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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 1, Issue 2 - Dec 1999
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Sep 1999
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Regionality and Variability of Net Primary Productivity and Rice Yield in Korea
JUNG YEONG-SANG ; BANG JUNG-HO ; HAYASHI YOSEI ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 1, issue 1, 1999, Pages 1~11
Rice yield and primary productivity (NPP) are dependent upon the variability of climate and soil. The variability and regionality of the rice yield and net primary productivity were evaluated with the meteorological data collected from Korea Meteorology Administration and the actual rice yield data from the Ministration of Agriculture and Forestry, Korea. The estimated NPP using the three models, dependent upon temperature(NPP-T), precipitation(NPP-P) and net radiation(NPP-R), ranged from 10.87 to 17.52 Mg ha
with average of 14.69 Mg ha
in the South Korea and was ranged 6.47 to 15.58 Mg ha
with average of 12.59 Mg ha
in the North Korea. The primary limiting factor of NPP in Korea was net radiation, and the secondary limiting factor was temperature. Spectral analysis on the long term change in air temperature in July and August showed periodicity. The short periodicity was 3 to 7 years and the long periodicity was 15 to 43 years. The coefficient of variances, CV, of the rice yield from 1989 to 1998 ranged 3.23 percents to 12.37 percents which were lower than past decades. The CV's in Kangwon and Kyeongbuk were high while that in Chonbuk was the lowest. The prediction model based on th e yield index and yield response to temperature obtain ed from the field crop situation showed reasonable results and thus the spatial distributions of rice yield and predicted yield could be expressed in the maps. The predicted yields was well fitted with the actual yield except Kyungbuk. For better prediction, modification should be made considering radiation factor in further development.
Regional Crop Evaluation and Yield Forecast of Paddy Rice Based on Daily Weather Observation
Cho Kyung Sook ; Yun Jin-Il ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 1, issue 1, 1999, Pages 12~19
CERES-rice, a rice growth simulation model, was used in conjunction with daily weather data to figure out the spatial variation of the phenology and yields of paddy rice at 168 rice cultivation zone units(CZU) of Kyunggi Province in 1997. Two sets of cultivar specific coefficients, which represent early and mid-season maturing varieties, were derived from field experiments conducted at two crop experiment stations. The minimum data set to run the model for each CZU (daily maximum and minimum temperature, solar irradiance, and rainfall) was obtained by spatial averaging of existing 'Digital Map of Korean Climate'(Shin et al., 1999). Soil characteristics and management information at each CZU were available from the Rural Development Administration. According to a preliminary test using 5 to 9 years field data, trends of the phasic development(heading and physiological maturity), which were obtained from the model adjusted for these coefficients, were in good agreement with the observed data. However, the simulated inter-annual variation was somewhat greater than the reported variation. Rough rice yields of the early maturing cultivar calculated by the model were comparable with the reported data in terms of both absolute value and inter -annual variation. But those of the mid season cultivar showed overestimation. After running the simulation model runs with 1997 weather data for 168 CZU's, rough rice yields of the 168 CZU's calculated by the model were aggregated into corresponding 33 counties by acreage-weighting to facilitate direct comparison with the reported statistics from the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The simulation results were good at 22 out of the 26 counties with reportedly increasing yield trend with respect to the past 9 years average.
The Effect of some Meteorological Factors on the seed characteristics in Korean White pine (Pinus koraiensis S. et Z.) - The weight of cone and seed per cone -
Joo Young-Tuk ; Chon Sang-Kuen ; Chung Dong-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 1, issue 1, 1999, Pages 20~28
This study was conducted to reveal the effect of some meterological factors on the weight of cone and seed per cone in Korean white pine (Pinus koraiensis SIEB. et ZUCC.). The weight of cone and seed per cone for 7 years from 1992 to 1998 on 45(1992) year-old trees and some meterological factors for 9 years from 1990 to 1998 were surveyed in Hongcheon-Gun region, Gangweon-Do. Simple correlations and multiple regression between weight of cone and seed per cone and some meterological factors were analyzed. The results obtained from the above experiments were as follows: 1. Positive correlations were found between weight of cone and monthly mean temperature of February in flower bud differentiation year. number of annual hoarfrost days of the cone production year monthly mean temperature of may in the cone production year, as July respectively. There were negative correlations between weight of cone and monthly mean temperature of august in the flowering year, wind speed of April in the flower bud differentiation year, number of clear days of december in the flowering year, number of annual cloudy days of the flowering year, number of precipitation days of june in the flowering year, number of annual precipitation days of the flowering year, number of annual cloudy days of March in the cone production year. number of annual cloudy days from march to October in the flowering year as well as number of precipitation from march to october in the flowering year. 2. Positive correlation between weight of seed per cone and number of hours with sunshine duration of June in the flowering year, the percentage of sunshine duration of June in the flowering year, number of clear days of June in the flowering year. monthly mean temperature of may in the cone production year. as well as monthly mean temperature of July in the cone production year were found. Negative correlations were recognized between weight of seed per cone and monthly mean temperature of January in the flowering year, monthly mean temperature of august in the flowering year, wind speed of april in the flower bud differentiation year, number of annual cloudy days of the flowering year, number of precipitation days of June in the flowering year, number of annual cloudy days from March to October in the flowering year as well as number of precipitation from march to October in the flowering year.
Spatial Variability of Hydraulic Properties in a Multi-Layered Soils of Japanese Larch (Larix leptolepis) Stand
Chung Doug Young ; Jin Hyun O ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 1, issue 1, 1999, Pages 29~35
Soil structure and organic matter have been known to strongly affect water flow and solute transport, yet little information is available concerning soil hydraulic properties related to soil physical and chemical properties in the forest site. The purpose of this study was to quantify the spatial variability and spatial correlation of the measured parameter values from the plots established with the rainfall simulator on Japanese larch(Larix leptolepis) dominated site in Kwangju. Kyunggi-Do. Measurement of soil water flux and retention were made with the inherent soil texture, soil structure, and organic matter. The method was based on the observation that when water was applied at a constant rate to the soil surface on each plot. The method was simple to apply and consists of following steps: (i) Wet the soil from a rainfall simulator with several known discharge rates on a relatively leveled soil surface with and without organic matter. (ii) Once the borders of the ponded zone were steady, saturated hydraulic conductivity(
) and the matric flux function(F) was evaluated from a regression of flux vs. the reciprocal of the ponded area. A conductivity of the form
) [1-d /dz] where flux continuity implies. For this, continuity of matric potential at the interface at all times are as follows:
for steady state intake from water ponded on the soil surface. Results of this investigation showed the importance of understanding spatial variability in wide differences of water retention and saturated hydraulic conductivity with respect to pore geometry and organic matter contents which influenced the water flux throughout the soil profile.l profile.ile.
Development of High Precision Underground Water Level Meter Using a Buoyant Rod Load Cell Technique
Lee Bu-Yong ; Park Byoung-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 1, issue 1, 1999, Pages 36~40
A new method was developed to measure underground water level with high reliability. The principle of new method was to detect a change of a buoyant force according to change in water level of underground water measured by the use of a straingage load cell. Field test of the instrument was carried out in Cheju Island. The results were as follows; 1) The present study provided a possibility to develop a new underground water level meter. 2) This new instrument accomplished high reliability at field test in Cheju Island. 3) There is possibility of development of water level meter which measure various range of water level to detect a weight change of a buoyant forcd.
Effects of Local Climatic Conditions on the Early Growth in Korean White Pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) Stands -Relation between Annual Increment and Local Climatic Conditions-
Chon Sang- Keun ; Shin Man Yong ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 1, issue 1, 1999, Pages 41~51
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of local climatic conditions on the annual increment of Korean white pine planted in Gapyung and Yaungdong. For this, stand variables such as mean DBH, mean height, basal area per hectare, and volume per hectare by stand age were measured and summarized for each locality. Based on these statistics, annual increments for 8 years from stand age 10 to 18 were calculated for each of stand variables. A topoclimatological technique which makes use of empirical relationships between the topography and the weather in study sites was applied to produce normal estimates of monthly mean, maximum, minimum temperatures, relative humidity, precipitation, and hours of sunshine. Then, the yearly climatic variables from 1990 to 1997 for each study site were derived from the spatial interpolation procedures based on inverse- distance weighting of the observed deviation from the climatic normals at the nearest 11 standard weather stations. From these estimates, 17 weather variables such as warmth index, coldness index, index of aridity etc., which affect the tree growth, were computed on yearly base for each locality. The deviations of measured annual increments from the expected annual increments for 8 years based on yield table of Korean white pine were then correlated with and regressed on the yearly weather variables to examine effects of local climatic conditions on the growth. Gapyung area provides better conditions for the growth of Korean white pine in the early stage than Youngdong area. This indicates that the conditions such as low temperature, high relative humidity, and large amount of precipitation provide favor environment for the early growth of Korean white pine. A ccording to the correlation and regression an analysis using local climatic conditions and annual increments, the growth pattern of Gapyung area corresponds to this tendency. However, it was found that the relationship between annual increments and local climatic conditions in Youngdong area shows different tendency from Gapyung. These results mean that the yearly growth pattern could not sufficiently be explained by climatic conditions with high variance in yearly weather variables. In addition, the poor growth in Youngdong area might not only be affected by climatic conditions, but also by other environmental factors such as site quality.
Derivation of Biochemical and Biophysical Parameters and Their Application to the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB2)
Chae Nam-Yi ; Kim Joon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 1, issue 1, 1999, Pages 52~59
Vegetation canopy plays an important role in
O exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere by controlling leaf stomata. In this study, rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple crop in Asia was investigated to formulate its single leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured with a portable infrared gas analyzer system. Other plant and meteorological variables were also measured. To evaluate empirical constants in this biochemical leaf model, nonlinear least squares technique was used. The maximum catalytic activity of enzyme and the maximum rate of electron transport were
), respectively. The empirical constants, m and b, associated with stomatal conductance model were 9.7 and
, respectively. On a leaf scale, agreements between the modeled and the measured values of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were on average within 20%, and the simulation of diurnal variation was also satisfactory On a canopy scale, the Simple Biosphere model(SiB2) was tested using the derived parameters. The modeled energy fluxes were compared against the micrometeorologically measured fluxes over a rice canopy. Agreements between the modeled and the measured values of net radiation, sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, and
flux (i.e., net canopy photosynthesis) were on average within 25%.
On Using the Eddy Covariance Method to Study the Interaction between Agro-Forest Ecosystems and the Atmosphere
Choi Taejin ; Kim Joon ; Yun Jin-il ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 1, issue 1, 1999, Pages 60~71
The micrometeorological tower flux network is the cornerstone of the global terrestrial vegetation monitoring. The eddy covariance technique used for tower fluxes is derived from the conservation of mass and is most applicable for steady-state conditions over flat, extended, and uniform vegetation. This technique allows us to obtain surface fluxes of energy budget components, greenhouse and trace gases, and other pollutants. The quality-controlled flux data are invaluable to validate various models with temporal scales ranging from minutes to years and spatial scales ranging from a few meters to hundreds of kilometers. In this paper, we review the theoretical background of this important eddy covariance technique, examine the measurement criteria and corrections, and finally suggest some measurement strategies that may facilitate coordinated flux measurements among different disciplines and provide a strong infrastructure for the global flux network.
Determination of Safe Cropping Season in Direct- Seeding of Rice on Flooded Paddy by Using Effective Temperatures in Agroclimatic Zones
Shim Kyo-Moon ; Lee Jeong-Taek ; Yun Seong-Ho ; Choi Don-Hyang ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 1, issue 1, 1999, Pages 72~80
The study was conducted to establish the safe cropping season for direct- seeding on flooded paddy by the analysis of meteorological data(l973~1992, 20 years) from Korea Meteorological Administration. The critical date for early seeding(CDES) at direct- seeding culture on flooded paddy was decided by the appearance date of daily mean air temperature(DMAT) of 15
. The optimum heading date(OHD) was the first day when 22
of daily mean air temperature could be kept for 40 days of ripening period after heading, and the critical date of late heading for safe ripening(CDHR) was the last day when 19
of daily mean air temperature could be kept for 40 days after heading. The optimum seeding date(OSD) and the critical date for late seeding(CDLS) could be decided by the accumulated temperature from OHD and CDHR to the appearance dates of necessary temperatures for early, intermediate, and intermediately late maturing varieties. This results can be used for the determination of the safe cropping season of direct-seeding on flooded paddy in each agroclimatic zone. For instance, the OSD appearance date for early maturing variety in Suwon region appeared to be May 11~20 and the CDLS appearance date was May 31~June 7.