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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pesticide Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Mechanism of Sulfonylurea Herbicide Resistance in Broadleaf Weed, Monochoria korsakowii
Park, Tae-Seon ; Lhm, Yang-Bin ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Kim, Kil-Ung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 7, issue 4, 2003, Pages 239~247
This experiment was carried out to study the resistant mechanism of sulfonylurea(SU) herbicides to Monochoria korsakowii occurring in the rice fields of Korea. The activity of acetolactate synthase(ALS), absorption and translocation of
bensulfuron-methyl, and DNA sequence of ALS genes were studied. The apparent SU resiatance to Monochoria korsakowii was confirmed in greenhouse testes. Fresh weight accumulation
in the resistant biotype was about 5- to 64-fold higher in the presence of six SU herbicides compared to the susceptible biotype. The ALS activity isolated from the resistant biotype to herbicides tested was less sensitive than that of susceptible biotype. The concentration of herbicide required for 50% inhibition of ALS activity
was 14- to 76-fold higher as compared to the susceptible biotype. No differences were observed in the rates of
bensulfuron uptake and translocation. However, the DNA sequence from the resistant biotype differed from that of the susceptible biotype by single nucleotide substitution at three amino acid each in the middle region excluding the ends of ALS genes. We found three point mutations causing substitution of serine for threonine at amino acid 168, arginine for histidine at amino acid 189, and a aspartic acid for phenylalanine at amino acid 247, respectively, in the resistant biotype.
Herbicidal activity of Korean native plants (I)
Kim, Hee-Yeon ; Choi, Hae-Jin ; Lim, Sang-Hyun ; Heo, Su-Jeong ; Han, Sang-Sub ; Kim, Do-Soon ; Hwang, Ki-Hwan ; Kim, Song-Mun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 7, issue 4, 2003, Pages 248~257
The objective of this experiment was to search plant species with herbicidal activity in Korea. Two hundred native plants were collected and their methanol extracts were obtained. Herbicidal activity of methanol extracts were determined by seed bioassay using canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Six plants such as Staphylea bumalda, Wistaria floribunda, Allium victorialis, Rumex crispus, Chionanthus retusa, and Ulmus parvifolia were highly herbicidal: their
values were <
. In addition, seventeen plants such as Galium spurium, Zelkova serrata, Campsis grandiflora, Eucommia ulmoides, Sorbus commixta, Deutzia glabrata, Cercis chinensis, Alnus hirsuta, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Quercus acutissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Gleditsia japonica, Kerria japonica, Ligustrum obtusifolium, Thuja orientalis, Chamaecyparis obtusa, and Pulsatilla koreana showed herbicidal activity: their
values were between 1,000 and
. However, 177 plants showed no herbicidal activity. Plants with herbicidal activity found in this study could be used for weed management and herbicidal compounds in such herbicidal plants could be used as lead compounds in the development of new herbicides.
Survey of Pesticide Usage on Fruits in Korea
Ihm, Yang-Bin ; Kim, Kyoung-Sun ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ; Kim, Nam-Suk ; Ha, Huen-Young ; Lee, Hee-Dong ; Oh, Kyeong-Seok ; Kim, Jung-Won ; Ryu, Gab-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 7, issue 4, 2003, Pages 258~263
In order to get the actual pesticide usage data for fruit crops at farmer's gate, this survey was carried out on the growers of 6 representative fruit crops such as apple, citrus, grape, peach, pear and persimmon, in Korea. One hundred fifty farmers were selected in main production areas to record their pesticide usage during the growing seasons. Pesticides were sprayed in pear 15.2 times/year and persimmon 7 times/year. Pesticide input amount per unit for fruits was 39.5 for citrus, 22.1 for apple, 21.5 for pear, 11.9 for peach, 10.8 for persimmon and 6.7 a.i. kg/ha for grape, respectively. The amounts of pesticides sprayed in 2002 except for peach and pear tend to decrease compared with those in 1999. The major fungicides used were mancozeb, propineb, dithianon, etc., while the major insecticides were fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos, methidathion, etc. Total active ingredients of pesticides used for six fruit crops amounted to 18.3% of total sales amount of pesticides for horticulture in 2002. The amounts of pesticides sprayed on citrus, grape, peach and pear in Korea was less than those in U.S.A., excepting those in apple.
Control of Phythophthora capsici and Residual Characteristics by the Pesticides Tank-Mixed in Tomato Hydroponic Culture System
Ihm, Yang-Bin ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ; Kim, Cban-Sub ; Park, Byung-Jun ; Lee, Jung-Sup ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 7, issue 4, 2003, Pages 264~270
To control effectively and safely Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici on tomato in hydroponic culture, tank-mixing method was considered with two pesticides, metalaxyl copper oxychloride 50% WP and dimethomorph dithianon 38% WP. Forty days after transplanting of tomato seedlings, 4 mL of sporangia of P. capsici (about 25 sporangi/mL) per plot was inoculated around tomato plant roots, and at 5 days after inoculation, the pesticides tank-mixed at three dilution levels, 12,500, 25,000 and 50,000, were drenched 1, 2 or 3 times per plot on the culture cube every 15 days for metalaxyl copper oxychloride 50% WP and every 10 days for dimethomorph dithianon 38% WP. During the drenching period, the residue levels of metalaxyl and dimethomorph in hydroponic culture solution were similar to the initial levels but the level of dithianon was drastically decreased from one day after tank-mixing. In tomato drenched with metalaxyl copper oxychloride 50% WP, metalaxyl was detected
mg/kg in all diluted plots. Dimethomorph was detected
mg/kg in 12,500, 25,000 and 50,000 times diluted plots, respectively, while dithianon was detected 0.005, 0.003 mg/kg in 12,500 and 50,000 times diluted plots, respectively. The detection levels of three pesticides were far below compared with the levels of Korean MRLs. Incidences of Phytophthora root rot were not found in all the plots, but phytotoxic responses were recognized in the 12,500 times diluted plots of both pesticides. Based on the above results, the drenching of the culture solution tank-mixed with these pesticides could be recommended as a very safe and effective method to control Phytophthora root rot in tomato in hydroponic culture.
Subchronic oral toxicity study of Technical of IAP-3006 in Rats
Seo, Dong-Seok ; Kim, Jae-Young ; Jeong, Jae-Hwang ; Bark, Hak-Soo ; Yu, Wook-Joon ; Go, Sang-Beom ; Kim, Jeong-Heon ; Jang, Dong-Hyouk ; Seo, Mu-Yeb ; Cho, Bin-Haing ; Sung, Ha-Jung ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 7, issue 4, 2003, Pages 271~279
To investigate the toxicological effects of technical of IAP-3006, we performed subchronic oral toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In the subchronic dietary study, rats of both sexes were fed diets containing technical of IAP-3006 at concentrations of 0, 1000, 10,000, or 15,000 ppm for 90 days. No clinical signs and mortality were observed in animals treated with technical of IAP-3006 throughout the experimental period. There were also no significant changes in body weights, feed consumption, and any gross or histopathological lesions. Although there were statistically significant differences between the control and treated groups in some relative and absolute organ weights, and hematological and biochemical analyses, the data were in biologically normal ranges and did not show a dose-dependent manner. From these results, it is suggested that subchronic oral toxicity NOEL of technical of IAP-3006 in rats may be over 15,000 ppm.
Risk Assessment of Pesticide for Earthworms
Park, Kyung-Hun ; Park, Yeon-Ki ; Joo, Jin-Bok ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ; Shin, Jin-Sup ; Kim, Chan-Sub ; Park, Byung-Jun ; Uhm, Jae-Youl ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 7, issue 4, 2003, Pages 280~287
To assess the risk of pesticides on earthworm, the acute toxicities of 10 pesticides were investigated and their toxicity exposure ratios(TERs) were calculated. As the TERs of paraquat dichloride and pendimethalin were more than 100, their risks were rated negligible. Risk of benfuracarb, cadusafos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, endosulfan, isazofos and parathion which have TERs of
were rated low. However, risk of imidacloprid and phorate which have TER of less than 10 were estimated highly to need a reproduction study. Earthworms were exposed to twenty two pesticides including dazomet 98% GR having PECs of more than
in artificial soil at standard and double dose for 14 days. All the earthworms exposed to dazomet 98% GR and metam-sodium 25% SL were died to show their high risk, while no serious adverse effects were observed in the soil treated with 15 pesticides, calcite 95% WP, calcium polysulfide 36% CF, chlorothalonil 75% WP, daminozide 85% WP, dichlonil 6.7% GR, etridiazole 25% EC, fosetyl-Al 80% WP, glyphosate 41 % SL, hymexazol 30% SL, iprodione 50% WP, machine oil 95% EC, mancozeb 75% WP, propineb 70% WP, terbuthylazine 80% WP and triazophos 40% EC. In case of thiophanate-methyl 70% WP, copper hydroxide 77% WP, dimethoate 46% EC, tolclofos-methyl 50% WP and propamocarb hydrochloride 67% SL, any effect did not show clearly, suggesting an additional subchronic toxicity study. The risk of thiophanate-methyl 70% WP to earthworm was estimated high, considering its subchronic effect, while effects of copper hydroxide 77% WP, dimethoate 46% EC, tolclofos-methyl 50% WP and propamocarb hydrochloride 67% SL to earthworms were negligible, considering no adverse effects in subchronic tests.
Characteristics of Resistance to Chlorpyrifos in Diamondback-moth (Plutella xylostella L.)
Kim, Kyung-Ju ; Kim, Sung-Su ; Kim, Song-Mun ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 7, issue 4, 2003, Pages 288~295
To determine the mechanism of the resistance to organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos, in diamondback-moth (Plutella xylostella L.), activities of esterases, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and AChE insensitivity which were known for causing factor of resistance were measured. Also, the relationship between AChE insensitivity and the resistant ratio was investigated to inquiry the cross-resistance. The resistant ratio of chlorpyrifos-resistant strain (CRS) of diamondback-moth at the 6th generation was developed 160 fold compared to susceptible strain (SS) one. Activity of GST that are extracted from CRS was 1.7-fold higher than that from SS. However, activity of total esterases from CRS was similar to that from SS. In AChE insensitivity test, CRS was 11.8-fold less sensitive than that from SS. CRS was ranged from 17.6 to 33.6-fold less sensitive than SS to other insecticides having same target site with chlorpyrifos such as dichlorvos, dimethylvinphos and carbofuran. Insensitivity of AChE to phenthoate-oxon, however, was 1.7-fold. Resistance of CRS was 82-fold, 47-fold and 42-fold higher than SS to dichlorvos, dimethylvinphos and carbofuran, respectively, but 2.3-fold to phenthoate and then we could identify that the resistance development of insecticide might have a lot of difference among the chemicals with the same target site. The relationship between the AChE insensitivity and the resistant ratio was significantly correlated
. This result indicates that AChE insensitivity was associated with insecticide resistance. Overall, these results suggest that insensitivity of AChE was an important factors to chlorpyrifos resistance in diamondback-moth, and the slightly increased activity of GST may also have contributed to that.
Selection of low toxic insecticides for phytoseiid predatory mites, Amblyseius cucumeris and Amblyseius fallacis
Choi, Byeong-Ryeol ; Hilton, S.A. ; Broadbent, A.B. ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 7, issue 4, 2003, Pages 296~301
This study was conducted to select low toxic insecticides against natural enemies, and to evaluate resistance stability and cross-resistance to resistance strain for the fulfillment of integrated pest management development. Toxicity of imidacloprid and spinosad to Amblyseius cucumeris was relatively low regardless of the adopting test methods. In addition, those to the Amblyseius fallacis was also low by slide dipping method. The slide dipping method was useful to eliminate repellency effect by mites to the tested insecticides. Mortality of A. fallacis to deltamethrin recorded in 1994 and 1999 was 21.6% and 7.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, the permethrin-resistanct strain of A. fallacis was maintained its resistance to deltamethrin. However, the cross-resistance to the newly introduced insecticides namely imidacloprid, fipronil, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and spinosad. was relatively low.
Control effects of new triazoyl quinolines KSI-4315 and KSI-4317 against barley powdery mildew and wheat leaf rust
Choi, Gyung-Ja ; Yon, Gyu-Hwan ; Kim, Heung-Tae ; Jang, Kyoung-Soo ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Lee, Seon-Woo ; Pak, Chwang-Siek ; Cho, Kwang-Yun ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 7, issue 4, 2003, Pages 302~309
Disease control activities of 230 triazolyl quinoline derivatives were investigated against six plant diseases such as rice blast, rice sheath blight, tomato gray mold, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust (WLR) and barley powdery mildew (BPM). New triazolyl quinolines, KSI-4315 and KSI-4317 exhibited a great in vivo control activities against WLR and BPM, and then were selected for further tests such as preventive, curative, systemic, and persistence against WLR and BPM. The KSI-4315 and KSI-4317 contained MeS moiety and MsO moiety in carbon 4-position, respectively. They possessed both preventive activity and curative activity against WLR and BPM. KSI-4317 showed the better control activity than KSI-4315 against BPM, while KSI-4315 represented the better antifungal activity against WLR. Good persistence of KSI-4315 and KSI-4317 were also observed against WLR and BPM. Persistence of KSI-4315 was similar to that of KSI-4317 on WLR, but KSI-4317 was superior to KSI-4315 on BPM in its persistence. Systemic disease control of KSI-4315 and KSI-4317 was investigated by examining translaminar activity from leaf-under-surface to leaf-upper-surface, systemic activities by leaf to leaf movement and the effect of drenching treatment. Systemicities of KSI-4315 and KSI-4317 were not observed in wheat, but KSI-4317 showed more predominant systemicity than KSI-4315 in barley. These results suggest that KSI-4317 would potentially control WLR and BPM in the fields.
Synthesis and herbicidal activities of 9-(5-isoxazolemethoxy-phenyl)imino-8-thia-1,6-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-7-one and their related derivatives
Jeon, Dong-Ju ; Park, Kwaun-Yong ; Chung, Soon-Min ; Kim, Hyoung-Rae ; Song, Jong-Hwan ; No, Zae-Sung ; Hwang, In-Taek ;
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, volume 7, issue 4, 2003, Pages 310~313
New series of 9-(5-Isoxazolemethoxyphenyl)imino-8-thia-l,6-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-7-one which are the cyclic imide type compounds were designed and synthesized. The herbicidal activities of main dominant weeds to these compounds were evaluated under rice field condition. There is the possibility for a new herbicide since the most of compounds were excellent to main dominant weeds occurring in rice field without the serious rice injury.