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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pesticide Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Dec 1998
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Sep 1998
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Apr 1998
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of phloem translocation of photoassimilates and herbicides
Kim, Song-Mun ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ; Han, Dae-Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~11
The generally accepted idea for carbohydrate translocation in plants is an osmotic pressure flow hypothesis. According to the hypothesis, a high concentration of carbohydrate in the phloem of carbohydrate synthesis regions (source) causes a water influx into the phloem. The generated osmotic potential in the phloem is responsible for long distance carbohydrate transport through the positive hydrostatic pressure. In regions of carbohydrate utilization and storage (sink), translocated carbohydrates are continuously metabolized and compartmentalized, generating a concentration gradient between source and sinks. In this system, carbohydrates load into the phloem (phloem loading) and unload out of the phloem (phloem unloading). Phloem-mobile herbicides that are applied to plants are also translocated from the source to sinks. However, some experimental results reveal that the patterns of phloem translocation between carbohydrates and herbicides are different. The differences are due, in part, to the physico-chemical properties of herbicides and to the absence/presence of specific carrier(s) in the phloem.
Synthesis and biological activities of organophosphate and carbamate compounds derived from 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzoic acid and 3-hydroxy-4-nitrobenzoic acid
Choi, Dal-Soon ; Kyung, Suk-Hun ; Kwon, Oh-Kyung ; Seong, Ki-Seog ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 12~17
Salicylic acid and 3-hydroxy benzoic acid are nitrated and esterified with some alcohols. Five phosphate and six carbamate compounds of alkyl-5-nitrosalicylate and alkyl-3-hydroxy-4-nitrobenzoate are synthesized by reacting alkyl-5-nitrosalicylate and alkyl-3-hydroxy-4-nitrobenzoate with diethyl-chlorophosphate and methyl isocyanate. As the bioassay results of synthesized compounds on five insects and six pathogens, the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) mortality of O-(2-carbomethoxy-4-nitrophenyl) O,O-diethylphosphate and O-(2-nitro-5-carbo methoxyphenyl) O,O-diethylphosphate was 96%, while four compounds including O-(2-carbo-(2-chloroethoxy)-4-nitrophenyl) O,O-diethylphosphate showed more than 95% of fungicidal activity on rice blast.
Synthetic method and insecticidal activity of ricinine
Kwon, Oh-Kyung ; Lim, Soo-Kil ; Choi, Dal-Soon ; Kyung, Suk-Hun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 18~23
In order to obtain leading compound for the development of new pesticide through the organic synthesis of natural products, the synthesis of ricinine, an active compound of Ricinus communis, was established and biological activities of synthetic compounds against insects were examined. The synthetic scheme of ricinine was composed of four steps by the spontaneous condensation of the cyanoacetyl chloride. A modified synthetic process was also estabilshed to enhance the synthetic yield by simple cyclization of ethoxymethylene malononitrile. In the bioassay results of synthetic ricinine and intermediates on four insects, the mortality of ricinine on brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and pea weevil(PW, Bruchus rufimanus) was 80% and 75% at the concentration of 1,000
respectively. Chloronorricinine and chlororicinic acid having chloride group in molecular structure gave 60% mortality on two-spotted mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae) at the concentration of 500
. The mortality of compounds on house mosquito (HM, Culex pipens pallens) was meager at 10
Synthesis and pesticidal activity of ricinine derivatives
Kwon, Oh-Kyung ; Lim, Soo-Kil ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Lee, Sung-Eun ; Kyung, Suk-Hun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 24~31
Chemical derivative synthesis of ricinine, an active compound of Ricinus communis which showed high mortality against brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), was performed to improve its pesticidal activity and the toxicity of 12 synthetic derivatives against major insect pests and phytopathogenic fungi were examined. Carbamate derivatives of ricinine could be synthesized from the precursor of ricinine, chloronorricinine and norricinine, whereas the derivatives were not synthesized from chlororicinic acid and ricinic acid having ketone group of pyridine ring. In organophosphates, reaction with oxon type of phosphate gave better yield than thiono type. Among the organophosphate derivatives of ricinine, thiono type of derivative structure gave
mortality of the brown planthopper and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) at 500
level. On the other hand, carbamate derivatives did not show insecticidal activity. In the fungicidal activity of ricinine derivatives, the derivative having amino radical at the 2 position of ricinine gave 85 to 100% of mycelium growth inhibition effect against ten major plant pathogens at the 200
level. In particular, the control value of the derivative on the rice blast (Pyricularia grisea) and barley powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis) at the 250
level in vivo under greenhouse conditions was 92% and 96%, respectively
Improvement of floating ability and storage stability for jumbo granules
Kim, Seung-Ho ; An, Byoung-Woo ; Chung, Bong-Jin ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 32~39
This study was performed to develop jumbo granules floated and spreaded on the water surface after application, having low production and formulation cost, and safe to environment for paddy herbicides and to establish the formulation recipe. The jumbo granules of azimsulfuron with molinate(0.075+7.5%) was formulated by KCl as water soluble carrier and paraffin oil as solvent to impose the floating and spreading force to granules. That showed 100% of total granules to be floated on and spreaded upto the water surface within 25 minutes after application. Change in carriers, surfactants and pH did not affected to improve the time-course degradation of azimsulfuron in jumbo granules, but salt formation of azimsulfuron added by 1.15M solution of NaOH a little. Addition of N-methyl acrylate and modification of formulation process affected decrease in degradation of azimsulfuron upto 1.2, 2.1, and 7.2% after 2, 6 and 12 weeks under storage at
, respectively, which showed the establishment of formulation recipe of the jumbo granules.
Characterization of an antifungal compound isolated from an antagonistic fungus Aspergillus terreus against phytopathogenic fungi
Kim, Keun-Ki ; Kang, Jae-Gon ; Choi, Yong-Lark ; Yun, Han-Dae ; Ha, Ho-Sung ; Kang, Kyu-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 40~45
An antagonistic fungus inhibiting growth of various phytopathogenic fungi was isolated from greenhouse soils and identified. Mophological features of fruiting structures on potato dextrose agar and colorless globose to ovate heavy walled hyaline cells from the vegetative mycelium grown on MY20 agar indicate that this antagonist is Aspergillus terreus. The antagonistic activity is due to the production of antifungal compounds. An antifungal compound was purified from its culture filtrate using chloroform extraction, column chromatography, and thin layer chromatography. The purified antibiotic was effective to various phytopathogenic fungi and identified as butyrolactone I.
values measured by petri-plate assay through effective dosage(ED)-probit analysis were 9.7, 13.7, 23.3, 42.6 and 102.7 ppm on Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively.
Kinetics and mechanism of hydrolysis of insecticidal buprofezin
Sung, Nack-Do ; Yu, Seong-Jae ; Choi, Kyung-Sub ; Kwon, Ki-Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 46~52
The hydrolysis rate of insecticidal buprofezin(IUPAC : tert-butylimino-3-isopropyl-5-phenylperhydro-1,3,5-thiadiazin-4-one) in the range of pH 2.0 and 12.0 have been examined in 15%(v/v) aqueous dioxane at
. The hydrolysis mechanism of buprofezin is proposed from the pH-effect, solvent effect(
), thermodynamic parameter(
), rate equation and hydrolysis product, l-isopropyl-3-phenyl urea. General acid catalyzed hydrolysis and specific acid catalyzed(
) hydrolysis through
) reaction mechanism with orbital-control reaction proceed below pH 8.0 and above pH 9.0, the nucleophilic addition-elimination,
mechanism via tetrahedral(
) intermediate is initiation by general base catalyzed(
) reaction. Buprofezin was more stable in alkaline (
) than acid solutions from the sigmoid pH-rate profile. And the half-life(
) of hydrolysis reaction in neutral aqueous solution(pH 7.0) at
was about 3 months.
Leaching, soil residue, and volatilization of dicamba from controlled release granular formulations
Oh, Kyeong-Seok ; Oh, Byung-Youl ; Park, Seung-Soon ; Jin, Yong-Duk ; Lee, Jae-Koo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 53~58
In order to minimize harmful side effects, extend weed control performance, and control the releasing rate of the active ingredient, dicamba controlled release granular formulations were prepared with starch as matrix. Leaching, soil residue, and volatilization of the granules were compared with dicamba soluble concentrate formulation (SL). Leaching of dicamba through the soil applied with the granules could be reduced more than 50% as compared with that of dicamba SL. The half life of dicamba in loamy soil treated with the granules was 50 to 51 days, while that in sand loamy soil was 50 to 58 days. Whereas, the half life of dicamba in loamy and sand loamy soil applied with dicamba SL was 24 and 22 days, respectively. Volatilization of dicamba from the granules was 10 times less than that of dicamba SL.
Leaching behavior of the herbicide bentazon in soil column
Kyung, Kee-Sung ; Oh, Kyeong-Seok ; Ahn, Ki-Chang ; Kwon, Jeong-Wook ; Lee, Jae-Koo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 59~64
In order to elucidate the leaching behaviour of the herbicide bentazon in soil, soil columns(5cm ID
34 cm L) were packed with three different soils up to 30 cm height, followed by the treatment of [
]bentazon, and rice plants(Oryza sativa L.) were grown for 9 weeks on these columns, with the columns without growing rice plants as the control for comparison. The amounts of
activities percolated were about 92% of the originally applied
irrespective of the physicochemical properties of the soils in the absence of rice plants, whereas
of the originally applied
was percolated in the presence of rice plants, suggesting that the amounts of
leached decreased remarkably in rice-cultivating soils. Bentazon leached faster in soil with higher pH and with lower organic matter content in the presence of growing rice plants. The amounts of
evolved from the soil columns were less than 0.2% of the originally applied
. Smaller amounts of
were translocated into shoots via roots in soils with higher organic matter content.
activities distributed into the aqueous phase of the leachate collected from the soil columns increased with leaching period and by rice cultivation, whereas the physico-chemical properties of soils did not exhibit any effect. The amounts of soil-bound residues increased remarkably by cultivating rice plants.
Market survey on total bromide residues in foods
Park, Kun-Sang ; Hong, Moo-Ki ; Choi, Dong-Mi ; Oh, Chang-Hwan ; Hwang, In-Gyun ; Park, Jong-Sei ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 65~69
To determine the amount of total bromide as 2-bromoethanol, the domestic agricultural products such as rice, barley, carrot, cucumber, apple, tomato, squash, green pepper, melon, strawberry, grape, peach, potato and celery were analyzed by GC/MSD as well as GC/ECD. The bromide was detected in most of the domestic samples and the highest bromide residue determined was 13.2 ppm in barley. The imported agricultural products including melon, kiwi, lemon, pineapple, banana, orange and grape were also analyzed for the bromide. The bromide was also detected in most of the imported ones and the highest bromide residue determined was 12.3 ppm in pineapple. In addition, the bromide residue in instant noodle spices was monitored for 4 years, recently. As results, in 1994, the bromide content was in the range of non-detection to 2.4 ppm (average 1.1 ppm) from 22 out of 24 samples; in 1995, the bromide content was 1.0 and 2.2 ppm from 2 out of 37 samples; in 1996, the bromide content was in the range of 0.7 to 37 ppm (average 12.4 ppm) from all 11 samples; and in 1997, the bromide content was in the range of 0.2 to 4.6 ppm (average 1.2 ppm) from all 59 samples. However, none of sample analyzed for the bromide was exceeded Maximum Residue Limit(s) of Korea and Codex in these survey.
Characteristics of adsorption-desorption of herbicide paraquat in soils
Lee, Seog-June ; Kim, Byung-Ha ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 70~78
This study was conducted to investigate the adsorption-desorption characteristics of herbicide paraquat on clay minerals, humic materials, and soils under the laboratory conditions. Adsorption time of paraquat on clay minerals was faster than organic materials and soils. Adsorption amount on montmorillonite, 2:1 expanding-lattice clay mineral, was largest among the adsorbents tested. The adsorption capacity of paraquat was approximately 21 % of cation exchange capacity in soils, 45.1 % in kaolinite, and 80.6% in montmorillonite. Humic materials, humic acid and fulvic acid isolated from soil II, adsorbed larger amount of paraquat than kaolinite and soils. Distribution of tightly bound type of paraquat was larger in clay mineral and soils but loosely bound type was larger in humic acid and fulvic acid. In oxidized soil, the adsorption amount of paraquat was decreased to 85.1-95.5% of original soils. Distribution of unbound and loosely bound type of paraquat was decreased in oxidized soil but tightly bound type was increased. The competition cations decreased paraquat adsorption on humic materials and soils but not affected on montmorillonite. No difference was observed as the kinds of cations. In cation-saturated adsorbents, the adsorption amount was decreased largely in humic materials and soils but decreased a little in montmorillonite. The tightly bound type of paraquat in all adsorbents was not desorbed by pH variation, sonication, and cation application but loosely bound type was desorbed. However, the desorption amount was different as a kinds of adsorbents and desorption methods.
Ecological characteristics and chemical control of Aneilema keisak Hassk. in direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa)
Park, Tae-Seon ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Lee, In-Yong ; Ryu, Gap-Hee ; Kim, Kil-Ung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 79~84
This study was conducted to obtain information on occurrance ecology of Aneilema keisak Hassk. and establish its effective control system in direct-seeded rice. Optimum germination temperature and storage temperature to break dormancy were
, respectively. Optimum content of soil moisture for germination was 35%(w/w) in clay loam soil, where recorded 85% of germination rate. In the inter-specific competition between density of Aneilema keisak Hassk. and constant rice-mixed stands, the plant height and the tiller of rice were decreased with increase of density of Aneilema keisak Hassk. Among the herbicides tested, piperophos+dimethametryn(8.2+2.2 g ai/10a) GR and. pyrazosulfuron-ethyl+mefenacet(2.1 + 105 g ai/10g) GR were found to be effective for control of Aneilema keisak Hassk., having more herbicidal effect with an earlier application.
Effect of rice seed dressing with imidacloprid WS on early occurring rice insect pests
Choi, Byung-Ryul ; Yoo, Jae-Ki ; Lee, Sang-Guei ; Lee, Jeong-Oon ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 85~90
A series of experiments were carried out to determine the effect of seed dressing application of chemicals on the early occurring rice insect pests. The number of small brown planthopper adults per 3hills in seed-dressing plot of Imidacloprid WS (Im WS) was 1.6 and its control efficacy was over 90%, compared with that of untreated plot. Rice water weevil was observed in the density of 8.8 larvae per 5 hills seed-dressed Im WS plots(showing 95.5% of control efficacy). Control efficacy of Im WS and Im GR against adult weevils lasted for 26 days after treatment and was higher than that of Carbofuran GR. Rates of injured stems by rice stem maggot and injured leaves by rice leaf miner were 3% and 3.7% in Im WS treatment plot respectively. Seed germination rate after seed dressing with recommended dosage (3 g/seed kg) of Im WS was 71 % on the 1st day and increased on 5th day up to that of untreated seed. The residual amount of Im in seed dressing plot was 0.11 ppm in rice roots and 0.05 ppm in leaves on the 40th day after treatment. Residual effect of Im WSI sustained for 50 days with over 95% insecticidal effect for the rice water weevil and over 90% for the brown planthopper. Quantity of the chemical applied in the field was calculated as 0.084 kg a.i./ha in seed dressing and 0.3 kg a.i./ha in seed box treatment, respectively It took 1 hour to treat insecticide by seed dressing, 2.5 hours by seed box applying, and 3.6 hours by water surface releasing per 990
Construction of shuttle vectors expressing the cry11Aa gene and their mosquitocidal activity
Lee, Dae-Weon ; Kim, Ho-San ; Je, Yeon-Ho ; Kim, Joo-Up ; Yu, Hyo-Sok ; Kang, Seok-Kwon ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 91~96
For the expression of the cry11Aa gene highly toxic to dipteran insects, we constructed two cyanobacteria-Escherichia coli(E. coli) shuttle vectors, pCYASK5-l and pCYASK5-2. These vectors were transformed into E. coli and selected with kanamycin. The expression of the cry11Aa gene in E. coli was characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. Two E. coli transformants harboring pCYASK5-1 and pCYASK5-2 expressed the cry11Aa gene in size of 72 kDa and 64 kDa, respectively and showed over 89% mortality against Culex pipiens larvae.
Effect of safener fluxofenim on crop injury of chloroacetanilides and enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase in grain sorghum seedlings
Hwang, In-Taek ; Wu, Jingrui ; Hatzios, Kriton K. ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 97~103
Effects of safener fluxofenim was investigated for crop injury of acetanilide's upland herbicides and for enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in grain sorghum. Bioassay with etiolated grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. cv. 'G522DR'] seedlings grown in agar containing metolachlor or alachlor showed that they are strong inhibitors on root growth of grain sorghum (
for metolachlor and
for alachlor). The safener fluxofenim applied by seed soaking protected growth of grain sorghum from crop injury of metolachlor or alachlor at the concentrations of 1 to 10
. There was a significant increase in glutathione-herbicide conjugates in root tissues of fluxofenim-treated seedlings. Activities of
were increased by 82% and 70%, respectively, in the cytosolic fraction of roots with fluxofenim treatment.
Synthesis and herbicidal activity of 3-aryltetrahydro-1,2-benzisoxazolin-4-one derivatives
Kim, Hyoung-Rae ; Song, Jong-Hwan ; Jeon, Dong-Ju ; Hong, Kyung-Sik ; Ryu, Eung-K. ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 2, issue 1, 1998, Pages 104~106
3-Aryltetrahydro-1,2-benzisoxazolin-4-one derivatives were prepared by regioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of various aryl nitrile oxides with 2-cyclohexen-1-one. The structures of these compounds were designed as a modifications of triketone herbicides and showed good herbicidal activity.