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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
An Outlook of Agricultural Drought in Jeonju Area under the RCP8.5 Projected Climate Condition
Kim, Dae-jun ; Yun, Jin I. ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 275~280
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.275
In order to figure out the future drought characteristics of the Jeonju plains, the major crop production area in Korea, daily agricultural drought indexes based on soil water balance were calculated for the relevant 12.5 km by 12.5 km grid cell using the weather data generated by the RCP8.5 climate scenario during 1951-2100. The calculations were grouped into five climatological normal years, the past (1951-1980), the present (1981-2010), and the three futures (2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100). Results showed that the soil moisture conditions in early spring, worst for both the past and present normal years, will ameliorate gradually in the future and the crop water stress in spring season was projected to become negligible by the end of this century. Furthermore, the drought frequency in early spring was projected to diminish, resulting in rare occurrence of spring drought by that time. However, the result also showed that the soil moisture conditions during the summer season (when most crops grow in Jeonju plain) will deteriorate and the drought incidence will be more frequent than in the past or present period.
Improving the Usage of the Korea Meteorological Administration's Digital Forecasts in Agriculture: IV. Estimation of Daily Sunshine Duration and Solar Radiation Based on 'Sky Condition' Product
Kim, Soo-ock ; Yun, Jin I. ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 281~289
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.281
Information on sunshine duration and solar radiation are indispensable to the understanding of crop growth and development. Yet, relevant variables are not available in the Korea Meteorological Administration's (KMA) digital forecast. We proposed the methods of estimating sunshine duration and solar radiation based on the 'sky condition' of digital forecast products and validated using the observed data. The sky condition values (1 for clear, 2 for partly cloudy, 3 for cloudy, and 4 for overcast) were collected from 22 weather stations at 3-hourly intervals from August 2013 to July 2015. According to the observed relationship, these data were converted to the corresponding amount of clouds on the 0 to 10 scale (0 for clear, 4 for partly cloudy, 7 for cloudy, and 10 for overcast). An equation for the cloud amount-sunshine duration conversion was derived from the 3-year observation data at three weather stations with the highest clear day sunshine ratio (i.e., Daegwallyeong, Bukgangneung, and Busan). Then, the estimated sunshine hour data were used to run the Angstrom-Prescott model which was parameterized with the long-term KMA observations, resulting in daily solar radiation for the three weather stations. Comparison of the estimated sunshine duration and solar radiation with the observed at those three stations showed that the root mean square error ranged from 1.5 to 1.7 hours for sunshine duration and from 2.5 to
for solar radiation, respectively.
An Operational Site-specific Early Warning of Weather Hazards for Farmers and Extension Workers in a Mountainous Watershed
Shin, Yong Soon ; Park, Joo Hyun ; Kim, Seong Ki ; Kang, Wee Soo ; Shim, Kyo Moon ; Park, Eun Woo ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 290~305
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.290
To improve the practicality of 'Early warning service about agrometeorological weather hazards' and operation efficiency to deliver site-specific about a lot of land unit possibility of weather hazard occurrence with the suitable counterplan to farmer, site-specific early warning service system that was built at the National Academy of Agricultural Science in Korea passed some of the error supplementation and service's stabilization stage during operation period for trial services from October 2014 to March 2015. Field service system covered about 470 volunteered farmer and 950 lots in Seomjin river downstream areas (part of Gwangyang-si, Hadong-gun, Gurye-gun). This system (Two track system) consists of early warning system (a lot of land unit) to inform farmer by individual text message and dispersal prior alert system that can see the jurisdiction's situation of local government. Individual text message about Seomjin river downstream that is our first study area was launched since
March 2015, and online site (http://www.agmet.kr) started business since April 2015. Service offers currently information of farm weather, farm weather hazard, nationwide weather risk and special weather alert, also our system will consistently expand the service target area and contents and improve the service quality until 2017 when our study finished. To prevent crops damage that was caused by crisis situation like farm weather and weather damage offer prior alert about agrometeorological weather harzard to volunteered farmer, thereby our study expects to help the reduction of farm's damage caused by weather derivatives.
Genotypic Differences in Yield and Yield-related Elements of Rice under Elevated Air Temperature Conditions
Lee, Kyu-Jong ; Kim, Dong-Jin ; Ban, Ho-Young ; Lee, Byun-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 306~316
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.306
An experiment in a controlled environment was conducted to evaluate the genotypic differences of grain yield and yield-related elements of rice under elevated air temperature. Eight rice genotypes included in three maturing group (early, medium, and medium-late maturing group) were grown with 1/5,000 a Wagner pots at four plastic houses that were controlled to the temperature regimes of ambient temperature (AT),
throughout the rice growing season in 2011. Ripened grain ratio and 1000 grain weight showed the most susceptible and tolerant responses to elevated air temperature, respectively. The grain yield reduction was attributable to the sharp decrease of ripened grain ratio. Grain yield was significantly decreased above the treatment of
in early maturing group and the others, respectively. Highly correlation to average temperature from heading to 20 days was revealed in yield (r = -0.69), ripened grain ratio (r = -82), fully-filled grain (r = -70), and 1000 grain weight (r = -0.31). The responses of yield and yield-related elements except number of spikelets and panicle to elevated air temperature were fitted to a logistic function. The parameters of logistic function for each elements except grain yield could not be applied to the other varieties. In conclusion, yield and yield-related elements responded differentially to elevated air temperature according to maturity groups and rice varieties. Ongoing global warming is expected to decrease the grain yield not only by decreasing the grain weight but also decreasing the ripened grain ratio in the future. However, the yield reduction would be mitigated by adopting and/or breeding the less sensitive varieties to high temperature.
A Feasibility Study of a Field-specific Weather Service for Small-scale Farms in a Topographically Complex Watershed
Yun, Jin I. ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 317~325
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.317
An adequate downscaling of synoptic forecasts is a prerequisite for improved agrometeorological service to rural areas in South Korea where complex terrains and small farms are common. In this study, geospatial schemes based on topoclimatology were used to scale down the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) temperature forecasts to the local scale (~30 m) across a rural catchment. Then, using these schemes, local temperatures were estimated at 14 validation sites at 0600 and 1500 LST in 2013/2014 and were compared with the observations. The estimation errors were substantially reduced for both 0600 and 1500 LST temperatures when compared against the uncorrected KMA products. The improvement was most notable at low lying locations for the 0600 temperature and at the locations on west- and south-facing slopes for the 1500 LST temperature. Using the downscaled real-time temperature data, a pilot service has started to provide the field-specific weather information tailored to meet the requirements of small-scale farms. For example, the service system makes a daily outlook on the phenology of crop species grown in a given field using the field-specific temperature data. When the temperature forecast is given for next morning, a frost risk index is calculated according to a known relationship of phenology and frost injury. If the calculated index is higher than a pre-defined threshold, a warning is issued and delivered to the grower's cellular phone with relevant countermeasures to help protect crops against frost damage.
A Revised Estimate of N
O Emission Factor for Spring Chinese cabbage fields in Korea
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Park, Woo-Kyun ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Lee, Sun-il ; Choi, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Pil-Joo ; Seo, Young-Ho ; Na, Un-sung ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 326~332
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.326
Greenhouse-gas emission factors are widely used to estimate emissions arising from a defined unit of a specific activity. Such estimates are used both for international reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and for a myriad of national and subnational reporting purposes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a methodology for national and sub-national estimation of known greenhouse gas emissions including
for each sector from which the emissions arise. The objective of this study was to develop an emission factor to estimate the direct
emission from an agricultural field cultivated with Chinese cabbage during spring season in 2010-2012. An estimated emission factor of
calculated over three years from field experiment accounting for cumulative
emission, nitrogen fertilization rate, and background
(95% CI) Kg
N. More extensive studies are needed to develop
emission factors for other upland crops in various regions of Korea because
emission is influenced by many factors including climate characteristics, soil properties agricultural practices and crop species.
A Thermal Time - Based Phenology Estimation in Kimchi Cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis)
Kim, Jin-Hee ; Yun, Jin I. ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 333~339
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.333
A thermal time-based phenology model of Kimchi cabbage was developed by using the field observed growth and temperature data for the purpose of accurately predicting heading and harvest dates among diverse cropping systems. In this model the lifecycle of Kimchi cabbage was separated into the growth stage and the heading stage, while the growth amount of each stage was calculated by optimal mathematical functions describing the response curves for different temperature regimes. The parameter for individual functions were derived from the 2012-2014 crop status report collected from seven farms with different cropping systems located in major Kimchi cabbage production area of South Korea (i.e., alpine Gangwon Province for the summer cultivation and coastal plains in Jeonnam Province for the autumn cultivation). For the model validation, we used an independent data set consisting of local temperature data restored by a geospatial correction scheme and observed harvest dates from 17 farms. The results showed that the root mean square error averaged across the location and time period (2012-2014) was 5.3 days for the harvest date. This model is expected to enhance the utilization of the Korea Meteorological Administration's daily temperature data in issuing agrometeorological forecasts for developmental stages of Kimchi cabbage grown widely in South Korea.
Effect of Weather Conditions on Fruit Characteristics and Yield of 'Sangjudungsi' Persimmon Cultivar in Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do
Park, Yunmi ; Kim, Mahn-Jo ; Park, Sang-Byeong ; Oh, Sung-Il ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 340~347
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.340
This study was conducted to analyze the relationship between climate factors and fruit characteristics of 'Sangjudungsi' persimmon (Diospyros kaki THUNB) has been mainly cultivated in Sangju of Korea. We has been surveyed the yield and fruit characteristics such as fruit weight and soluble solids of 'Sangjudungsi' persimmon from 2010 to 2015 for five years. Also, as major meteorological factor, mean air temperature, cumulative temperature and days, the data of sunshine duration, diurnal range, and rainfall were collected from Sangju Regional Meteorological Administration. As result of that, the annual variation of fruit weight was affected by sunshine duration for April and October related starting point of fruit weight increase. The content of soluble solids was affected by sunshine duration for April and October similarly with fruit weight and was negatively correlated with the number of days with precipitation in the year. These results indicate the characteristics related to fruit quality like the above were affected by the sunshine duration and precipitation which is critical factor for the intensity of radiation during rapid growth period (April and October). Fruit number and yield per tree was commonly affected by mean air temperature of April and cumulative temperature days of October. These results also indicate that temperature for period of rapid growth stage of persimmon may have an important role in the fruit number and yield per tree.
Shifts of Geographic Distribution of Pinus koraiensis Based on Climate Change Scenarios and GARP Model
Chun, Jung Hwa ; Lee, Chang Bae ; Yoo, So Min ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 348~357
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.348
The main purpose of this study is to understand the potential geographic distribution of P. koraiensis, which is known to be one of major economic tree species, based on the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5 scenarios and current geographic distribution from National Forest Inventory(NFI) data using ecological niche modeling. P. koraiensis abundance data extracted from NFI were utilized to estimate current geographic distribution. Also, GARP (Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Production) model, one of the ecological niche models, was applied to estimate potential geographic distribution and to project future changes. Environmental explanatory variables showing Area Under Curve (AUC) value bigger than 0.6 were selected and constructed into the final model by running the model for each of the 27 variables. The results of the model validation which was performed based on confusion matrix statistics, showed quite high suitability. Currently P. koraiensis is distributed widely from 300m to 1,200m in altitude and from south to north as a result of national greening project in 1970s although major populations are found in elevated and northern area. The results of this study were successful in showing the current distribution of P. koraiensis and projecting their future changes. Future model for P. koraiensis suggest large areas predicted under current climate conditions may be contracted by 2090s showing dramatic habitat loss. Considering the increasing status of atmospheric
and air temperature in Korea, P. koraiensis seems to experience the significant decrease of potential distribution range in the future. The final model in this study may be used to identify climate change impacts on distribution of P. koraiensis in Korea, and a deeper understanding of its correlation may be helpful when planning afforestation strategies.
Development of 'Carbon Footprint' Concept and Its Utilization Prospects in the Agricultural and Forestry Sector
Choi, Sung-Won ; Kim, Hakyoung ; Kim, Joon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 358~383
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.358
The concept of 'carbon footprint' has been developed as a means of quantifying the specific emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) that cause global warming. Although there are still neither clear definitions of the term nor rules for units or the scope of its estimation, it is broadly accepted that the carbon footprint is the total amount of GHGs, expressed as
equivalents, emitted into the atmosphere directly or indirectly at all processes of the production by an individual or organization. According to the ISO/TS 14067, the carbon footprint of a product is calculated by multiplying the units of activity of processes that emit GHGs by emission factor of the processes, and by summing them up. Based on this, 'carbon labelling' system has been implemented in various ways over the world to provide consumers the opportunities of comparison and choice, and to encourage voluntary activities of producers to reduce GHG emissions. In the agricultural sector, as a judgment basis to help purchaser with ethical consumption, 'low-carbon agricultural and livestock products certification' system is expected to have more utilization value. In this process, the 'cradle to gate' approach (which excludes stages for usage and disposal) is mainly used to set the boundaries of the life cycle assessment for agricultural products. The estimation of carbon footprint for the entire agricultural and forestry sector should take both removals and emissions into account in the "National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report". The carbon accumulation in the biomass of perennial trees in cropland should be considered also to reduce the total GHG emissions. In order to accomplish this, tower-based flux measurements can be used, which provide a direct quantification of
exchange during the entire life cycle. Carbon footprint information can be combined with other indicators to develop more holistic assessment indicators for sustainable agricultural and forestry ecosystems.
High-Resolution Numerical Simulations with WRF/Noah-MP in Cheongmicheon Farmland in Korea During the 2014 Special Observation Period
Song, Jiae ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Kang, Minseok ; Moon, Minkyu ; Lee, Jung-Hoon ; Kim, Joon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 384~398
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.384
In this paper, the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting/Noah-MultiParameterization (WRF/Noah-MP) modeling system is configured for the Cheongmicheon Farmland site in Korea (CFK), and its performance in land and atmospheric simulation is evaluated using the observed data at CFK during the 2014 special observation period (21 August-10 September). In order to explore the usefulness of turning on Noah-MP dynamic vegetation in midterm simulations of surface and atmospheric variables, two numerical experiments are conducted without dynamic vegetation and with dynamic vegetation (referred to as CTL and DVG experiments, respectively). The main results are as following. 1) CTL showed a tendency of overestimating daytime net shortwave radiation, thereby surface heat fluxes and Bowen ratio. The CTL experiment showed reasonable magnitudes and timing of air temperature at 2 m and 10 m; especially the small error in simulating minimum air temperature showed high potential for predicting frost and leaf wetness duration. The CTL experiment overestimated 10-m wind and precipitation, but the beginning and ending time of precipitation were well captured. 2) When the dynamic vegetation was turned on, the WRF/Noah-MP system showed more realistic values of leaf area index (LAI), net shortwave radiation, surface heat fluxes, Bowen ratio, air temperature, wind and precipitation. The DVG experiment, where LAI is a prognostic variable, produced larger LAI than CTL, and the larger LAI showed better agreement with the observed. The simulated Bowen ratio got closer to the observed ratio, indicating reasonable surface energy partition. The DVG experiment showed patterns similar to CTL, with differences for maximum air temperature. Both experiments showed faster rising of 10-m air temperature during the morning growth hours, presumably due to the rapid growth of daytime mixed layers in the Yonsei University (YSU) boundary layer scheme. The DVG experiment decreased errors in simulating 10-m wind and precipitation. 3) As horizontal resolution increases, the models did not show practical improvement in simulation performance for surface fluxes, air temperature, wind and precipitation, and required three-dimensional observation for more agricultural land spots as well as consistency in model topography and land cover data.
Predicting the Changes in Cultivation Areas of Walnut Trees (Juglans sinensis) in Korea Due to Climate Change Impacts
Lee, Sang-Hyuk ; Lee, Peter Sang-Hoon ; Lee, Sol Ae ; Ji, Seung-Yong ; Choi, Jaeyong ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 399~410
DOI : 10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.4.399
The objective of our study was to predict future cultivation areas for walnut trees (Juglans sinensis), using the cultivation suitability map provided from Korea Forest Service and MaxEnt modelling under future climate conditions. The climate conditions in 2050s and 2070s were computed using the Regional Climate Prediction (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios with the HadGEM2-AO model. As a result, compared to the present area, the cultivation area of the western Korea including Chungcheongnamdo, Jeollabuk-do, Jeollanam-do decreased on a national scale under RCP 4.5, and those of Gyeongsangbukdo and part of Gyeongsangnam-do decreased under RCP 8.5. However, Gangwon-do which is located in higher altitude over 600 meters than other regions showed increases in cultivation areas of 18.3% under RCP 4.5 and of 56.6% under RCP 8.5 by 2070s. The predicted map showed large regional variations in the cultivation areas with climate change. From the analysis of current top ranking areas, the cultivation areas in Gimcheon-si and Yeongdong-gun dramatically decreased by 2070s under RCP 4.5 and 8.5; that of Gongju-si decreased more under RCP 4.5; and those of Muju-gun and Cheonan-si sustained the areas by 2070s under both scenarios. The results from this study can be helpful for providing a guide for minimizing the loss of walnut production and proactively improving productivity and quality of walnuts with regard to unavoidable climate change in South Korea.