was
, and its optimal temperature at
. pH range for growth of CC110 isolate was 4.5~9.5, and its optimal pH at 7.0. In this study, the most effective sources of carbon and nitrogen for growth of CC110 isolate were fructose and yeast extract, respectively. The volatile of CC110 isolate was found to be effective to control downy mildew on cucumber showing no diseased area whereas that of control was 13.2% using the I plate bioassay. The culture broth and cells of isolate CC110 cultured in TSB media for 48 hours at
inhibited occurrence of cucumber downy mildew. The cells and culture broth were transformed into sporangia of P. cubensis by in observation under light microscope and scanning electron microscope.
Control effect of the Mixture of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M27 and Plant Extract against Cucumber Powdery Mildew
Lee, Sang Yeob ; Weon, Hang Yeon ; Kim, Jeong Jun ; Han, Ji Hee ; Kim, Wan Gyu ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 435~439
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.435
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M27 was selected as a control agent for the biological control of cucumber powdery mildew. The new mixture of B.amyloliquefaciens M27 and plant (Eucalytus) extract was developed to improve the control activity of B.amyloliquefaciens M27 against cucumber powdery mildew. The mixed formulation showed the high preventive and curative control effect against cucumber powdery mildew when it was diluted at 500 times and foliar-sprayed. Its control effect was higher in preventive spraying than curative spraying. When 500-fold diluted solution of the formulation was sprayed preventively four times at five-day intervals, three times at seven-day intervals and twice at ten-day intervals, the diseased leaf area was shown to be 4.4%, 8.0%, 27.9%, respectively; Whereas the diseased leaf area in the control plot was 45.4%. When the 500-fold diluted formulation was sprayed curatively four times at five-day intervals, three times at seven-day intervals and twice at ten-day intervals after occurred cucumber powdery mildew, the diseases leaf area was 11.5%, 25.2%, 51.8%, respectively; whereas in the control plot, the diseases leaf area was 64.3%. When the 500-fold diluted formulation was treated four times at five-day intervals in the plastic house, its control effect was higher than that treated three times at seven-day intervals and twice at ten-day intervals. As the results, the mixed formulation of B.amyloliquefaciens M27 and plant extract could be a promising candidate of bio-fungicides for the environment-friendly control of powdery mildew of cucumber.
Control Effects of Frankliniella occidentalis by using Trap Plants and Orius laevigatus in Chrysanthemum PVC House
Choi, Yong-Seok ; Whang, In-Su ; Park, Deog-Kee ; Lee, Jun-Seok ; Ham, Eun-Hye ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 440~447
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.440
F. occidentalis (WFT, western flower thrips) is a major pest in artificial chrysanthemum houses. Nnumber of WFT attracted to yellow sticky trap was highest at trap plant and lowest at 15 and 20m places away from trap plant. Number of WFT attracted to yellow stick trap when trap plant was placed in chrysanthemum house 30 days after planting (resident WFT) was 4.4~7.7 times more than at 5 and 10 m places away from trap plant and when trap plant was placed in chrysanthemum house immediately after planting (resident WFT) was 5.7~9.4 times more at 5 and 10 m places away from trap plant. Number of WFT between the place trap plant located and unlocated was undifferent when cultured chrysanthemum formed flower. In case of the plot that trap plant and natural enemy was used simultaneously, number of WFT was highter then chemicals plot. In case of the plot that trap plant and chamicals (chemicals was sprayed on trap plant only) WFT was controlled in trap plant place only but density of WFT on 5m and 10m places away from trap plant was increased. Therefore, WFT could be controlled effectively by use of trap plant (flowering yellow chrysanthemum) and natural enemy simultaneously.
Occurrence of Insect Pests and Natural Enemies in Pear Orchard with Hairy Vetch
Choi, Yong-Seok ; Whang, In-Su ; Park, Deog-Kee ; Choe, Gwang-Ryul ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 448~453
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.448
We investigated the occurrence of major pests, 4 species of moths (Grapholita dimorpha Busck, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, Archips breviplicanus Walsingham, Adoxophyes orana Fischer von Roslerstamm), apple aphid (Aphis spiraecola Patch), two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) and parasitoids in pear orchard with hairy vetch and cutting weeds in Yesan, Chungnam province during the flowering season and summer depression season of hairy vetch, in 2012 and 2013. The occurrence of 4 species of moths in hairy vetch plot and cutting weeds (major is finger grass, Digitaria sanguinalis, 80%) were little different but in case of apple aphid, the density in hairy vetch plot was just 95 aphids per stem at 20th June but low after then. The density of two spotted spider mite on pear leaf in hairy vetch plot was lower than in cutting weeds plot significantly. The number of parasitoids collected in hairy vetch plot during flowering season (May and June) were 398 and 798 in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The number of parasitoids collected in hairy vetch plot during summer depression season (July and August) were 114 and 172, respectively. But in cutting weeds plot, 9 and 22 in May and June, 8 and 5 in July and August. We didn't know either hairy vetch in pear orchard affected the occurrence of 4 species of moths, apple aphid and two spotted spider mite or not but was acted to be favorable for wasps, the natural enemies on the contrary. The improvement of chemical control systems through the selection of low chemicals to natural enemies with cover and green manure plants would turn effective pest management into a possibility.
Characteristics and Virulence Assay of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua
Han, Ji Hee ; Kim, Hyeonggyeong ; Leem, Hun Tae ; Kim, Jeong Jun ; Lee, SangYeob ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 454~459
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.454
Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the fast development of insecticide resistance. For eco-friendly beet armyworm managements, various control agents are required. Entomopathogenic fungus is one of the promise control agents as an alternative to chemical control agent. We isolated entomopathogenic fungi from soil samples of Yangpyeong, Gyeonggi-do by insect-bait method using Tenebio molitor and conducted bioassay to larva of beet armyworm. The result of bioassay, a selected strain FT83 showed 100% mortality against third instar larva of S. exigua. On the basis of morphological characteristics and analysis of 18srRNA sequence for ITS, the strain FT83 was identified as a Metarhizium anisopliae. The mortality of beet armyworm showed
conidia/ml, 100% at
conidia/ml and 100% at
conidia/ml respectively. Therefore, we recommend to proper control efficacy against S. exigua in which more than
conidia/ml suspension of M. anisopliae FT83.
Control Efficacy of Mixing Application of Microbial and Chemical fungicide against Phytophthora blight of red-pepper
Hong, Sung-Jun ; Kim, Jung-Hyun ; Kim, Yong-Ki ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Han, Eun-Jung ; Goo, Hyung-Jin ; Choi, Kwang-Young ; Yun, Jong-Chul ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 460~467
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.460
This study was conducted to reduce the using amount of chemical fungicides for the control of red-pepper Phytophthora blight. Effect of combination application of two microbial fungicides and two chemical fungicides for the control of red-pepper Phytophthora blight was examined in vitro, in greenhouse and under field conditions. Each microbial fungicides and chemical fungicides was two-fold diluted and mixed-soil drenched. In the greenhouse pot assay, the mixed application of B. pumilus QST2808 and a mixture of dimethomorph + ethaboxam (De) among four mixed applications of two microbial fungicides (B. pumilus QST2808, P. polymyxa AC-1) and two chemical fungicides showed the highest control effect against Phytophthora blight. Also, control effect of mixed application of B. pumilus QST2808 and De was similar to that of single application of De (dimethomorph + ethaboxam) or Mo (mancozeb + oxadixyl). In the field test, when the microbial fungicides (B. pumilus QST2808, P. polymyxa AC-1) and the chemical fungicide(De) for the control of Phytophthora blight of red pepper were mixed-soil drenched four times at 7~10 day-intervals, the control values were in the range of 78.8% to 82.0%. On the other hand when each of the two chemical fungicides (De, Mo) were soil drenched four times at 7~10 day-intervals, the control value were 65.7% to 85.8%. Consequently, the mixed application of the microbial fungicides and chemical fungicides could be recommended as a control method for reducing the using amount of chemical fungicides.
Genome Sequence Analysis of Chrysanthemum White Rust pathogen Puccinia horiana and Sterol 14-demethylase as Drug Target
Kim, Jeong-Gu ; Park, Sang Kun ; Park, Ha-Seung ; Kwon, Soo-Jin ; Kim, Seung Hwan ; Lee, Dong-Jun ; Sohn, Seong-Han ; Lee, Byoung Moo ; Bae, Shin-Chul ; Ahn, Il-Pyung ; Kim, Changhoon ; Baek, Jeong Hun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 468~472
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.468
Chrysanthemum is an economically important horticultural plant in many countries. The white rust is one of the most devastating diseases caused by an obligate fungal pathogen Puccinia horiana. This is being controlled mostly by application of chemicals. In Korea, 26 items are registered and 10 items contain 6 triazole compounds. To identify and to obtain the information of the drug target for triazoles, possible sterol 14-demethylase orthologues were extracted. From the draft genome information, the nucleotide sequence of the sterol 14-demethylase gene was identified. The amino acid sequence was deduced and the tertiary structure of the enzyme was predicted. This protein showed no less than 84% amino acid sequence identities to those of genus Puccinia and no more than 68% to those of other genus.
Evaluation of Honeybee Acute Toxicity of Plant Extracts, Neem, Sophora and Derris
Oh, Jin-A ; Choi, Jin-Hee ; Choe, Mi-Seon ; Kim, Jin-Hyo ; Paik, Min-Kyoung ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Hong, Soon-Sung ; Lee, Je-Bong ; Kim, Doo-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 473~477
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.473
This study was performed to evaluate the acute contact and oral toxicity of plant extracts (neem, sophora and derris) against Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). As a result of acute contact toxicity test,
of neem and derris extracts were more than 100
of sophora extracts were 1.7
. In case of acute oral toxicity test,
of neem and derris extracts were more than 100
of sophora extracts were 1.7 and 0.3
. In conclusion, it is evaluated that neem and derris extracts are practically nontoxic while sophora extracts are highly toxic.
Evaluation of Skin & Eye Irritation of Plant Extracts, Neem and Sophora
Oh, Jin-A ; Choi, Jin-Hee ; Choe, Mi-Seon ; Kim, Jin-Hyo ; Paik, Min-Kyoung ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; You, Are-Sun ; Lee, Je-Bong ; Kim, Doo-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 17, issue 4, 2013, Pages 478~481
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.478
This study was performed to evaluate the acute skin and eye irritation of plant extracts (neem and sophora) against rabbit. The result of skin irritation test indicated that neem extracts and sophora extracts were not irritant. For eye irritation test, the result showed no irritation for neem extracts. Sophora extracts have a severe eye irritation and the symptoms have been reduced to day 3. Thus, safety guidelines for agricultural workers is considered to be needed when sophora extracts is used as an organic agricultural materials.