Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pesticide Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Change of Pesticide Residues In Field-sprayed Young Chinese Cabbages and Young Radishes During Kimchi Preparation and Storage in Kimchi Fridge
Kwon, Hyeyoung ; Son, Kyung-Ae ; Kim, Taek-Kyum ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Cho, Nam-Jun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 221~227
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.221
This study was investigated the change of pesticide residues in young Chinese cabbages and young radishes sprayed with pesticides (young Chinese cabbage: diazinon EC, dimethomorph WP and imidacloprid WP, young radish: diazinon EC, imidacloprid WP and procymidone WP) during Kimchi preparation and storage in Kimchi fridge (
) for 67 days. Pesticide residues in young Chinese cabbages were removed by up to 31~52% through brining and washing, 57~74% through seasoning with ingredients, 61~76% through 14 hours storage at room temperature, and 70~82% through storage in Kimchi fridge. Pesticide residues in young radishes were removed by up to 57~85% through seasoning with ingredients, 59~86% through 17 hours storage at room temperature, and 74~91% through storage in Kimchi fridge. It means that brining and washing process was more efficient than fermentation process.
Residual Characteristics of a Systemic Insecticide Flonicamid and Its Metabolites in Sweet Pepper
Seo, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Taek-Kyum ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Kwon, Hye-Young ; Gwon, Ji-Hyeong ; Cho, Nam-Jun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 228~235
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.228
The residue levels of flonicamid and its metabolites, 4-(trifluoromethyl)nicotinic acid (TFNA) and N-4-(trifluoromethyl)nicotinoyl glycine (TFNG) in sweer pepper were investigated to examine the residual characteristics of analytes for 87 days after pesticide application. The pesticide was applied once at recommended dosage and double dosage by foliar sprays and the samples of fruits and leaves of sweet pepper were collected for each treatment. The residues of flonicamid in all of fruits and leaves decreased gradually over time, while the residue levels of TFNG metabolite exhibited tendency that increased for long periods and thereafter decreased. Total flonicamid residual concentrations containing metabolites residues in fruit samples increased consistently until 30 days post-application and higher residue levels than residues at 1 day post-application were detected from 30 day to 87 day after treatment. The residue pattern observed in fruit could be explained by the movement of TFNG from leaves to fruits of plant. Such residual characteristic was similarly found in samples treated both recommended dosage and double dosage.
Application of Water Model for the Evaluation of Pesticide Exposure
Son, Kyeong-Ae ; Kim, Chan-Sub ; Gil, Geun-Hwan ; Kim, Taek-Kyum ; Kwon, Hyeyoung ; Kim, Jinbae ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Ihm, Yang-Bin ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 236~246
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.236
Pesticide is used to protect the crops, but also become a cause of polluting the environment. Perform a risk assessment using physical and chemical properties, environmental fate and toxicity data in order to determine the pesticide registration. The aquatic model estimates pesticide concentrations in water bodies that result from pesticide applications to rice paddies and apple orchard. The used models are the PRZM, EXAMS and AGRO shell (PA5), Rice Water Quality Model (RICEWQ) and Screening Concentration In GROund Water (SCI-GROW). The residual concentration of water body was estimated using meteorological data, crop calendar and soil series of Korea. The chosen pesticides were butachlor, carbofuran, iprobenfos and tebuconazole. It has shown the potential that the RICEWQ is possible to predict residue level in water of butachlor and iprobenfos, because the maximum value in water monitoring data is lower than the peak concentration of the model, and the minimum value is lower than the average annual concentration of the model. But RICEWQ was insufficient to predict exposure concentrations in ground water. The estimated exposure concentrations of carbofuran in ground water is very higher than in surface water because of its low soil adsorption coefficient. Although tebuconazole were not detected in the water monitoring that means very low concentration, it is possible that the PA5 can be used to predict residue level in water.
Exposure and Risk Assessment for Operator Exposure to Insecticide Acetamiprid during Water Melon Cultivation in Greenhouse using Whole Body Dosimetry
Kim, Eunhye ; Lee, Jiho ; Sung, Jeonghee ; Lee, Jonghwa ; Shin, Yongho ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 247~257
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.247
Assessment for operator`s dermal and inhalation exposure to acetamiprid during cultivation of water melon in greenhouse was carried out. For dermal exposure measurement, whole body dosimetry (WBD) was performed as the first trial in Korea. WBD consists of cotton/polyester outer clothes and cotton inner clothes. Hand exposure was measured by washing of nitrile gloves and hands while head exposure was monitored by face/neck wipe technique. Inhalation exposure was monitored with personal air sampling pumps and IOM sampler (glass fiber filter). Analytical limit of quantitation was 2.5 ng/mL. Good reproducibility (C.V < 8.7%), linearity (
> 0.99) and recovery (70~119%) were obtained. Field recovery of acetamiprid was 77~95%. During mixing/loading, hand exposure of acetamiprid was about 10 times (
) more than that of application case (
). During application, total dermal exposure was
. Exposure of lower legs was
, which is 93.8% of the total dermal exposure. Inhalation exposure during mixing/loading and application was not detected. Margin of safety (MOS) was calculated for risk assessment using male Korean average body weight (70 kg) and acceptable operator exposure level (
) to give 140, suggesting that health risk of operator during treatment of acetamiprid for water melon in greenhouse could be safe.
Establishment Aerobic Soil Metabolism System Using [
Kim, Ju-Hye ; Kim, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, Dae-Wook ; Lee, Bong-Jae ; Kim, Chan Sub ; Ihm, Yangbin ; Seo, Jong-Su ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 258~268
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.258
The test method of aerobic transformation in soil has established based on international test guideline (OECD TG 307). And then, the case study was conducted with [
]butachlor. Butachlor is commonly used herbicide in Korea. [
]Butachlor was treatrd
in loamy soil. The treated soil was incubated in flow-through system for 60 days. The mass balance of applied radioactivity (AR) ranged from 91.1 to 95.5% and from 93.0% to 97.7% for non-sterile and sterile soils, respectively. In non-sterile soil, the concentration of [
]butachlor was declined from 94.4% AR at 0 day to 8.4% AR at 60 days after treatment. 2-Chloro-2`,6`-diethylacetanilide was the major degradation product detected in soil extract. The calculated
of butachlor were 10.4 days and 34.6 days, respectively.
and non-extractable soil residue were increased up to 3.5% and 43.5% AR at 60 DAT. There is no significant decrease of the [
]butachlor through the incubation period in sterile soil.
Analysis of Diflubenzuron in Agricultural Commodities by Multiresidue Method
Park, Sun-Hee ; Han, Chang-Ho ; Kim, Ae-Kyung ; Shin, Jae-Min ; Lee, Jae-Kyoo ; Park, Young-Hae ; Kim, Ji-Min ; Hwang, Lae-Hong ; Chang, Min-Su ; Song, Mi-Ok ; Park, Ju-Sung ; Yun, Eun-Sun ; Kim, Mu-Sang ; Jung, Kweon ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 269~277
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.269
The multiclass pesticide multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of diflubenzuron in agricultural products was conducted by using HPLC-UVD. The method was validated through the guidelines of linearity, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy and precision with pesticide-free spinach, Korean cabbage, eggplant, squash, sweet pepper, cucumber, Korean melon. The calibration curve of diflubenzuron was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-5 mg/kg with correlation coefficient of above 0.99999. The limit of detection and quantification was 0.008 and 0.02 mg/kg. Mean recoveries of diflubenzuron for each sample were 77.5-105.6%. Relative standard deviation (RSD) in recoveries were all less than 20%. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD) were 0.4-1.9% and 0.7-1.9%, respectively. The result of validation indicated that this method was accurate and rapid assay.
Multi-residue Analysis of Pesticides using GC-TOF/MS, ECD, NPD with QuEChERS Sample Preparation
Park, Jungwook ; Kim, Aekyung ; Kim, Jongpil ; Lee, Hyanghee ; Park, Duckwoong ; Moon, Sujin ; Ha, Dongryong ; Kim, Eunsun ; Seo, Kyewon ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 278~295
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.278
Fast and accurate multi-residue pesticides inspecting method needs in Agro-Fishery Products Inspection Center. So, We tried to seek the optimum method using GC-TOF/MS, GC-ECD, GC-NPD after QuEChERS sample preparation. In GC-TOF/MS, 138 kinds of pesticide were spiked at 0.3 and
for the identification and quantification in lettuce sample. Recoveries of 77 pesticides were between 70 and 130% with RSD (relative standard deviation lower than 20% at
. In GC-ECD, NPD, 146 kinds of pesticide were spiked for the identification and quantification in lettuce. Recoveries of 61 species were between 70 and 130% with lower than 20%. These results indicated that GC-TOF/MS, GC-ECD, NPD analysis with the QuEChERS sample preparation can be partly applied to multi-residue pesticides in vegetables.
Multiresidue Analysis of 124 Pesticides in Soils with QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS/MS
Gwon, Ji-Hyeong ; Kim, Taek-Kyum ; Seo, Eun-Kyung ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Kwon, Hye-Yong ; Kyung, Ki-Sung ; Kim, Jang-Eok ; Cho, Nam-Jun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 296~313
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.296
A QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) multiresidue method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 124 pesticides in soil by LC-MS. The procedure involved liquid extraction of soil immersed with 0.2N
by acetonitrile with 1% acetic acid, followed by anhydrous
and sodium acetate, and dispersive SPE cleanup with
, primary secondary amine (PSA) and
. The extracts were analyzed with LC-MS/MS in ESI positive mode. Standard calibration curves were made by matrix matched standards and their correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99. Recovery studies for the validation were carried out using two type soils, loam and sandy loam, at four concentration levels (0.005, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.1 mg/kg). The recoveries of pesticides were in the range of 70-120% with < 20% RSD except 4 pesticides, Benfuracarb, Ethiofencarb, Pymetrozine, and Pyrethrin. This result indicated that the method using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS could be applied for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues in soils.
Uptake of Boscalid and Chlorfenapyr Residues in Soil into Korean Cabbage
Jeon, Sang-Oh ; Hwang, Jeong-In ; Lee, Sang-Hyeob ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 314~320
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.314
The uptake and transportation patterns of the residual boscalid and chlorfenapyr were investigated from the soils to Korean cabbages. The recovery rates of the pesticides spiked in the soils and Korean cabbages were 87.5 to 105.2%. Korean cabbages were cultivated in soils treated with two different concentrations of the pesticides as low (3.0 mg/kg) and high (6.0 mg/kg) concentrations in greenhouse for 28 days. The initial level of boscalid was determined as 2.77 and 5.66 mg/kg for the low and high concentration of boscalid-treated soils, respectively. After 28 days of treatment, the residual boscalid in soils decreased to 0.53 and 1.60 mg/kg for the low and high concentration of boscalid-treated soils, respectively, and thus it was reduced to 71.7 to 81.9%. The initial level of chlorfenapyr was determined as 2.38 and 6.43 mg/kg for the low and high concentration of chlorfenapyr-treated soils, respectively. After 28 days of treatment, the residual chlorfenapyr in soils decreased to 1.36 and 2.91 mg/kg for the low and high concentration-treated soils, respectively, and thus it was reduced to 42.9 to 54.8%. The residual pesticide analysis was done with 2 day intervals from 21 days-cultivated Korean cabbages after seeding. Uptake rates of boscalid from the soil to Korean cabbages were 2.4 and 2.2% for the low- and high-concentration of boscalid-treated soil, respectively. However, the uptake rate of chlorfenapyr by the cabbages was 1.5 and 1.3% for the low and high concentration-treated soil, respectively. The uptake rate of chlorfenapyr by the cabbages was lower than that of boscalid. These results showed that the residual pesticides in soil could be absorbed by Korean cabbages depending on their physicochemical properties.
Determination of Amisulbrom Residues in Agricultural Commodities Using HPLC-UVD/MS
Ahn, Kyung-Geun ; Kim, Gyeong-Ha ; Kim, Gi-Ppeum ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Hwang, Young-Sun ; Hong, Seung-Beom ; Lee, Young Deuk ; Choung, Myoung-Gun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 321~329
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.321
This experiment was conducted to establish an analytical method for residues of amisulbrom, as recently developed an oomycete-specific fungicide showing inhibition of fungal respiration, in crops using HPLC-UVD/MS. Amisulbrom residue was extracted with acetonitrile from representative samples of five raw products which comprised apple, green pepper, kimchi cabbage, potato and hulled rice. The extract was diluted with 50 mL of saline water and directly partitioned into dichloromethane to remove polar co-extractives in the aqueous phase. For the hulled rice sample, n-hexane/acetonitrile partition was additionally employed to remove non-polar lipids. The extract was finally purified by optimized Florisil column chromatography. On an octadecylsilyl column in HPLC, amisulbrom was successfully separated from sample co-extractives and sensitively quantitated by ultraviolet absorption at 255 nm with no interference. Accuracy and precision of the proposed method was validated by the recovery test on every crop samples fortified with amisulbrom at 3 concentration levels per crop in each triplication. Mean recoveries ranged from 85.3% to 105.6% in five representative agricultural commodities. The coefficients of variation were all less than 10%, irrespective of sample types and fortification levels. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) of amisulbrom was 0.04 mg/kg as verified by the recovery experiment. A confirmatory method using LC/MS with selected-ion monitoring technique was also provided to clearly identify the suspected residue. The proposed method was sensitive, reproducible and easy-to-operate enough to routinely determine the residue of amisulbrom in agricultural commodities.
Residue Levels of Chlorantraniliprole and Ethaboxam in Different Parts of a Head-type Korean Cabbage and Reduction of Residues in Outer Leaves by Water Washing and Heat-treatment
Kim, Jun-Yeong ; Lee, Mi-Gyung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 330~335
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.330
This study was conducted to investigate residue levels of chlorantraniliprole and ethaboxam in inner part and outer leaves of a head-type Korean cabbage. Further, reduction of residues was measured after water washing, blanching and heat-cooking of the outer leaves. For chlorantraniliprole, residues in inner part and outer leaves were <0.01 mg/kg and 0.0757 mg/kg, respectively, in case of three-time spraying 30 days before harvest and <0.01 mg/kg and 1.19 mg/kg, respectively, in case of four-time spraying 10 days before harvest; for ethaboxam, <0.05 mg/kg and 0.216 mg/kg, respectively and <0.05 mg/kg and 1.18 mg/kg, respectively. Chlorantraniliprole and ethaboxam were not detected in inner part of the head-type Korean cabbage. Residue levels in outer leaves were very high as 10-100 fold as those in inner part of the cabbage. Therefore, there is no concern for safety of pesticide residues on kimchi prepared with the inner part of a head-type Korean cabbage. In addition, it needs to be noted that outer leaves should be carefully removed at harvest of the cabbage. Outer leaves water washed and blanched are called as Woogeogi, which is consumed after heat-cooking. In Woogeogi, residue concentrations of two compounds reduced to less than 10%, and further less than 5% by heat-cooking. This indicates that considerable amount of the test pesticide residues in outer leaves of a head-type Korean cabbage removed through water washing, blanching and heat-cooking.
Safety Evaluation of Pesticide Residue in Five Fruits by Dietary Risk Index
Lee, Je Bong ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Kwon, Hye-Young ; You, Are-Sun ; Hong, Soon-Sung ; Ihm, Yangbin ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 336~341
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.336
In order to determine the residual characteristics of pesticides in fruits and their effects on human health, monitoring of pesticide residues were conducted in apples, peaches, pears, grapes and citrus from the major cultivation areas in 2010. Safeties of the pesticides detected from the fruits were evaluated using the amounts of pesticide residue detected and dietary risk index (DRI). Samples were taken from 4-5 major fruit cultivation areas and then pesticide residues in the test fruits were analyzed with a liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Mean residue levels of the pesticides in fruits were 0.001-0.144 mg/kg. The DRIs were 0.55 for apple, 0.066 for peach, 0.008 for pear, 0.025 for grape, and 0.37 for citrus, respectively. The results indicated that the amounts of pesticide residues in domestic fruits might be safe, considering the regulatory concerning level 1.0.
Application of Oral Absorption in Establishment of AOEL for Pesticides and Occupational Risk Assessment for farm worker
You, Are-Sun ; Hong, Soonsung ; Lee, Je Bong ; Lee, Seungdon ; Ihm, Yangbin ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 342~349
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.342
Methods of establishment of AOEL (Acceptable Operator Exposure Level), application of oral absorption by country, and calculation of exposure dose for operator risk assessment in USA, EU and Korea were investigated. Oral absorption of 141 active substances for pesticides was also investigated, then operator risk assessment was conducted with AOEL including oral absorption and Korean AOEL. Internal dose converted to external dose with oral or dermal absorption in USA and EU, but external dose to which oral absorption was not applied was used for establishment of AOEL in Korea. Oral absorption of 50 active substances among 141 were below 80%. In case of application of oral absorption as a correction factor in below 80%, AOELs of about 36% active substances were considered to be lower than the current Korean AOELs. Operator risk assessment of 28 active substances among 50 active substances with oral absorption below 80% was conducted with EU AOELs. TER (Toxicity Exposure Ratio) of 12 plant protection products including chlorothalonil WG (Water-dispersible Granule) was less than 1 and the risk was high. Operator risk assessment of 24 active substances among 50 active substances with oral absorption below 80% was conducted with Korean AOELs. TER of 6 plant protection products including chlorothalonil WG were less than 1 and the risk was high. Operator risk assessment of 4 plant protection products not having Korean AOEL was conducted with converted EU AOEL into AOEL not including oral absorption. The results indicated TER of 4 products including daminozide WP (Wettable Powder) was over 1 and risk was low. 22 products except 6 products such as oxadiagyl SC (Suspension Concentration) were shown the same results of risk assessment between EU AOELs and Korean AOELs. As a result, it was considered that AOELs including oral absorption was possible to be used for operator risk assessment. It was considered operator risk assessment with AOEL including oral absorption was more like real assessment method, and improvement of assessment was needed for application to evaluate pesticides in registration.
Pest Control Effect and Optimal dose by Pesticide Dispersion Spray Method in the Paprika Cultivation
Jin, Na Young ; Lee, You Kyoung ; Lee, Bo Ram ; Jun, Jun Hack ; Kim, Yu Seop ; Seo, Mi Ja ; Lim, Chi Hwan ; Youn, Young Nam ; Yu, Yong Man ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 350~357
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.350
We studied on pesticide residue and pest control effect when using various types of sprayers on paprika cultivation. Additionally, a test was conducted to optimize chemical content per unit area in condition of optimum pest control. Two types of sprayer were tested (three times) on paprika cultivation which was divided into seven sections. Blind spots were also examined using a water sensitive paper when spraying chemical pesticide, remote controlled sprayer were confirmed to be not effective in terms of its spraying capacity. However, a U-shaped sprayer was confirmed that it sprayed enough on all the parts of a plant in green house including the blind spots. Additionally, it does not exceed the minimum residue limits on the all parts of pesticides residue conditions. When using remote controlled sprayer, water sensitive paper were changed to blue color (82.5% and 81.2%) in terms of controlling Bemisia tabaci and Aphis gossypii based on the two spraying manners. 53.0% and 42.6% of control effect were shown on the fair parts of the plants. However, on the poor parts on which pesticides were not well-sprayed, thus, not-remained, more number of pests increased. Meanwhile, on farming that only one type of pesticide has been used, resistance pests present with very low control effect, even though sufficient amount of pesticide was well-sprayed. On the test of the optimum amount of spraying per a unit area, which shows no differences in the two cases of using 5L and 2.5L of chemical pesticides on 9 plants of paprika that has 81.8% and 84.5% control effect, respectively.
Effect on the Production of Toxin Protein of Bacillus thuringiesis by Culture Conditions
Kim, Tae Wan ; Kim, Tae Hwan ; Yu, Yong Man ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 358~363
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.358
We was investigated parasporal inclusion proteins change to use industrial medium of new strain Bacillus thuringiensis CAB 565, CAB 566. To confirm medium`s oxygen efficient consist of glucose and yeast extract, we was conducted oxygen transfer coefficients (KLa) of medium`s concentration and impeller in 20 l-Jar fermentor. When to increase air flow rate and medium concentration, KLa rate is rise. Also it is effective on agitation rate 200 rpm, but KLa rate is decrease when to rise agitation rate. To hold dissolved oxygen rate (upper 50%), Air flow rate is steadily increase on culture to use microsparger. When 16 hour of culture stage, B.t. CAB 565 and B.t. CAB 566 harvested respectively
viable cell/ml. When 54 hour, B.t. CAB565, 566 harvested respectively
. To resulting carbon`s concentration, It is the most effective that glucose concentration is contained 5% in medium.
A Study on Crop Group for Pesticide Efficacy and Crop Safety of Minor Crops
Ahn, Chang-Hyun ; Kim, Yong-Hun ; Eom, Hoon-Sik ; Lee, Gwang-Ha ; Ryu, Gab-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 364~375
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.364
This study was carried out to investigate the pesticide efficacy and crop safety among different leafy vegetables applied with foliar spraying under greenhouse and to check extrapolating from some trial data to other minor crops. Leafy vegetables used in this study were: lettuce (Lactuca sativar), leaf broccoli (Brassica oleracea.), chicory (Cichorium intybus.), chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. napus var. pekinensis), radish (Raphanus sativus), rape (Brassica napus), crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium), edible burdock (Arctium lappa), endive (Cichorium endivia) and mustard greens (Brassica jumcea). Based on the result of control efficacy, all crops were classified into the groups. The results showed the probabilities of extrapolating the control value data of minor crop within the same group. It would be possible to use the pesticides which are already been registered for similar crops to those crops have no registered pesticides.
Reducing Phytotoxic by Adjusted pH and Control effect of Loess-Sulfur Complex as Organic Farming Material against Powdery Mildew in Tomato
Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Yong-Ki ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Kim, Suk-Chul ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 376~382
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.376
The soluble loess-sulfur mixture allowed standing to remove insoluble component materials for five weeks after manufacturing. We decreased the pH level of soluble loess-sulfur mixture at pH 1.0 modified with decreasing 25% sodium hydroxide than original content. The pH ranges of soluble loess-sulfur mixture solutions were adjusted to pH 5.0-pH 11.0 (pH 1 unit) with brown rice vinegar (pH 2.8). The pH of original loess-sulfur mixture was about pH 13 and damaged the foliar parts and young leaves of tomato after twice application. These stock solutions can be diluted 500:1 with tap water to make a 0.05% working solution and were sprayed two times with 7 days interval to the leaf and stem of tomato, which were spontaneously infected with E. cichoracearum. Control efficacy of powdery mildew ranged from 85% to 90% at 7 days after first application. After second application, each loess-sulfur mixture solutions adjusted pH level significantly suppressed the powdery mildew disease in tomato. Consequently, loess-sulfur complex adjusted pH level with brown rice vinegar was suggested to be low in acute toxicity at all different pH values and suggested to use an agent for control of tomato powdery mildew in organic farming.
Effect of Korean Fermented Food Extracts and Bacteria Isolated from the Extracts for the Control of Rice Seed-borne Fungal Diseases
Kim, Yong-Ki ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Lee, Min-Ho ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Han, Eun-Jung ; Choi, Eun-Jung ; Bae, Soo-Il ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 383~395
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.383
When we investigated seed infestation by fungal pathogens from 51 varieties in 9 crops, the contamination rate of rice and sesame seeds was high. Therefore, to control seed-borne diseases, we obtained extracts from commercial products of Kimchi, Gochujang, Doenjang, Ganjang, Makgeolli and Tohajut and their suppressive effects against seed-borne diseases were studied. In addition, bacterial strains were screened to control rice seed-borne diseases in vitro and in vivo. Among forty food extracts, eleven food-extracts suppressed incidence of seedling rots in vitro and five food extracts increased 8-33% of healthy seedling in the greenhouse. Among 218 isolates from 40 fermented foods, 43 isolates showed high antifungal activity against seven fungal pathogens. When we tested 43 isolates for the reduction of rice seed borne disease, 32 isolates were able to reduce the rice seed borne disease. Among 32 isolates, 17 isolates reduced significantly seedling rot and increased healthy seedlings, the other isolates except for Kc4-2 and Mkl 2-2 increased shoot emergence and the percentage of healthy plants. Thirty isolates with high antifungal activity and suppressive effect against rice seedling rots were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Twenty one of thirty isolates were identified as Bacillus spp. Three isolates from Makgeolli were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. B. amyloliquifaciens were isolated from six Korean traditional fermented foods except for Ganjang. B. amyloliquifaciens were majority in the effective bacterial population of Gochujang and Jutgal. Relatively diverse Bacillus species including B. subtilis, B. pumilus, and B. amyloliquificiens were isolated from Kimchi. The selected effective microorganisms from Korean fermented foods founded to be effective for controlling seed-borne diseases of rice in vitro and in the greenhouse. We think that Korean fermented foods and their useful microorganisms can be used as biocontrol agents for suppressing rice seed-borne diseases based on above described results.
Isolation and Characterization of Actinomycete Strain BK185 Possessing Antifungal Activity against Ginseng Root Rot Pathogens
Kim, Byung-Yong ; Bae, Mun-Hyung ; Ahn, Jae-Hyung ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ; Kim, Sung-Il ; Kim, Wan-Kyu ; Oh, Dong-Chan ; Song, Jaekyeong ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 396~403
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.396
Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is an economically valuable pharmaceutical crop in Korea. In order to find promising biocontrol agents for soil-borne fungal pathogens which infect ginseng roots, we have isolated actinomycete, BK185 from soil. The isolate was investigated for the antifungal activity against to ginseng rot pathogens prior to testing genetic and chemical properties. The strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. The most closely related species was S. sporoclivatus and S. geldanamycininus with high similarities (>99%). The isolate, BK185 showed positive reaction for PCR detection targeting biosynthetic gene clusters of PKS (Type-I polyketide synthase) and NRPS (Non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetase) genes. Major metabolite from the BK185 was analyzed by The LC/MS and identified to geldamycin, which was known to contained broad antibacterial, antifungal or anticancer activities. The results provide evidences that the strain, BK185 can be promising biocontrol agent for ginseng organic farming.
Effects of Repetitive using Lime Bordeaux Mixture in the Copper Concentration of the Soil and Ginseng Root
Jung, Won-Kwon ; Ahn, Deok-Jong ; Choi, Jin-Kook ; Ryu, Tae-Suk ; Jang, Myeong-Hwan ; Kwon, Tae-Ryong ; Park, Jun-Hong ; Park, Sang-Jo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 404~408
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.404
Three type of Lime Bordeaux mixture (LBM) that has been used since 1800`s for control plant disease are used for eco-friendly ginseng (Panax ginseng) disease control. But it was restricted the use in the crops cultivation in some countries of Europe recently, because there is a possibility that the copper component is concentrated in the soil and plants with using LBM containing copper. According to the concentration and number of LBM spraying treatment, it was investigated copper and other components in soil and ginseng root. In case of LBM sprayed 33 times for three years, copper concentration was increased up to 75.9 ppm in the soil. However copper concentration of ginseng root was increased with 9.9~23.0 mg/kg in comparison with 8.38~11.39 mg/kg at LBM non-treatment. It has shown that the copper components can be concentrated to in the soil if used continuously in the long term.
Control Efficacy of Mixed Application of Microbial and Chemical fungicides against Powdery mildew of red-pepper
Hong, Sung-Jun ; Kim, Jung-Hyun ; Kim, Yong-Ki ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Han, Eun-Jung ; Goo, Hyung-Jin ; Choi, Kwang-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 409~416
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.409
This study was conducted to reduce the using amount of chemical fungicides for the control of red-pepper powdery mildew. Effect of combined application of three microbial fungicides and six chemical fungicides for the control of red-pepper powdery mildew was examined in vitro, in pot assay and under field condition. One chemical fungicide (Azoxystrobin+Chlorothalonil) among six chemical fungicides significantly suppressed three microbial fungicides (Bacillus subtilis Y1336, Bacillus subtilis DBB1501, Bacillus subtilis QST-713) registered for the control of pepper powdery mildew in vitro. In the pot assay, two mixed application such as B. subtilis DBB1501+Trifloxystrobin, B. subtilis QST713+Trifloxystrobin among nine mixed applications of three microbial fungicides and three chemical fungicides showed the highest suppressive effect against red pepper powdery mildew. Also, suppressive effect of the mixed application of B. subtilis QST713 and Trifloxystrobin was similar to that of single application of three chemical fungicides(Myclobutanil, Trifloxystrobin, Hexaconazole). In the field test, when the microbial fungicides (B. subtilis DBB1501, B. subtilis QST713) and the chemical fungicide (Trifloxystrobin) for the control of powdery mildew of red pepper were mixed foliar sprayed four times at 7 day-intervals, the control values were in the range of 70.3% to 70.9%. On the other hand, when each of the chemical fungicide (Trifloxystrobin) was foliar sprayed four times at 7 day-intervals, the control value was 72.7%. Consequently, the mixed application of the microbial fungicides and chemical fungicides could be recommended as a one of control measures for reducing the using amount of chemical fungicides.
Insecticidal Activity of Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 against the Different Stages of Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua
Han, Ji Hee ; Kim, Jeong Jun ; Lee, SangYeob ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 417~421
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.417
The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua is pest which is difficult to control. For eco-friendly beet armyworm managements, we isolated entomopathogenic fungi from soil samples by insect-bait method using Tenebrio molitor and conducted bioassay to larvae of beet armyworm. The result of bioassay, a selected strain Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 caused 100% mortality against first ~ third instar larva of S. exigua at
and medial lethal time (
) were 0.5 days, 2.6 days and 2.5 days respectively. Mortality against fourth and fifth larvae were
and medial lethal time (
) were 4.2 days and 3.6 days respectively. Mortality against pupae and eggs of S. exigua were 100%. M. anisopliae FT83 showed high virulence at all developmental stages of S. exigua.
Endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain EP103 was effective against Phytophthora capsici causing blight in chili pepper
Kim, Tack-Soo ; Dutta, Swarnalee ; Lee, Se Won ; Park, Kyungseok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 422~428
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.422
Endophytic bacterial strains from root tissue of strawberry were screened for their efficacy in growth improvement and control of Phytophthora blight disease of chili pepper plant under greenhouse condition. Plants treated with the strain EP103, identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, showed growth improvement in terms of fresh weight and root length compared to the untreated control and other endophytic strains. When challenged with Phytophthora capsici, there was significant reduction of disease in EP103 treated plants with an efficacy of 78.7%. There was no direct inhibition of the target pathogen by EP103 when tested under in vitro antibiosis assay. Analysis of differential expression of selected marker genes for induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants treated with EP103 and challenged with P. capsici showed up-regulation of PR1 and PR10 pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. PCR analysis showed that EP103 produced secondary metabolites such as pyoluteorin, pyrrolnitrin, hydrogen cyanide and orfamide A. This study indicated the potential of endophytic P. fluorescens strain EP103 as an efficient biocontrol agent against P. capsici in chili pepper plant.
Pink Mold Rot on Apple (Malus pumila var. dulcissima Koidz.) Caused by Trichothecium roseum (Pers.) Link ex Gray in Korea
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Lee, Sang-Dae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 429~433
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.429
In 2012, a pink mold rot was observed on apple (Malus pumila var. dulcissima Koidz.) at the Wholesale Market for Agricultural Products, Jinju, Korea. The first symptom of pink mold rot on apple fruit is a water-soaked appearance of the affected tissue and surface fruit formed pink mold rot, then became brown and produced a mass of powdery pink conidia spores. Colony was fast growing colonies, pinksh, zonate in diurnal rhythm, powdery from conidia. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth was
. Conidia were hyaline, smooth, two-celled, thick-walled conidia with truncate bases, ellipsoidal to pyriform, and characteristically held together zig-zag chains and
in size. Conidiophore was erect, colorless, unbranched, and
wide. On the basis of mycological characteristics, pathogenicity test, and molecular identification with the ITS region, the causal fungus was identified as Trichothecium roseum (Pers.) Link ex Gray.
Control Efficacy of the Mixture of Fluxapyroxad Plus Pyraclostrobin against Pear Scab Caused by Venturia nashicola
Min, Kwang-Hyun ; Ryu, Jeong-Pil ; Kim, Ju-Mi ; Kim, Sun-Hwa ; Yim, Sun Hee ; Choi, Jang Jeon ; Cho, Baik Ho ; Yang, Kwang-Yeol ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 434~438
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.434
The mixture of fluxapyroxad plus pyraclostrobin or the 9 time-spray schedule with various fungicides was evaluated for their efficacy in controlling pear scab in field trials. It showed sufficient condition to evaluate the efficacy of fungicides for the control of pear scab since disease incidence of the untreated control plot was 58.4% or 100% on leaves or fruits, respectively. Pear scab on leaves was occurred by 6.3% at treated plot with the mixture of fluxapyroxad plus pyraclostrobin, resulting in the 89.2% of control value. Incidence of the fruit disease was 16.7% at treated plot with the mixture of fluxapyroxad plus pyraclostrobin, showing 83.3% of control value. When the 9 time-spray schedule was tested, pear scab was occurred by 5% or 13.3% on leaves or fruits, respectively. Their control values were the 91.4% on leaves or 86.7% on fruits. Although the 9 time-spray schedule showed slightly lower disease incidence than the mixture of fluxapyroxad plus pyraclostrobin, but there is no statistically significant difference. These results suggest that the mixture of fluxapyroxad plus pyraclostrobin can control effectively the pear scab.
Effect of Cinnamly Derivatives on Crop Growth Inhibition of Brassica campestris.
Kim, Jin Hyo ; Choi, Geun-Hyoung ; Park, Byung-Jun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 439~442
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.439
Cinnamyl derivatives are abundant secondary metabolite in biomass, and they have been studied on their biological activities. However, little information was available for plant growth regulation of the cinnamyl derivatives. In here, the acid, amide, alcohol, aldehyde and ester of cinnamyl derivatives were screened for their root growth inhibition properties including germination. The aldehyde, amide and ester derivatives showed better the root growth inhibition than the carboxylic acid, and the meta-positioned electron withdrawing group on cinnamyl derivatives enhanced the inhibition activity. 3-Chlorocinnamic acid, cinnamaimde and 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde were highlighted with the early stage root development inhibition (
< 100 mg/L) on Brassica campestris.