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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pesticide Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Pesticide Residues Survey and Safety Evaluation for Perilla Leaf & Lettuce on the Garak-dong Agricultural & Marine Products Market
Park, Won-Hee ; Hwang, In-Sook ; Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Cho, Tae-Hee ; Hong, Chae-Kyu ; Lee, Jae-In ; Choi, Su-Jeong ; Kim, Jin-A ; Lee, Yun-Jeong ; Kim, Mi-Sun ; Kim, Gi-Hae ; Kim, Moo-Sang ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 151~160
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.151
This study was conducted to monitor residual pesticides in perilla leaf & lettuce and to assess their risk to human health. The total number of perilla leaf & lettuce were 4,063 and 2,248 respectively and these products were collected at the Garak-dong Agricultural & Marine Products Market sold by auction from 2010 to 2012. Multi-residual analysis of 285 pesticides were performed by GC-ECD, GC-NPD, HPLC-DAD and HPLC-FLD. In perilla leaf, 61 pesticides were detected and detection rate was 20.0%. 28 pesticides were detected in case of lettuce and detection rate was 4.8%. In order to do risk assessment by perilla leaf & lettuce consumption, estimated daily intake of residual pesticides were determined and compared to acceptable daily intake, referring to hazard index (HI values). The range of % HI values of perilla leaf was from 0.000% to 0.049%. The range of % HI values of lettuce was from 0.000% to 0.095%. These results show that the risk caused by pesticide residues in perilla leaf & lettuce intake were very low and these vegetable intake was safe.
Gas Chromatographic Method for Multiresidue Analysis of Unregistered Pesticides in Imported Agricultural Commodities
Lee, Ji-Won ; Kang, Jeong-Kyun ; Kwon, Hyeyoung ; Ro, Jin-Ho ; Jin, Yong-Duk ; Lee, Je Bong ; Hong, Su-Myeoung ; Kim, Teak-Kyum ; Cho, Nam-Jun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 161~173
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.161
The multiresidue method 22.214.171.124 in Korea Food Code was extended for the analysis of 24 unregistered pesticide residues. The method includes acetonitrile extraction, liquid-liquid partition, Florisil SPE clean-up and GC analysis. The limits of quantification (LOQ) range of the method was 0.02~0.05 mg/kg for orange, brown rice and banana. The linearity for targeted pesticides were
> 0.99 at the level ranged from 0.05 to 5 mg/L. Recovery test was performed at two concentration levels of LOQ and 4~10 times of LOQ. Recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of target pesticides were acceptable, showing 70~120% range and less than 20%, respectively, except for ethiprole, picloram and sulcotrion. This method is effectively applicable to routine analysis of target pesticides in orange, brown rice and banana.
Adsorption and Metabolism of [
C]butachlor in Rice Plants Under Pot Cultivation
Kim, Ju-Hye ; Kim, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, Dae-Wook ; Lee, Bong-Jae ; Kim, Chansub ; Ihm, Yangbin ; Seo, Jong-Su ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 174~184
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.174
In the present study, the metabolism of [
]butachlor was investigated in rice plant according to the OECD test guideline No. 501. [
]Butachlor was treated as granule to paddy water by application of 1.5 kg ingredient (a.i.)/ha at the 3~4 leave stage of rice plant. At 85 days after treatment (DAT), samples of panicle, foliage, and roots were taken for radioactivity analysis. Upon harvest at 126 DAT, rice plants were separated into brown rice, husk, straw, and root parts. Amounts of total radioactivity absorbed by rice plant ranged from 8.6 to 9.8% of applied radioactivity (AR). Total radioactive residues (TRRs) of rice plant at 126 DAT was the highest as 4.0421 mg/kg (7.3% AR) in the straw followed by 1.4595 mg/kg (2.4% AR) in the root, 0.7257 mg/kg (0.1% AR) in the husk. The lowest level recording 0.1020 mg/kg (0.1% AR) was found in brown rice. Each part was extracted with various solvents and solvent/water mixtures. Greater than 70% of TRRs was readily extractable from foliage, panicle, husk and straw. Only 34.0% of the brown rice and 43% of root based on TRRs were extractable showing that the residues were completely assimilated in the plant tissue. The level of non-extractable radioactivity was ranged from 26.2 to 66.0% of TRRs. From this study, five tentative major metabolites (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5) were observed in rice extracts. Among the metabolites, 2,6-diethylaniline assigned as M4 was identified in rice plant by comparing to retention time of reference standard. Un-metabolized butachlor was not detected in any fractions. In soil extracts, N-(butoxymethyl)-N-(2,6-diethyl phenyl)acetamide, 2,6-diethylaniline, M2, M3 and M5 were observed. And the concentration of butachlor was low level (ca. 0.03 mg/kg).
Establishment of Analytical Method for Carpropamid in Agricultural Commodities using HPLC-DAD/MS
Lee, Hyeri ; Choi, Hoon ; Kim, Eunhye ; Lee, Young Deuk ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 185~194
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.185
This study was performed to establish a single residue analytical method for determining fungicide carpropamid residues in various agricultural commodities. Korean cabbage, apple, brown rice and green pepper were selected as representative crops. Samples were homogenized, extracted with acetone and purified by liquid-liquid partition and Florisil column chromatography. Carpropamid residues were analyzed at 220 nm with reversed phase HPLC equipped octylsilyl and octadecylsilyl column and confirmed using mass spectrometry. ILOQ (Instrumental limit of quantitation) of carpropamid was 2 ng and MLOQ (Method LOQ) was 0.02 mg/kg. Mean recoveries from four kinds of crop samples fortified at three levels (MLOQ, 10LOQ, 100LOQ) in triplicate were in the range of 84~112%. Relative standard deviations of the analytical method were all less than 10%, irrespective of crop types.
Determination of Quintozene Residues in Agricultural Commodities Using GC-ECD/MS
Ahn, Kyung-Geun ; Kim, Gyeong-Ha ; Kim, Gi-Ppeum ; Hwang, Young-Sun ; Hong, Seung-Beom ; Lee, Young Deuk ; Choung, Myoung-Gun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 195~203
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.195
Quintozene, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) is a contact fungicide for control of soilborne phytopathogenic fungi during cultivation of diverse crops. It was introduced to agricultural use around 1930's as a substitute for mercurial disinfectants. Although quintozene had been first registered in Korea on 1969. However, now it was banned to use due to its high residue levels in selected harvest products. Also, high possibility is expected that the residue may be contained in imported agricultural commodities as it is still used widely over the world. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish a determination method for quintozene residue in crops using GC/ECD/MS. Quintozene residue was extracted with acetonitrile from representative samples of five raw products which comprised hulled rice, soybean, Kimchi cabbage, green pepper, and apple. The extract was diluted with saline water, and n-hexane partition was followed to recover quintozene from the aqueous phase. Florisil column chromatography was additionally employed for final clean up of the extract. The quintozene was quantitated by GLC with ECD, using a DB-1 capillary column. The crops were fortified with quintozene at 3 levels per crop. Mean recoveries ranged from 79.9% to 102.7% in five representative agricultural commodities. The coefficients of variation were less than 4.3%. Quantitative limit of quintozene was 0.004 mg/kg in representative five crop samples. A GC/MS with selected-ion monitoring was also provided to confirm the suspected residue. Therefore, this analytical method was reproducible and sensitive enough to determine the residue of quintozene in agricultural commodities.
Residual Characteristics of Insecticide Acetamiprid in Asparagus under Greenhouse Condition
Kim, Jiwon ; Lee, Jungmin ; Lee, Doseung ; Kang, Seungtae ; Kim, Dae-Woon ; Lee, Dong-Sun ; Riu, Key-Zung ; Boo, Kyung Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 204~209
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.204
This study was carried out to investigate residual characteristics of insecticide acetamiprid in asparagus under greenhouse condition from July to August and consequentially to obtain basic data for guideline on safe use of this pesticide in asparagus. Residues of acetamiprid in young stem of asparagus before and after removing foliage were analyzed from samples harvested at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after single application before harvest. As a result, residues of acetamiprid in young stem of asparagus before and after removing foliage at 0 day were 0.27 mg/kg and 0.14 mg/kg, respectively, which were higher than tentative limit (0.1 mg/kg). However, 3 days later residues of acetamiprid were lower than the tentative limit, representing 0.08 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg in the asparagus before and after removing foliage, respectively. Acetamiprid was undetectable in both samples at 5 days since the concentrations were less than detection limit (0.02 mg/kg) in this study. In summary, the half-life of acetamiprid in asparagus regardless of removing foliage was quite short under greenhouse condition from July to August, in the range of 1-3 days, and single application of acetamiprid water dispersible granule in/on asparagus at 7 days before harvest would have no problem on safety issues about pesticide residue. This result might be basic information to construct guideline for safe use of acetamiprid in asparagus.
Development and Validation of an Official Analytical Method for Determination of Ipfencarbazone in Agricultural Products using GC-ECD
Jang, Jin ; Kim, Heejung ; Lee, Eun-Hyang ; Ko, Ah-Young ; Ju, Yunji ; Kim, Sooyeon ; Chang, Moon-Ik ; Rhee, Gyu-Seek ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 210~217
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.210
Ipfencarbazone is a herbicide of the tetrazolinone class, and is believed to be an inhibitor of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), which control cell division in weeds. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an official analytical method for ipfencarbazone determination in agricultural products. The ipfencarbazone residues in agricultural products were extracted with acetone, partitioned with n-hexane, and then purified through silica SPE cartridge. Finally, the analyte was quantified by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and confirmed with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer(GC/MS). The linear range of ipfencarbazone was 0.01 to 1.0 mg/L with the coefficient of determination (
) of 0.9999. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) was 0.003 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, average recoveries of ipfencarbazone ranged from 80.6% to 112.3% at the different concentration levels LOQ, 10LOQ and 50LOQ, while the relative standard deviation was 2.2-8.6%. All values were consistent with the criteria ranges requested in the CODEX guidelines. Furthermore, and inter-laboratory study was conducted to validate the method. This proposed method for determination of ipfencarbazone residues in agricultural products can be used as an official analytical method.
Proficiency Testing for the HPLC Analysis of Azoxystrobin, Imidacloprid and Methabenzthiazuron Residues in Soil
Kim, Chan-Sub ; Son, Kyeong-Ae ; Gil, Geun-Hwan ; Im, Geon-Jae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 218~229
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.218
The proficiency testing for the residue laboratories of pesticide registration was conducted in order to improve the reliability and the ability for pesticide residue analysis. On November 2012 the testing was carried out using the soil collected and kept as the moistened state for five years, which was expected to very low residue levels of pesticides. The soil was fortified with azoxystrobin, imidacloprid and methabenzthiazuron in a manner similar to prepare soil samples for indoor soil degradation test, and then sub-samples were prepared for the distribution to participants. Some of them were randomly selected for confirm of homogeneity and to ensure the stability of samples at room temperature. Samples were consisted of two soils treated as different levels, one of which was used to the assessment and another used to confirm. In addition, provided three standard solutions, respectively concentration of 10 mg/L, and untreated soil. Forty eight institutions submitted results. The medians of results were used as the assigned values for pesticide residues. Fitness for purpose standard deviation of proficiency test was calculated by applying 20% RSD as the coefficient of variation allowed in the soil residue test. Z-score was applied for evaluation of individual pesticides, and the average of the absolute value of the Z-score for the overall assessment of pesticides. Laboratories evaluated the absolute value of the Z-score less than 2 to fit the case of azoxystrobin were 48, imidacloprid and methabenzthiazuron 46.
Evaluation for Application of IOM Sampler for Agricultural Farmer's Inhalation Exposure to Kresoxim-methyl and Fenthion
Lee, Jiho ; Kim, Eunhye ; Lee, Jonghwa ; Shin, Yongho ; Maasfeld, Wolfgang ; Choi, Hoon ; Moon, Joon-Kwan ; Lee, Hyeri ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 230~240
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.230
An IOM sampler equipped with glass fiber filter has been recently utilized instead of solid adsorbent, which was used to measure the inhalation exposure of agricultural operator to pesticides. The aim of this study is to validate the efficacy of an IOM sampler by measuring the trapping efficiency and breakthrough using kresoxim-methyl water-dispersible granule and fenthion emulsifiable concentrate. On LC-MS/ MS, minimum detection level was 12.5 pg and method limit of detection was 5.0 ng/mL. Good linearity (
> 0.999) for matrix matched standards was obtained. Recoveries of pesticides from glass fiber filter were 102-109% (kresoxim-methyl) and 97-104% (fenthion) while those from XAD-2 resin were 94-98% (kresoxim methyl) and 93-100% (fenthion). Trapping efficiency test was performed with personal air pumps and IOM sampler (glass fiber filter) connected with solid adsorbent (XAD-2 resin) with two types of formulation (solid and liquid) which were diluted by standard rate and sprayed to IOM sampler. Those pesticides were trapped only in glass fiber filter without any breakthrough to solid adsorbent. After spiking of pesticides to glass fiber filter, breakthrough test was carried out with IOM sampler (glass fiber filter) which was connected with solid adsorbent. As a results, 87-101% of kresoxim-methyl and 96-105% of fenthion remained in spiked glass fiber filter, however, no pesticides were detected in second glass fiber filter and solid adsorbent. In conclusion, IOM sampler which equipped with glass fiber filter can be applied widely for pesticide inhalation exposure study since it has good trapping efficiency and adsorption capacity, regardless of the solid or liquid formulation.
Study of Feasibility Test: FT-NIR Spectrometer for Discrimination Analysis of Agrochemical Products
Jin, Jung-Hwa ; Baek, Oh-Hyen ; Shin, Jae-Yeon ; Ha, Huen-Young ; Choi, Dal-Soon ; Park, Sung-Eun ; lhm, Yangbin ; Hong, Jin-Whan ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 241~247
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.241
This study has been conducted to verify the applicability of FT-NIR (Fourier Transform Near Infrared) to prove coidentity between market agrochemical products and registered prescriptions. The spectrum correlations were investigated on 83 registered samples and there market products, 23 products which had same formulation and active ingredients and 68 products which had different active ingredients. In 83 samples/products, the primary differentiated spectrum correlation values were 95.86~100%, which mean that all samples qualified over 95% threshold. In 23 products which had same active ingredients and formulations, correlation values were 29.09~99.83%. 3 products over 99.0% were proved to have same active/inert ingredients and formulations although they're from different manufacturers. The rest products except the 3 items were under 95%. In 68 products had different active ingredients, correlation values varied from 2.00% to 93.70%. Higher correlation is supposed to come from similarity of inert ingredients despite different active ingredients. They can be decided to unqualify under 95% threshold. So applicability of FT-NIR has been verified on qualitative distinction of coidentity between registered market agrochemicals.
Patterns of Uptake and Removal by Processing Types of Triazole Fungicides in Onion
Lee, Eun-Hyang ; Hwang, Jeong-In ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 248~254
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.248
Uptake of the triazole fungicides, fluquinconazole and tetraconazole from shoot part of onion was assessed by determining residual amounts of applied fungicides in edible and shoot parts of onion after the foliar application. Combined product of fluquinconazole and tetraconazole (14:7, v/v) as a 21% active ingredient of suspended emulsion formulation was diluted at ratio of 500 and 200 times and sprayed on the shoot part of onion after sealing its root part with absorbent paper. At 10 days after the pesticide application, fluquinconazole residue in the shoot part was the greatest as 5.2 mg/kg at 200 times-dilution treatment, while tetraconazole residue in this part was the smallest as 1.2 mg/kg at 500 times-dilution treatment. On the other hand, the pesticide residues in edible parts of onion at all the treatments were less than limits of detection, 0.01 mg/kg. However, fluquinconazole residues in the edible part of onion divided into three groups such as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd layers were detected at concentrations of 0.04 or 0.24 mg/kg, and these results show the different distribution of pesticides in onion depending on divided layers. In addition, chopped onions were soaked in pesticide solutions prepared with dilution of 1,000 times, cooked using three food processing types such as boiling, stir frying, and pickling, and the pesticide residues in them were analyzed. The analyzed results showed the largest pesticide dissipation in onion followed boiling process (76.9~92.6%).
Evaluation of Fish Acute Toxicity and Preliminary Risk Assessment of Plant Extracts, Sophora, Neem and Derris
Park, Kyung-Hun ; Oh, Jin-A ; Paik, Min-Kyoung ; Son, Mi-Yeon ; Lim, Joung-Taek ; Jin, Jung-hwa ; Hong, Soonsung ; Cho, Nam-jun ; Han, Sang-Gyun ; Kim, Byung-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 255~263
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.255
Promoting the organic farming, much of the plant extracts used for controlling pests and fungi have been imported from China, India and Myanmar. But, it is so worrisome that aquatic animals such as muddy loach inhabiting in paddy field and common carps in river exposed to the pests and fungi likely be harmed. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the risks of aquatic animals influenced by the three plant extracts, i.e. Sophora flavescens, Azadirachta indica and Derris elliptica. The toxicities of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio), muddy loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) and PEC (Predicted environmental concentration) exposed to the three plant extracts were estimated by the typical spray volume method. Risks were determined by the toxicity value as 48-hr
(Lethal concentration, median) or NOEC (No observed effect concentration) into PEC. 48-hr
of Common carp and NOEC by Sophora flavescens extracts was 7.9 and 6.2 mg/L, 26.8 and 21.8 mg/L by Azadirachta indica extracts and 47.0 and < 24.0 mg/L by Derris elliptica extracts, respectively. 48-hr
of Muddy loach and NOEC by Sophora flavescens extracts was 16.9 and 10.0 mg/L, 35.6 and 30.0 mg/L by Azadirachta indica extracts, and 73.9 and < 40 mg/L by Derris elliptica extracts, respectively. Therefore, acute toxicities of the three plant extracts for aquatic animals were proved to be very low level. PEC of Sophora flavescens extracts in paddy, drainage and river water was 68.0~3.0, 11.33~0.50 and 3.0~0.0018 mg/L, respectively. TER of Sophora flavescens extracts in the three water was 0.2~5.6, 1.5~33.8 and 2.6~4388.9, respectively. PEC of Azadirachta indica extracts in paddy, drainage and river water was 90.9~1.2, 15.2~0.2 and 4.8~0.00075 mg/L, respectively. TER of Azadirachta indica extracts in the three water was 0.4~29.7, 2.3~178.0 and 4.5~35733.3, respectively. PEC of Derris elliptica extracts in river water was 0.0063 mg/L. TER of Derris elliptica extracts in river water was 5222~15667.
Evaluation of Insecticidal Activity of Pesticides Against Hemipteran Pests on Apple Orchard
Lee, Sun-Young ; Yoon, Changmann ; Do, Yun-Su ; Lee, Dong-Hyuk ; Lee, Jung-Sup ; Choi, Kyung-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 264~271
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.264
Stink bugs do damage on various crops including upland crops and tree fruits. Especially, yellow-brown stink bug (Halyomorpha halys (
)) and brown-winged green (Plautia stali) are severely damaged on apple orchard. Using seven insecticides - dinotefuran WP, etofenprox WP, chlorpyrifos WP, cabaryl WP, chlothianidin SC, flonicamid WG, and bifenthrin WG - registered on apple, contact and residual toxicities were tested on both male and female of P. stali and H. halys that preferred apple fruit. Contact toxicity of dinotefuran WP was excellent on male P. stali 48 hours after treatment (HAT) with 96.7% and significant on male Halyomorpha halys 48 HAT with 74.5% but the others had low effect. Contact toxicity on these stink bugs were higher in male than female. All insecticides except flonicamid, residual effects were all effective on both male and female of P. stali, while chlorpyrifos and bifenthrin were showed higher residual toxicity on both male and female of H. halys in laboratory condition. Two insecticides, chlorpyrifos and bifenthrin, were selected for the field test. Bifenthrin have a high residual effect on P. stali until 5 days after treatment, but have a low residual toxicity on H. halys in the field test. Chlorpyrifos showed higher residual toxicity in the laboratory, however, showed low residual efficacy on two species stink bug onto the field.
Sensitivity to Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Isolated from Persimmon in 2013 in Sangju, Gyeongsangbukdo
Lim, Tae Heon ; Lee, Dong Woon ; Kwon, Oh Gyeong ; Han, Sangsub ; Cha, Byeongjin ; Song, In Kyu ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 272~278
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.272
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious pathogens of persimmon in Korea. In 2013, 67 isolates of C. gloeosporioides were isolated from infected fruits, leaf and twigs of persimmon (Diosprosi kaki) at Sangju, Gyeongsangbukdo and fungal responses against five fungicides (prochloraz manganese complex, tebuconazole, mancozeb+myclobutanil, fluquinconazole+prochloraz, and tebuconazole+tolyfluanid) were evaluated by their growth on the fungicide-medium. All isolates were inhibited mycelium growth on the medium with each recommended application concentration of flied.
) of tebuconazole was from 0.02 to 1.04 and average was 0.31.
) of prochloraz manganese complex was 0.02~0.23 average was 0.078. Average
) of Fluquinconazole+Prochloraz (FP) was 0.029. On the basis
), the correlation coefficient (r) between tebuconazole and prochloraz manganese complex, prochloraz manganese complex and FP, tebuconazole and FP were 0.42, 0.44 and 0.27, respectively.
Mass Production of a Recombinant Baculovirus Expressing CpBV-ELP1 and Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua
Park, Arum ; Kim, Yonggyun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 279~286
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.279
Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) is a polydnavirus symbiotic to C. plutellae parasitizing young larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Several CpBV genes play important roles in suppressing immune responses of the parasitized larvae. This study tested a hypothesis that the CpBV genes inducing host immunosuppression could be applied to develop a potent recombinant baculovirus. Based on a previous study, a recombinant baculovirus expressing CpBV-ELP1 (AcMNPV-ELP1) was selected and multiplied using larvae of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. The recombinant viruses were produced in a yield of
polyhedral inclusion body (PIB)/larva. The cultured AcMNPV-ELP1 exhibited a much higher pathogenicity against S. exigua larvae. However, its insecticidal activity was varied among larval instars of S. exigua, in which first and late instars were high susceptible. Spray of the recombinant baculovirus (
) exhibited higher control efficacy (
88%) against S. exigua larvae infesting cabbage than a chemical insecticide, tebufenozide, at 7 days after treatment. These results indicate that AcMNPV-ELP1 mass-cultured using host insect system is highly pathogenic and can be applied to develop a novel microbial control agent.
Development of Control Method for Strawberry Bacterial Angular Spot Disease (Xanthomonas fragariae)
Kim, Da-Ran ; Gang, Geun-Hye ; Cho, Hyun ji ; Myung, Inn-Shik ; Yoon, Hae-Suk ; Kwak, Youn-Sig ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 287~294
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.287
In Korea, Strawberry bacterial angular leaf spot disease was first reported in 2010. The disease of strawberry caused serious problem for strawberry producers and export. To field test, we applied the bactericides in June and October as nursery stage and cultivation stage, respectively. In nursery stage with high temperature condition, Oxolinic acid (97.2%) showed significant control effect. In cultivation stage with low temperature condition is soil sterilization and soil non- sterilization the control effect. In cultivation stage in soil sterilization stage Validamycin (93.3%) showed reliable control effect against the disease. Also, soil non-sterilization stage with low control effect of Validamycin (80%) showed control effect the lower than a soil sterilization stage.
Studies on Botrytis cinerea Density in Packing Shed and Gray Mold Incidence Following Storage-Temperature in Exported Strawberry
Kim, Da-Ran ; Jeon, Chang Wook ; kwak, Youn-Sig ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 295~300
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.295
Currently, amount of export strawberry has been continuously increased to ship many south Asia countries, including Hong Kong and Singapore. In the distribution process, significant damage to the quality has been caused depending on the environmental conditions. Gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea has been known as major damage to the export strawberry, and the disease was caused during shipping and distribution to the final consumers. This study was performed to assess the relationship between pathogen density in packing shed and disease incidence of gray mold during storage period. Maximum gray mold disease incidence in storage period was up to 16% with low temperature condition (
). At room temperature condition, the disease incidence reached up to 100% even densities of the pathogen spore were recorded relatively low in the packing shed. As results of the study, the correlation between pathogen density in the air and disease occurrence clearly clarified.
A Technique to Enhance Insecticidal Efficacy Using Bt Cry Toxin Mixture and Eicosanoid Biosynthesis Inhibitor
Eom, Seonghyeon ; Park, Youngjin ; Kim, Yonggyun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 301~311
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.301
To enhance Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) efficacy, four Cry toxins were purified from four different Bt strains and assessed in their combined efficacy. The Cry mixtures significantly expanded their target insect spectra. Bacterial culture broth of Xenorhabdus nematophila (Xn) significantly suppressed insect cellular immune response and increased Cry toxicity. The addition of Xn culture broth to Cry mixture significantly enhanced Bt efficacy in target insect spectrum and insecticidal activity.
Improvement and Effectiveness for Chemical Control Protocol of Sweet Persimmon Anthracnose Disease
Jeon, Chang Wook ; Kwon, Youngho ; Lee, Jung Han ; Kwak, Youn-Sig ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 312~316
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.312
Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp. is the most important and devastating disease in sweet persimmon production in worldwide. There is no alternative control method or resistant cultivar is available. Therefore, chemical controls are widely accepted to control the disease. Three fungicides among 16 fungicides have been selected to apply in field condition. The selected three fungicides (metconazole, dithianon and propineb) showed lower EC50 and reliable control effect in both in vitro and in vivo. According to general guide line of anthracnose disease control method recommended 8 times spay of the fungicide. In this study, we performed 8, 4, and 2 times spay of the fungicides. For 8 times application, practice spray machine has been used and for 4 and 2 time application, a recently invented spray machine was input. The fungicides have been treated from middle of June to end of August in 2014 year. Control effect of among the selected fungicides showed similar result regardless of sort of the fungicide. However, frequency of spray result showed significantly different results, 8 and 4 times fungicide application showed low and similar disease occurrence, but 2 times application showed intermediated disease occurrence between 4 times treatment and untreated control. Taken together, result showed that 4 times application with effective fungicide, mechanically advanced tool can reduced the anthracnose disease damage in sweet persimmon production.
Adhesion Amount of Acetamipride on Plant and the Pest Control Effect According to the Reduced Application Amount
Kim, Young-Shin ; Jang, Ji-Woong ; Jin, Na-Young ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ; Lim, Chi-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 317~322
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.317
This study was conducted to obtain basic data for deriving the appropriate application amount of insecticide for effective pest control. We have investigated the correlation among the application amount of insecticide, the adhesion amount of active ingredient and the pest control effect. The linear standard curve of acetamiprid was
, and the scope of the recovery factor was between 71% and 93% with less than 6% of the coefficient of variation. During the test conducted in 2015, the application amount was reduced to 302 L/10a which was 70 L less than the previous year and the spraying pressure was reduced as well. After analyzing the adhesion amount of active ingredient, it was found that a correlation coefficient of adhesion amount of the active ingredients became lower from 82% to 69%, that indicated insecticide liquid was evenly distributed compared to 2014. Also more than 95% of control effect was displayed, thereby indicating that there is a close relation with the correlation coefficient of the adhesion amount of active ingredient. It also presented that the adhesion amount of active ingredient on the ground was 2.2 times more than that on the leaves of apple trees.
Control Efficacy of Fungicides on Pepper Bacterial Wilt
Lee, Soo Min ; Kwak, Yeon Soo ; Lee, Kyeong Hee ; Kim, Heung Tae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 323~328
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.323
Control efficacy was investigated with fungicides as 3 copper compound, 3 antibiotic fungicides and one fungicide containing to quinolone against the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum on NA medium and the disease occurrence on pepper seedlings. Among 7 fungicides, oxytetracycline was shown the highest activity against a growth of the pathogen in the agar diffusion method, but validamycin showed no activity against the pathogen. With
of each copper fungicide as copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride+ dithianone and copper sulfate, 2.2, 1.3 and 1.5 mm in size of clear zone only could be found, respectively. In pepper seedling test, oxytetracycline showed a perfect activity in all treatments 7 days after inoculation. However, its activity was decreased from
of treatment over the time. Copper fungicides showed the control efficacy lower than antibiotic fungicides except for validamycin. Based on the results, it was suggested that it would be better to use antibiotic fungicides than copper fungicides to control pepper bacterial wilt in the fields.
Monitoring for the Resistance of Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold Against Mepanipyrim
Kim, Ah Hyeong ; Kim, Seon Bo ; Han, Kee Don ; Kim, Heung Tae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 329~334
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.329
With 86 isolates of Botrytis cinerea obtained from diseased fruits of tomato, strawberry and cucumber, it was conducted to detect the fungicide resistance of B. cinerea against mepanipyrim through an agar dilution method. FGA medium was used for monitoring the resistance. Among 86 isolates of B. cinerea, resistant isolates were composed by 23.3%, which was different according to regions isolating the pathogen. In accordance with isolation region, the isolation frequency of resistant isolates was as follows; that of Gyeonggi, Gyeongnam/Pusan and chungnam was 28.6%, 33.3% and 12.8%, respectively. The resistant isolates of B. cinerea showed the cross resistance between mepanipyrim and pyrimethanil. Also the pathogenicity of B. cinerea resistant to mepanipyrim was high as like that of sensitive isolates. Because of them, it should be necessary to manage the spraying system of mepanipyrim and the monitoring for the fungicide resistance.
Identification, Mycological Characteristics and Response to fungicides of Anthracnose Pathogen Isolated from Pepper and Boxthorn in Cheongyang
Kim, Gahye ; Kim, Joohyeng ; Kim, Heung Tae ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 19, issue 3, 2015, Pages 335~344
DOI : 10.7585/kjps.2015.19.3.335
It was conducted to identify all 47 isolates obtained from infected fruits of pepper and boxthorn, and to investigate the mycological characteristics and the response to fungicides. All of 11 isolates from pepper were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum included into A2 group. Among 36 isolates from boxthorn, 14 isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides, and the others were done as C. acutatum, which were composed as A1 group with 15 isolates and A3 with 7 isolates. After incubating the isolates on PDA at
for 10 days, the colony color of C. acutatum was greyish white, while that of C. gloeosporioides was orange at center of colony and was gradually turned into an greyish white to the periphery. The rate of conidia showing ellongated ellipsoidal shape with round ends was over 95% in C. acutatum isolated from pepper. However, C. acutatum isolated from boxthorn produced ellongated ellipsoidal conidia with the rate of 75%, and the others were pointed at one or both ends. Regardless of species of Colletotrichum, all isolated used in this study was showed an optimal temperature at
values of all isolates of Colletotrichum spp. to 2 fungicides as carbendazim and the mixture of carbendazim and diethofencarb was investigated by an agar dilution method. With C. acutatum isolates from pepper belonged to A2 group, the mean of
value to carbendazim and the mixture of carbendazim and diethofencarb was 0.68 and
, respectively. In the case of C. acutatum isolates from boxthorn, which were divided into 2 groups as A1 and A3 group, that to carbendazim was 0.21 at A1 and
at A3, while that to the mixture was 1.52 and
. Isolates of C. gloeosporioides showed the mean of
to carbendazim and
to the mixture. The value of resistant factor was higher in the isolates of C. acutatum obtained in boxthorn than those from pepper.