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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 4, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Effects of Local Climatic Conditions on the Early Growth in Progeny Test Stands of Korean White Pine
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 4, issue 1, 2002, Pages 1~11
This study was conducted to reveal the effects of local climatic conditions on the early growth of Korean white pine progeny test stands. For this, stand variables such as mean DBH, mean height, basal area per hectare, and volume per hectare by stand age and locality were first measured and summarized for each stand. Based on these statistics, annual increments for 10 years from stand age 10 to 20 were calculated for each of stand variables. The effects of local climatic conditions as one of environmental factors on the growth were then analyzed by both a topoclimatological method and a spatial statistical technique. From yearly climatic estimates,30 climatic indices which affect the tree growth were computed for each of the progeny test stand. The annual increments were then correlated with and regressed on the climatic indices to examine effects of local climatic conditions on the growth. Gapyung area provided the best conditions for the early growth of Korean white pine and Kwangju area ranked second. On the other hand, the growth pattern in Youngdong ranked last overall as expected. It is also found that the local growth patterns of Korean white pine in juvenile stage were affected by typical weather conditions. The conditions such as low temperature and high relative humidity provide favor environment for the early growth of Korean white pine. Especially, it was concluded that the low temperature is a main factor influencing the early growth of Korean white pine based on the results of correlation analysis and regression equations developed far the prediction of annual increments of stand variables.
Comparison of Inoculation Effects for Different Seed and Nodule Sources in Alnus firma Grown in Yeosu Industrial Complex(I)
Su-Young Woo ; Oh-Kyu Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 4, issue 1, 2002, Pages 12~17
This study identified the physiological characteristics of Alnus firma seedlings collected from air polluted industrial complex of Yeosu area with inoculation of nitrogen-fixing nodule. A. firma individuals resistant or sensitive to air pollution stress at the study area were selected. Seeds of the individuals were sown in a pot and inoculated with the nodules collected at the same area about 3 weeks after germination. To compare the inoculation effects, photosynthesis was measured among the A. firma seedlings under 12 inoculation combinations of seed sources and nodule sources. Photosynthetic activities of seedlings from resistant mother trees were obviously higher than those from sensitive mother trees. In general, the seedlings inoculated with nodule of sensitive trees, showed a worse physiological trend on every combination. In this study, inoculation effect was less important factor than seed sources to photosynthetic activities of A. firma. This physiological characteristic seemed to be determined by seed sources rather than nodule sources.
Effect of Night Illumination on Growth and Grain Yield of Wheat and Barley
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 4, issue 1, 2002, Pages 18~22
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of night illumination on the growth and yield of wheat and barley. Three varieties of barley and four cultivars of wheat were tested under the different night illuminance which was controlled in the range of 1.2∼20 Lux during whole growth season at night. As night illumination was stronger, the culm length of all varieties tended to be shorter. The shortening was greater in barley than wheat. Node number, awn length and culm diameter tended to decrease as the light intensity was stronger. Internode length above the 4th and 5th node was remarkably decreased by the stronger illuminance. The degree of decrease in spike length affected by the night illuminance was much larger in the late-maturing variety among wheat cultivars. As night illumination was stronger, days to heading was shortened in general. The range of decrease was 2 to 10 days under 10∼20 Lux condition similarly in both barley and wheat. Effect of night illumination on heading date and days from initial heading to full heading was not considerably different between the crops and among varieties except Kangbori. Night illumination decreased the grain yield by 12.5% in barley, and 11.0% in wheat at 2.1∼5.0 Lux condition, and 34.6% in barley, and 29.3 % in wheat at 10∼20 Lux condition compared to control. Yield reduction was significantly different among varieties, being greatest in Kangbori among barley varieties, and in Chokwang (late-maturring variety) and Changkwang (late-maturring variety) among wheat varieties. It was interpreted that the decrease of grain yield was resulted from the decrease in the number of spikes and the number of grains per spike under the stronger night illumination. The decrease of grain yield was more directly attributed to the decrease in the number of grains per spike.
Optimal Weather Variables for Estimation of Leaf Wetness Duration Using an Empirical Method
K. S. Kim ; S. E. Taylor ; M. L. Gleason ; K. J. Koehler ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 4, issue 1, 2002, Pages 23~28
Sets of weather variables for estimation of LWD were evaluated using CART(Classification And Regression Tree) models. Input variables were sets of hourly observations of air temperature at 0.3-m and 1.5-m height, relative humidity(RH), and wind speed that were obtained from May to September in 1997, 1998, and 1999 at 15 weather stations in iowa, Illinois, and Nebraska, USA. A model that included air temperature at 0.3-m height, RH, and wind speed showed the lowest misidentification rate for wetness. The model estimated presence or absence of wetness more accurately (85.5%) than the CART/SLD model (84.7%) proposed by Gleason et al. (1994). This slight improvement, however, was insufficient to justify the use of our model, which requires additional measurements, in preference to the CART/SLD model. This study demonstrated that the use of measurements of temperature, humidity, and wind from automated stations was sufficient to make LWD estimations of reasonable accuracy when the CART/SLD model was used. Therefore, implementation of crop disease-warning systems may be facilitated by application of the CART/SLD model that inputs readily obtainable weather observations.
Visible Foliar Injuries and Growth Responses of Four Betula sp. Exposed to Ozone
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 4, issue 1, 2002, Pages 29~37
This study was conducted to compare ozone sensitivity among Betula sp. by measuring visible foliar injuries and growth responses. Four Betula sp.(B. costata, B. davurica, B. platyphylla var.japonica and B. ermani) grown in the greenhouse, were transplanted in the plastic pots. One-year-old seedlings of four Betula sp. exposed to relatively high ozone concentration(100 ppb) for 8 h day
for 5 weeks in fumigation chamber. We measured visible injuries, leaf numbers and leaf areas at the end of experiments, and growth effects were evaluated by measuring the relative growth rate(RGR) of height and diameter and the dry weights of leaf, stem and root once a week. Four Betula species showed the significant differences for growth responses by the ozone treatment. Growths of three species, except for B. ermani, were significantly reduced by the
exposure. B. costata with leaf senescence at the early growing stage and B. davurica indicated highest visible foliar injury rate may be the sensitive species at the 100 ppb ozone concentration. Although the growth rate of B. ermani was reduced by 100 ppb ozone exposure at the early growing stage, B. ermani may be a tolerance species that recover the growth rate with the adaptation for the high ozone concentration.
Impact of Recent Weather Variation on Yield Components and Growth Stages of Winter Barley in Korea
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 4, issue 1, 2002, Pages 38~48
This study examines the relationships between atmospheric influences and grain yields including yield components as well as growth stages. Data used in this study were collected from the long-term field experiment at Suwon for the period between 1974 and 2000. Mean grain yield of barley cultivar, Olbori, for the recent 14 years(1987∼2000) with warm winters was higher by 0.42 ton per hectare than that for 27 years(1974∼2000) at Suwon as a result of the higher numbers of spikes per unit land area and grains per spike. However, the 1000-grain weight decreased by about 0.6 gram. Mean first day of regrowth for the recent 14 years was earlier by five days than that for 27 years. Also, beginning date of regrowth was positively correlated with that of heading and ripening. Mean period of ripening for the years of 1987 through 2000 was similar to that for 27 years, but mean period of overwintering was shorter by nine days than that for 27 years. On the other hand, mean periods of seedling and tillering were longer by three days than those for 27 years. Meteorological elements at various growth stages affecting grain yield of winter barley were air temperature (positive correlation) and sunshine hour (negative correlation) of overwintering stage, precipitation (negative correlation) of tillering stage, and potential evapotranpiration (positive correlation) of tillering stage. The 1000-grain weight was not significantly correlated with the meteorological elements. Culm length was negatively influenced by high temperature and dry weather situations during the ripening period, but spike length was positively influenced. Overall, it was found that grain yield of barley, cultivar Olbori, was iufluenced by meteorological elements of overwintering, tillering, and ripening stages.
Buffer Capacities of Forest Soils by the Treatment of Simulated Acid Rain
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 4, issue 1, 2002, Pages 49~57
This study was conducted to find out buffer capacities of forest soils by the treatment of simulated acid rain(SAR) of four forests(Q. spp., P. rigida, P. koraiensis, L. leptolepis) in Kyunghee university's practice forest. All soils of each forest stand were treated by simulated acid rain at the level of pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 respectively. The result obtained from this study can be summarized as follows: Soil pH was measured by soil depth of each forest stand. The deeper soil depth was, the higher soil pH was. Also it was appeared that base saturation of sample soils was the highest as 17.42% in P. rigida stand and cation exchange capacity(C.E.C) was the highest as 29.87 me/100 g in Q. spp. stand. for responses of soil leachates to acidification treatment with pH 3.0 simulated acid rain(SAR), as simulated acid rain(SAR)-input was increased, pH value of soil leachates appeared high temporarily, but soon pH value of soil leachates had been low gradually. At the rest of pH 4.0, pH 5.0 treatment, pH value of soil leachates was high proportionably. The amounts of TBC of primary stage had a difference as pH level of simulated acid rain and forest stands. But as simulated acid rain(SAR)-input was increased. Amount of TBC was diminished. Also the amounts of TBC of primary stage in acidification treatment with pH 3.0, 4.0 simulated acid rain(SAR) was higher that of acidification treatment with pH 5.0 simulated acid rain(SAR). These trend showed obvious difference at low soil acidity and high TBC. The amounts of activity Al of primary stage appeared high as increasing the input acidity of simulated acid rain(SAR). Also, by soil depth, the amounts of Activity Al was different between A layer(0-15 cm) and AB layer(0-30 cm). There was considerable the correlation between simulated acid rain-input and activity Al change. But this was oppositional trend in soil leachates of pH 4.0, 5.0 treatment and total base cations(TBC).
Urbanization Effect on the Observed Warming in Korea during the Recent Half Century
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 4, issue 1, 2002, Pages 58~63
Since the rapid urbanization period coincides with the start of global warming, climate data might be contaminated with urbanization effect in Korea. Monthly normals of daily minimum, maximum, and mean temperature of 14 stations were calculated for 1951-1980 and 1971-2000 periods. Differences in two temperature normals were regressed to the natural logarithms of population increase at corresponding 14 cities from 1966 to 1990. The regression models were used to remove potential effects of urbanization from the apparent warming, and to determine the net contribution of global warming to the temperature change in Korea during the recent half century. According to the model calculation, there was little evidence of global warming in the warm season (May through November), while urbanization effect was common in all season except April. Up to 0.5
warming of nighttime temperature was found to be induced by urbanization. Cool season temperature was increased by up to 0.6
due mainly to the global warming of daytime temperature.