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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pesticide Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 4 - Dec 2000
Volume 4, Issue 3 - Sep 2000
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Mar 2000
Selecting the target year
Assessment of Pesticide residue for food safety and environment protection
Oh, Byung-Youl ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 1~11
Since the chemical pesticides have been played a major role in crop protection practices during last 5 to 7 decades, social concerns on the pesticide residues in and on food commodities as well as environmental compartments have also growing with endless demands and interests. Most national regulation authorities over the world have paid a special attention on the data requirements for pesticide registration. In addition, even the registered pesticides also should follow the re-registration process, which meets today's guidelines and regulatory triggers and safety profiles. More recently, a defined interest in the international bodies has given to the global conservation program from the environmental contamination; these involves persistent organic pollutants (POPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs), biocides, etc.. In order to secure the food safety and keep our circumference sound, in-depth efforts getting information from global networks have perpetually to be given under relevant national agencies. At the same time, a nation-wide survey of the residues has also to be in operation to monitor the tendency of the toxicant in/on foods, feeds, and environmental segments. In final, the scientifically assessed results on safety should be opened to the public to provide the right-to-know for the consumers.
Accelerating effect of some photosensitizers on photodegradation of the herbicide quinclorac in aqueous solution and soil
Ahn, Ki-Chang ; Lee, Jae-Koo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 12~18
In order to artificially reduce the quinclorac residue in aqueous solution and soil, six potential photosensitizers were screened for their effectiveness in enhancing the photodegradation. The degraded amount of quinclorac in distilled water by sunlight was minor compared to that in the dark, indicating that there was little direct photolysis. The photodegradation ratio of quinclorac in methanol was 40.3%. Whereas, the ratios in the presence of photosensitizers PS-1 (aromatic ketone), PS-3 (polycyclic quinone), and PS-6 (inorganic semiconductor) were 96.6, 72.7, and 95.7%, respectively, showing the most photosensitizing effects. In sand, PS-3 was more effective than any other photosensitizer PS-1 (19.6%), PS-3 (64.1%) and PS-6 (
). five photoproducts of quinclorac in methanol were identified by GC-MS and quinclorac added with the photosensitizer PS-1 gave three photoproducts. Photoproducts with an aldehyde group formed in methanol were confirmed by the reduction of sodium 3,5-dinitrosalicylate in the Lindsay's method. E. crus-galli war. oryzicola was not controlled by the quinclorac residues photodegraded at tile concentrations higher than 30 ppm of the photosensitizer PS-3 in a flooded rice paddy soil. These results indicate that the quinclorac residues in aqueous solution and soil can be degraded efficiently by tile photosensitizers PS-1, PS-3, and PS-6.
Leaching of the herbicide quinclorac in soil columns
Ahn, Ki-Chang ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ; Lee, Jae-Koo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 19~25
The leaching behaviour of quinclorac was elucidated using soil columns. On top of each glass column packed with a rice paddy soil up to the 30 cm height were applied three different treatments of [
]quinclorac: quincloiac only (T-1), quinclorac adsorbed onto active carbon (T-2), and quinclorac adsorbed onto a mixture of active carbon and
(T-3). Half of the columns were planted with rice plants for 17 weeks and half of them unplanted for comparison. Average amounts of
-activity percolated from tile soil columns without rice plants in T-1, T-2, and T-3 were 81.1%, 27.8% and 48.0%, respectively, of tile originally applied
, whereas those with rice plants grown were 36.8%, 9.6% and 11.0%, respectively, indicating that the leaching of [
]quinclorac was significantly affected by vegetation and by treatment with the adsorbents. The bioavailability of the herbicide to rice plants in T-1, T-2, and T-3 were 13.6%, 11.0% and 13.9%, respectively. The residue levels of quinclorac in the edible part of rice grains would be far less than the maximum residue limit (MRL, 0.5 ppm). After the leaching, the amounts of
remaining in soil in with rice planting T-1, T-2, and T-3 were 36.3%, 73.7%, and 61.8%, whereas those without rice planting were 19.7%, 71.1%, and 52.3%, respectively. The balance sheets indicate that [
]quinclorac translocated to rice shoots would be lost by volatilization and/or in other ways in T-1 and T-3. The
-activity partitioned into the aqueous phase of the leachates collected from all treatments was less than 7% of the total, but it increased gradually with time in the case of rice growing, suggesting tile formation of some polar degradation products.
Degradation of the herbicide dicamba by microorganisms isolated from the soil and phosphate extracts of turfgrass, Zoysia Japonica S.
Oh, Kyeong-Seok ; Lee, Young-Gi ; Oh, Byung-Youl ; Lee, Byung-Moo ; Lee, Jae-Koo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 26~30
Degradabilities of the dicamba by microorganisms isolated from soil and by enzymes in the turfgrass, Zoysia Japonica S. were investigated. Five species of dicamba-deading microorganisms including Acidovorax sp., Alcaligenes sp., and Variovorax sp. were isolated from soils by enrichment culture. All strains in nutrient-free inorganic medium treated with 10 ppm of dicamba degraded average 90% of the dicamba 21 days after incubation. 5-Hydroxydicamba, major metabolite, was detected from the culture broth. The half life of dicamba in the phosphate buffer extracts of Zoysia Japonica S. was 2.5 to 2.7 days. Trace amounts of 4- and 5-hydroxydicamba were detected in the extracts.
Monitoring of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) contents as an impurity in different sources of chlorothalonil technical
Kim, Jeong-Gu ; Shin, Wook-Cheol ; Lee, Hong-Goun ; Park, Seung-Soon ; Oh, Kyeong-Seok ; Joo, Jin-Bok ; Oh, Byung-Youl ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 31~34
The contents of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a hazardous impurity, in chlorothalonil were monitored through 1996 to 2000. The number of samples were 32 from three different sources. The contents determined by GLC/ECD were ranged from 0.0036% to 0.0330% with average content of 0.0219%. All the samples were recorded below 0.05%, which is the regulation standard of HCB in the technical. The total input of HCB in Korean agriculture was calculated to be approximately 77 kg a year.
Survey on Pesticide Usage in Paddy Rice for the Establishment of Pesticide Use Indicator
Kwon, Oh-Kyung ; Hong, Su-Myeong ; Choi, Dal-Soon ; Seong, Ki-Seog ; Ihm, Yang-Bin ; Kang, Chung-Kil ; Song, Byeong-Hun ; Oh, Byung-Youl ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 35~39
In order to develop the indicators of environmental impact of pesticide, its actual usage in paddy rice was surveyed, and usage trends of individual pesticides were evaluated. The tendency of pesticide use indicated insecticide 43%, herbicide 29%, fungicide 27% and top ranking item in insecticide, herbicide and fungicide was carbofuran, molinate + pyrazosulfuran-ethyl, IBP. The usage statistics of formulation types showed GR>DP>WP>EC>FG>SP. Pesticide usage(a.i.) per hectare was 7.13kg and total usage for paddy rice was estimated at 8,387 M/T. In the result of comparison of fact-usage with pesticide consumption reported in 1998, the fitness was 94.7% for fungicide, 84.3% for insecticide, 77.8% for herbicide. The result of monitoring pesticide residue of unpolished-rice sampled from farm house of survey indicated 0.14 ppm(BPMC), 0.16 ppm(Isoprocarb), 0.17 ppm(Isoprothiolane). In case of rice straw, the residue level was 0.27 ppm(Isoprothiolane), 0.28 ppm(IBP), 0.39 ppm(Carbofuran). The residue levels of pesticides were below MRLs.
Comparative toxicity of some pesticides to the predatory mites, Amblyseius womersleyi A. eharai(Acarina: Phytoseiidae) and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acarina: Tetranychidae)
Seo, Sang-Gi ; Kim, Sang-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 40~47
The comparative toxicity of ten acaricides, seven insecticides and five fungicides to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae and its predators, Amblyseius womersleyi and A. eharai was evaluated by a leaf spray bioassay. Five of the acaricides tested, bifenazate, etoxazole, acequinocyl, flufenoxuron and chlorfenapyr were much less toxic to adult females of A. womersleyi and A. eharai than to T. urticae adult females. A. womersleyi adult females treated with five acaricides produced
as many eggs as untreated adult females. And A. eharai adult females treated with five acaricides laid
as many eggs as untreated adult females. The remaining acaricides showed high toxicity to adult females of A. womersleyi and A. eharai. All the insecticides tested were less toxic to T. urticae adult females than to adult females of A. womersleyi and A. eharai. However, tebufenozide and diflubenzuron did not significantly affect the survival and reproduction of adult females of A. womersleyi and A. eharai. All the fungicides tested showed low mortality (
) to adult females of predatory mites. However, benomyl had significant effect on the reproduction of adult females of A. womersleyi and A. eharai. Four acaricides (bifenazate, acequinocyl, flufelloxuron and chlorfenapyr) were much less toxic to eggs of A. womersleyi and A. eharai than to T. urticae eggs. However, etoxazole caused relatively low hatchability (
) of eggs of A. womersleyi and A. eharai. All the insecticides and fungicides tested did not significantly affect the hatch of eggs of predatory mites. It may be suggested from these results that four acaricides, two insecticides and four fungicides described could be Incorporated into the integrated mite management system with A. womersleyi and A. eharai in pear orchard.
Recognition of Farmer and Urban Resident on Pesticide Toxicity
Cho, Taik-Soo ; Moon, Young-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 48~55
This study examined how does farm producers and urban consumers recognize the toxicity of pesticides application to agricultural production. The survey was carried out with quesuonnaires, and found tile fellowing results. The 60% of the total respondents in urban residents acknowledged that it is necessary for farming to apply pesticides. Nevertheless, they think that pesticides application have excessively been done more than necessary, and they would cause the problem of agrochemical-residual in agricultural products. They preferred to the crops produced by organic-farming. But they do not believe that the organic crops are pure one that pesticides are not applied at all. They thought that pesticides remained in the crops and they cause a chronic toxicity and cancer, though their degree of causing cancer would not be high. The other hand, farmers among the total respondents expressed that pesticides are absolutely needed to farming. However, about half of the total farmers' respondents did not follow the recommended guide line for proper use of pesticides and applied its double amount of the recommended dose. The most of farmers thought that the applied pesticides would be persisted into the crops. The 69 % of the total respondents did not know that crops over MRL(Maximum Residue Limit) of pesticides must be discarded and tile farmer who distributed the crops over MRL of pesticides have to pay some kind of penalty.
Development of test method for the evaluation of pesticide acute toxicity using earthworm(Lumbricus rubellus)
Park, Yeon-Ki ; Park, Kyeong-Hoon ; Kim, Byung-Seok ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ; Shin, Jin-Sup ; Oh, Byung-Youl ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 56~60
A study was performed to determine the maintenance conditions of the earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, for the acute toxicity test. To fine out climatic and soil conditions, the earthworms were maintained in artificial soil consisting of sand, clay mineral and peat at different levels of conditions for 14 days. Lumbricus rubellus led to an increase of biomass at temperature
, soil pH
and moisture 40%. And four fungicides were tested for acute toxicities to Lumbricus rubellus, according to the optimum condition. The test earthworms were exposed to each pesticide with various concentration gradients. After 14 days, the number of surviving earthworms and their weight alteration during the test period was determined. The 14-day
values for the Lumbricus rubellus, of carbendazim, benomyl, thiophanate-methyl and thiabendazole were determined to be 59, 53, 64 and 36 mg/ kg soil dry weight, respectively.
Some Environmental factors Affecting Decay of Root Galls in Club Root Disease of Chinese Cabbage
Kim, Choong-Hoe ; Cho, Won-Dae ; Kim, Hong-Mo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 61~65
Effects of temperature, soil moisture level, flooding, and soil microflora on decay of root galls in club root disease of Chinese cabbage were examined in the laboratory. Number of days required for complete decay of root galls was 3 days at
or higher, 12 days at
and 28 days at
. As soil moisture content goes up, root gall decay became faster resulting 3 days for complete decay under saturated moisture condition at high temperature of
, and 8 days under the same moisture level at
. Soil moisture effect was relatively low at
. Stimulation of decay by soil flooding was not observed at
but became apparent at
. Influence of soil microflora on root gall decay was negligiable. Based on these results, temperature appears to be the most important factor affecting root gall decay in soil. Root gall decay is thought to be affected more easily by other environmental factors under low temperature conditions. Maturity of resting spores of Plasmodioprora brassicae in root galls tended to increase as time prolongs during root gall decay. Density of the resting spores was lower in fresh root galls where their maturity was also low as compared to completely decayed root galls. Number of resting spores in completely decayed root gall was
tissue and its maturity was over 95%.
Some Environmental Factors Affecting Germination and Survival of Resting Spores of Plasmodioprora brassicae
Kim, Choong-Hoe ; Cho, Won-Dae ; Kim, Hong-Mo ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 66~71
Effect of temperature on resting spore germination of Plasmodioprora brassicae was indirectly estimated based on examining temporal change of number of inactive resting spores. Resting spore germination was the highest at
reaching 55.6% and 82.5%, 24hr and 132hr after treatment, respectively. Optimum pH for resting spore germination was pH6, following pH7 and pH8, and the germination was inhibited at pH 4, and pH9. termination of resting spores was stimulated by root extracts of radish, Chinese cabbage and kidney bean, but inhibited by that of lettuce. Number of inactive resting spores was increased as temperature increases and time prolongs after temperature treatment. However, degree of inactivation of resting spores after 1hr at
was similar with
, but rapidly increased to 91.5% at
. When root galls were submerged in water, density of inactive resting spores was increased rapidly and reached 60.3% 9 days after treatment. Flooding of infested soil resulted in 30% reduction of survived resting spores 5 months later. Among the two registered fungicides, fluazinam was better for inactivation of resting spores than flusulfamide, but both fungicides were inferior to phosphoric acid.
Developmental characteristics of Hemiptarsenus sp.(Hymenoptera : Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and effect of the insectcides
Moon, Hyung-Chol ; Choi, Jeong-Sik ; Hwang, Chang-Yeon ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 72~76
The study was conducted to investigate the developmental periods and effect of several insecticides on Hemiptarsenus sp., ectoparasitoid of Liriomyza trifolii. The mean length and width of egg were 0.5mm and 0.1mm. The mean length of larva, pupae, abult female, and abult male were 1.9mm, 2.0mm, 2.2mm, and 1.8mm, respectively. Developmental periods of Hemiptarsenus sp. from egg to larva at 15, 20, 25,
were 16.9, 8.8, 5.9, and 4.5 days, and those of pupa were 20.7, 9.7, 5.6, and 3.4 days, respectively. Based on these results, developmental threshold temperatures and effective temperatures were
, 91.5 degree-days in egg-larval stage,
, 142.3 degree-days in pupal stage. When several insecticides were evaluated to Hemiptarsenus sp. at the recommended concentrations, B.t WP, diflubenzuron WP, and cyromazin were negligiblly effective all life stages. Fipronil SC, cartap SP, spinosad GW were less toxic to larva and pupa, but highly toxic to adults. Abamectin EC was less toxic to all life stages, but inhibited oviposition of 50% more to Hemiptarsenus sp. female.
Studies on Infectivity of Cordyceps, Paecillomyces japonica, on the Domestic Silkworm, Bombyx mori.
Yun, Jae-Su ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 77~80
This study was carried out to investigate infection process, symptoms and
values of the entomopathogenic fungus cordyceps, Paecillomyces japonica, on the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori. Susceptibility of infection in the silkworms by cordyceps, Paecillomyces japonica, was 100% in
block, 96% in
block, 76% in
block, 44% in
block, 28% in
block and 8% in
block. Cordyceps, Paecillomyces japonica, was highly infectious to the silkworms. A pathogenicities of cordyceps, Paecillomyces japonica, may be highly virulent because of the low resistance or high susceptibility of the silkworms. Dosage of the pathogen of
Response of Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) to Several Soil- and Foliar-Applied Herbicides
Kim, Song-Mun ; Oh, Hae-Young ; Kim, Yong-Ho ; Cho, Jun-Mo ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ; Han, Dae-Sung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 81~86
The objective was to develop herbicides for liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis), one of most important ingredients of herbal medicine in Korea. Soil-applied herbicides, pendimethalin at 1,585 g a.i.
, simazine at 1,000 g a.i.
, alachlor at 5 g a.i.
, metolachlor at 1,600 g a.i.
, and ethalfluralin at 1,050 g a.i.
provided greater control of hairy crabgrass and barnyardgrass (> 60%) but less control of Abutilon avicennae and Fagopyrum esculentum under growth chamber conditions. Of tested soil-applied herbicides, pendimethalin and simazine showed slight injury to liquorice (<17%). In the field experiment conducted in Chunchon, pendimethalin and simazine provided greater control of weeds: total fresh weight of weeds in control plots was 187 g
, while those in both herbicides-treated plots were nil. Fresh weights of liquorice seedlings in pendimethalin- and simazine-applied plots, however, were not different from those in control plots. Foliar-applied herbicides, such as dicamba at 964 g a.i.
, 2,4-D at 280 g a.i.
, mecoprop at 2,500 g a.i.
, flazasulfuron at 75 g a.i.
, imazaquin at 800 g a.i.
, bentazon at 1,600 g a.i.
, and pyribenzoxim at 30 g a.i.
reduced the growth of liquorice seedlings and provided moderate to total damage. Overall results show that pendimethalin and simazine appears to be effective herbicide candidates for liquorice.
Efficacy and phytotoxicity of a petroleum spray oil for control of citrus red mite in Jeju island
Kim, Dong-Whan ; Kim, Kwang-Sik ; Hyun, Jae-Uk ; Kang, Si-Yong ; Song, Jeong-Hueb ; Riu, Key-Zung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2000, Pages 87~92
Recently, a new developed petroleiun spray oil(PSO; D-C Tron
) has been used to control key pests in integrated pest management (IPM) system of citrus orchards in Australia. The efficacy and phytotoxicity of the PSO against the citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) were compared with conventional pesticides (e.g.Tebufenpyrad, Bifenazate and Sun spray oil) in field condition in Jeju. And under PSO mixing spray with some fungicides, the occurrence of phytotoxic symptoms on citrus leaf was investigated. All concentrations of PSO spraying (0.25%, 0.33%, 0.5% and 1.0%) were significantly suppressed the citrus red mite to similar levels of other conventional pesticides. And the spraying of PSO levels
was induced not only occurrence of some oil-sucked symptoms on leaf, but also increase of the dropping leaf and fruit rates. As results from mixing PSO spraying test with other fungicides, little burning on new flush shoot was founded only in PSO 1% plus Fluazinam treatment. From the results of this study, with the consideration of pesticidal efficacy and phytotoxicity, 0.25% and 0.33% PSO spraying level will be recommended for the control of citrus red mite during summer season in Jeju.